Dioxine Purple Ultramarine Blue Cobalt Blue Thalo Cyan Blue Turquoise transparent Green Opaque Thalo Green
Burnt Umber Real Color Wheel in Pigments CenterW Permanent Green Light
Burnt Sienna Top Space
Venetian Red Yellow Green Opaque CENTER
Yellow Oxide bottom SPACE
Naples Yellow Light Green Gold Transparent Bottom
Magenta Rembrandt Rose Cadmium Red Medium Cadmium Orange Indian Yellow Gold transparent Cadmium Yellow Medium Cadmium Yellow Pale


En Plein Air, Using Pigments, Making Mediums, Human Proportions,
Lineal 4 Point Perspective, Modern Painting Techniques

Maui On Location Gallery 1 with painting tips   Gallery 2,   Gallery 3,   Gallery 4. Gallery 5.

Real Color Wheel.
Biography.  4 Videos of Location Painting.
Household Cylopedia, 1881, colors of paints & inks.
ARTISTS, dated history, pigments, color theory, techniques.
LOCATION, all media, human proportions, perspective, modern techniques.
COLOR, B.C. to A/D pigments, RCW, crystal chart, elements, minerals, ores, rainbows, prisms.
HISTORY, comparative advances in art, European and Asian Cultures, 8000 B.C. to 1912.
MEDIA, grounds, oil, acrylic, water color, wax, cera colla, casein, fresco.
Coloring Book, pattern outlines, aerial perspective palette.

This is the painting featured in the video.

ACRYLIC PAINTING VIDEO painted and taped on location, $35

This documented painting took 8 days with the camera rolling. Edited to two hours. I explain why each acrylic color choice is used on my palette and where to place each color for advantageous mixing with white in the center. I made a palette to store acrylics wet for a month, it can be held flipped opened and closed with one hand. Just a box with a lid. The lineal perspective drawing technique for accurate object placing is explained. The painting tips come as I'm using them. Don

Techniques in drawing and PAINTING ON LOCATION using oil, alkyd, mastic, watercolor and acrylic paints. How colors and mediums were historical made. Useing an aerial perspective color palette that matches pigment colors from the foreground to the background. Use transparent Yellow, Magenta, and Cyan colors in a 3, 6, 12, 24 or 36 color color wheel used without black pigment to paint dark shadowed colors matching light, pigments and nature.

Crystals show how different hues become dark, this is the basis for the real color wheel for artists. All tube colors match this color wheel in a logical order that shows all the correct pigment color oppositions to make dark, plus their correct split-complementary oppositions. Also in this section are human proportions and lineal four point perspective examples.




---BRUSHES 200










---33/ EDGES, CONTRAST 213





---35/ THE REAL COLOR WHEEL [RCW] In pigments 221

---The REAL COLOR WHEEL main page






---MEDIUMS. 240











---WAVES 269


---HEAD 272



---THE BODY 272



---40/ TECHNIQUE 280



All of these acrylic painting were done on location and have How-To tips added while on location.

01 Bananas 66 Acrylic Painting on Location
02 Fruit Basket from Maui Acrylic
04 Alau Island 22x30, Hana, Maui, Acrylic on Panel
05 Hana Bay, Rope Swing, Acrylic Painting Maui Hawaii on Location
06 Hana Bay Picnic Area, Acrylic Painting Maui Hawaii on Location
07 Hana Hills, Acrylic Painting Maui Hawaii on Location
08 Hana Mountains, Acrylic Painting Maui Hawaii on Location
09 Hana Vine Tree, Acrylic Painting Maui Hawaii on Location
12 Honokohau Inlet, Maui, Painting Maui Hawaii on Location
13 Hosmer's Grove, Maui, Painting Maui Hawaii on Location
14 Bear's tree, Acrylic Painting on Location
15 Palm Fronds, 11x15, Acrylic Painting on Location
16a Phil's Fern, Acrylic on Linen Panel
19 Two Firs, Acrylic on Linen Panel
24 Phil's Pathway, Huelo, Maui Painting on Location
27 Kahakaloa Sunset Painting on Location
28 Clause Spreckles Engine #1, Acrylic Painting on Location
29 Kapalua Maui, Sailboat, Acrylic on linen panel
30 Kaupo Store 1, 15x22, Acrylic on panel
31 Aloha Kaupo Church Painting on Location
32 Kaupo Church with Horse, Acrylic Painting on Location
33 Kaupo Bromeliad Painting on Location
34 Kaupo Store Door, Acrylic Painting on Location
36 Kaupo Mango Tree, Acrylic Painting on Location
37 Kaupo Store Rainbow, Acrylic Painting on Location
38a Kaupo Cow, Acrylic Painting on Location
38b Kaupo View of the Big Island, Acrylic Painting
39 Keanae Arboretum, Acrylic Painting
40 Keanae Outrigger Painting on Location
41 Keanae Parking Lot Painting on Location
43 Kipahulu Waterfall Painting on Location
44 Kipahulu 7 Pools Gate Painting on Location
46 Kipahulu Dock Painting on Location
47 Lindburgh's Church, Kipahulu, Maui Painting on Location
49 49 St. John's Church, Kipahulu Maui, Acrylic Painting on Location
50 Ti Plant and Dog, Kipahulu Maui, Acrylic Painting on Location
52 Pastel, Kula Jacaranda Trees
54 La Paruse, Maui Painting on Location
56 Lahaina Jodo Mission Painting on Location
57 Laniopoko Park Painting on Location
58 Lahaina Pioneer Jim Painting on Location
59 Lahaina Old Prison, Acrylic Painting on Location
65 Fleming Beach, Maui, Hawaii, Acrylic Painting on Location
66 Nahiku Aloha Falls, Acrylic on linen panel, 22x30
67 Nahiku Aloha Falls 2 Painting on Location
68 Nahiku Chicken, Acrylic on Linen Panel
71 Nahiku Rainbow Eucalyptus, Maui, 22x30 Acrylic Painting on Location
72 Tom's House in Nahiku, Maui, 22x30 Acrylic Painting on Location
74 Nuu Nuu Beach 2, Maui, Hawaii, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
75 Nuu Nuu Beach, Maui, Hawaii, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
76 Olawalu Beach, Maui, Hawaii, 11x15, Acrylic Painting on Location
77 Paia in the Rain, Maui, Hawaii, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
78 Peacock, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
79 Poli Poli Approach, Maui, Hawaii, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
80 Poli Poli Fog, Maui, Hawaii, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
81 Poli Poli Lower Road, Maui, Hawaii, 15x22, Acrylic Painting on Location
82 Poli Poli Middle Road, Maui, Hawaii, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
83 Poli Poli Middle Road, Maui, Hawaii, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
88 Puukaa Park Falls, Maui, Hawaii, Acrylic Painting
89 South Maui, Hawaii, Acrylic painting
91 Valley Harvest, Maui, Hawaii, 7.5x11, Acrylic Painting
92 Wainappanapa Rabbit Rock, Maui, Hawaii,11x15, Acrylic Painting on Location
93 Waikani Bridge, Acrylic Painting
109 Sprecklesville Video on Location painting image, Acrylic, 5.5x7.5
123 Poli Poli White Tree, Acrylic Painting on Location
124 Aloha Waves 1, Acrylic Painting on Location
125 Aloha Waves 2, 15x22, Acrylic Painting on Location
126 Lahaina Pioneer Inn Statue Painting on Location
127 Sunlight Whale, 7.5x11, Acrylic Painting on Location
128 Hana Mountains, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
129 Huelo Old Store, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
130 Kanaio Peacocks, Acrylic Painting on Location
131 Kapalua Sailing Boat, 15x22, Acrylic Painting on Location
132 Kaupo Heiau, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
133 Lahaina, Jodo Mission, 15x22, Acrylic Painting on Location
134 Lahaina At Night, 12x16, Acrylic Painting on Location
135 Nahiku, Tom's Yard, Hz, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
136 Nahiku, Maui, Tom's Yard Vertical, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
137 Nahiku Landing, 15x22, acrylic Painting on Location
138 Aloha Nude, Sprecklesville, Maui, 5.5x7.5, Acrylic Painting on Location
139 Nuu Nuu Beach, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
140 Scarlet Macaw, 15x22, Acrylic Painting on Location
141 Poli Poli Entrance, 22x30, Acrylic Painting on Location
160 Lahaina Church 10:00 Mass, Acrylic, 22x15
Lahaina Church, Acrylic, 22x15
Daisy's Tree in Hana Maui acrylics
Lindbergh Church 3-24-00 acrylic Painting on Location
Mango Acrylic Painting
Nahiku Landing Painting on Location
Water Diamonds Painting on Location
Making Waves Painting Waves, Painting on Location
Piero's Steps Kaupo Maui, Acrylic Painting on Location
Acrylic Trompel-Oeil Mural, Acrylic
Nahiku Porch in the Rain, Acrylic
Hand Cutting Cane, Acrylic
Oluwalu Rocks at the Beach, Acrylic
Hosmer Grove Cardinal, Acrylic
Lahaina Wainee Waiola Church, Acrylic
Poli Poli Orange Rust Scrub, acrylic
Lahaina's Old Prison, acrylic, 30"x40"
Self Portrait, 62 years old, acrylic, 7.5"x11"
My Friend Jo's House at Night, Ohau, 15x22 acrylic
Jacaranda, Makawao Blue Trees, 15x22 acrylic
Jacaranda 3000', Kula's Blue Trees, 15x22 acrylic
Nahiku Rain Flowers, acrylic, 7.5x11, 07-09-02
Hana Sweetwater Fountain, 15x22 acrylic, 07-10-02
Piero's Villa Tamiranda, Kaupo Maui, 22x30 acrylic
Ontario Red Barn, 15x22 acrylic, 08-10-02
Ontario Little Salmon River, 15x22 acrylic, 08-10-02
Brother Rick's 17th Hole, 7.5x11, acrylic, 08-22-02
Cousin Victor's '57 Corvette, 16x22, acrylic, 08-27-02, #877
Hana Dirt Road, 36x42, acrylic, #872
Kihei, Chuck's Fence, 15x22, acrylic
Kaupo Heiau, 22x30 acrylic
Kula Bananas and Straw Hat, 5.5x7.5 acrylic, 11-06-02, #878
Kula Bananas Hanging in a Lychee tree, 11x15 acrylic, 11-08-02, #879
Nahiku New Porch with Banana Stalk, 15x22, acrylic, 11-26-02, #881
Kaupo Christmas Party House, 22x30, acrylic, 12-12-02, #884
Kaupo Eggs and Pepper, 5.5x7.5, acrylic, 12-28-02, #885
Christmas Dinner on Location, collection of artists
Jacaranda Trees in Kula, 22x30, 04-11-03, #890
Saint James Church, Ulupalakua, 15x22, #891
Upcountry Area, 7.5x11, #892-893-894-895-896-899
Jacaranda Trees, Ulupalakua, 15x22, #897
Mary Queen of Angles Church, Keokea, 15x22, #898
Jacaranda, W. Maui Bkg., Keokea, 15x22, #894
Puuiki Church of Saint Peter, 11X15, #900
Kaupo Aloha Church, 11X15, #901
Ancient Tea Ceremony, 15x22, two hour DVD, $35
Go to my latest painting and work. I'm on painting number #1003 now, 2-11-15.

30/ CLEANLINESS IS N0. 1 196

The first topic is cleanliness, it's the very important first block to building a painting. It's important for health reasons also, metal pigments are heavy and can't be eliminated from the body, so it's an accumulative poison. The Romans liked the taste of lead, it sweetened the water and wine.

When painting water colors, keep the water clean. If you can afford it, add a bit of ox-gall to the cleaning and mixing water, it will reduce the surface tension and increase the color flow. Wash the size off the paper with this water also.

In oils, keep your colors clean by mixing them with a palette knife instead of your brush.

Cut paper towels is into 3 inch squares, these will be used for cleaning, and when folded into small triangles will apply paint in the early painting stages, especially when your working in oil where cleaning brushes takes time and materials. In water painting they will blot paper back to white, in the early stages.

Always put the cap back on any tube of paint right away. Keep the tube clean.

Keeping your colors clean also includes the consistency of the pigment. Dependable viscosity will insure a complete stroke every time. You need that guarantee to trust your brush. When painting in acrylics I use a jar white instead of the tube white. Since we use so much white, the jar white has the right consistency.

Use accurate measurements in your oil and fresco mediums.

I clean dried on acrylic brushes with isopropyl alcohol.


My painting surface of choice is thin linen, acrylic gel glued to 1/8 to 1/4 inch beech or mahogany plywood, primed with acrylic gesso. I like one standard size for all mediums, the water color standard, 22x30 is my choice, it divides into five classic sizes.

Photos of making panels to paint on, getting started.


Stretching a Canvas

Hemp, Linen and cotton fabrics shrink while drying, for larger painting sizes do as Fredric's does, pin the fabric down and apply the gesso with a spatula. Two to four coats will do it. Then stretch the canvas. Applying the gesso on a stretched raw canvas will work on 24x36 and under, but will bow the bars on larger paintings.

4 acres of hemp is equal to 1 acre of forest to produce the same amount of paper. Hemp pulp paper can be recycled 20 times compared to 4 times for wood pulp paper and it requires 60-80% less chemicals to produce hemp paper than wood pulp paper. Hemp has a growth rate to maturity of approximately 2-3 months as compared to approximately 80 years for a coniferous plantation. The lumber industry and the petroleum industry conspired to outlaw alcohol as fuel and hemp as paper.

Choosing the best W/C paper for the job. Waterford 300#, hot pressed and cold pressed are excellent.

Twin Rocker 300# is a great new American company everyone should be proud of.

Strathmore makes top flight water color papers, Gemini 300# rough and cold-pressed are my favorite.

Arches 300# belongs with this esteemed group.

To prepare a surface for acrylic and oil. I use pre-made Fredric's Acrylic Gesso when I can get it, it has the best consistency. Three or four sanded coats, thick, thinner and thinnest is the way to go. Use a foam brush for the smoothest application. The thinnest layer should leave no brush marks, it requires very little dry sanding with #220, wet-dry sandpaper, always sand with a sanding block. The final ground is as smooth as possible so it won't make unwanted textures, go for the gold.


The first tool on your oil or acrylic painting is gray chalk on a white primed support or white chalk on a colored ground, it dusts off easily with a feather. Use a good grade of pastel so it won't scratch your painting surface. I paint in my outlines with thin Ultramarine Blue or Yellow, whichever is appropriate, then wash off the chalk before adding the local colors.

Here's another starting method for oil that is BASED ON THE WATER COLOR TECHNIQUE that goes like this. With the top and center reference marks in place and the left and right object reference points dotted in pencil. Wash and wipe down the 300# paper with a 3-5" elephant ear sponge. Before the sheen leaves, start adding color with the sponge, don't overwork it, just get a 100% coverage as accurate and as bold as you can and let it dry. Those colors will be set after drying.

In oil you use a small triangle of gauze or good lint free paper towels, the cheap one's won't shed. Wipe on the big colors with a medium of 1/3 Venetian Turpentine, 1/3 Sun Dried Linseed Oil and 1/3 Dammar Varnish with 2% drier. When done in this method every stroke can be used in the final picture if its needed, treat the original strokes like precious paint, let them show in the finished picture.


Oil brush #6, Signet, Robert Simmons, Series 43, Extra long, is a beautifully cupped filbert hog bristle that holds it's shape. The brush goes from small to large under control. Use this brush to do the shadows and finish the first day's work. If you used 2% drier it will be dry in 18 hours, ready for the next day's work. If you use the new alkyd oil it's even faster and yellows less.

The nylon brushes give deep texture at fluid viscosity. Great for wet in wet painting.

In oils, most artists like the hog bristle hair brushes as their main workhorse. You may also, if you paint thickly and show texture in the paint. I prefer the texture of the subject represented in smooth paint. Here is my workhorse brush.

Take your first used, #8 or 10 series #7 Winsor Newton water color brush and hammer the end of the ferule as flat as you can. Trim any wayward hairs and you've got the best acrylic filbert I've ever found. This is one of my main brushes, used in every picture.

The next series of brushes is the bright and long flats, the longs make a longer stroke and the bright's blend and mix more. On W/C's I paint with a 3/4" or 1" long flat sable after the sponge. In oil I start with a 1/2" #14 Winsor and Newton series 807, long flat for a 22x30 or a 3/8" #12 flat for a 15 X 22. Also on hand is a #10, #8, and #6, these are very useful brushes. Raphael and Grumbacher also make a very good lines of flat brushes.

The last stage of a painting is the calligraphy, it's done with two types of very long hair sable brushes. First is the pointed long script liner, the best is by Isabey, Series 6318, #12, #10 and #8. You can paint a whole picture with one of these beauties. The sooner you pick it up the better. A shorter hair brush of the same style for tight work is the W/N 3A, #3 Designer's brush, it's like a paint pencil. The last style is the round ferule, long, fine red sable, flat end, lettering brush. You will need #2,4,6,8, and #10 for long square ended lines, That's it, I use the same style brushes for W/C, Acrylics and Oils. The flat square end is prefect for details.

Small, clean, well used hog hair bristle brushes, make great paint erasers for W/C's and 1/2" squirrel filberts make the best toning wash and glaze brushes for all mediums.

Photos and discriptions of 200 favorite brushes.

End of Modern Supports and Brushes



1, Direct Incident Light is parallel and from the Sun. 2. Indirect or Clear Light is shadowless. 3. Shadows change in their interiors. Warm shadows cool interior, cool shadows warm interior. 4. Highlights reflect the sun or sky. 5. Reflected Light, is an angle of incidence of the sun reflecting back to you. 6. 'Local Color' is the main basic color of an object. 7. Chiaroscuro is the contrast from a single light source, real or perceived. It can be powerful.

8. Aerial Perspective, the color of air is an equal mix of Cyan and Magenta, making Ultramarine Blue. Yellow is the first color to be absorbed by air. The opposition colors for the distance shadows are Purple and green, a split analogous opposition. The far distance is Ultramarine blue in hue.
How does a split analogous opposition work? 36RCW#10 Scarlet Rembrandt Rose and 36RCW#15 Purple are the opposite split complementary colors of the color 36RCW#31 Green. Scarlet and purple are each two color sections away from the true opposition 36RCW#13 Magenta, on a 36 color wheel.
Mix the split opposition purple color with green to make the cool blue color between them. This is the blue I combine with the foreground local color of an object to make that color in the background. The degree of tinting this combination adds aerial perspective to distance. In the far distance this combination of colors changes to Ultramarine Blue.

By using the other split analogous choice, scarlet and green, you will get a warmer dark opposition then when mixing magenta and green's neutral dark. I find this color combination more needed as a transparent dark used in mass-tone.


Cross-calibrate the position of the sun by finding the elevation off the horizon line in degrees and it's position left to right off the center-line with a clock face radiating grid. i.e. 40 degrees, 11:00.

The sun's light is parallel, our perception of it can change. Standing behind a row of trees the shadows will seem to expand outward. Standing in front of the trees and looking back will seem to make the shadows converge.

In the morning the main color oppositions are Cadmium Yellow light, Burnt Umber and Ultramarine Blue, afternoon colors tend more to Magenta and Thalo Green, evening colors are Thalo Blue and Cadmium Red. All of these oppositions mix to a neutral gray and darker shades.

Diffraction enhances a painting rule of Tenebrism, "It's darkest next to the light and lightest next to the dark".



On water, the area behind is lighter than the wave because of the reflection of the sky.
This quote isn't really related but, "Relax, breath deep, imagine breathing blue skies in and gray skies out." 10 year old, Jade Pettyjohn.

Here are the different colors of light I look for on water.

1. Sun's reflections, which happen on incident angles. 2. Sky and Cloud Reflections.
3. Transparent or Opaque water color. 4. Bottom color. 5. Shadows from the water, on the water.


Water grids start from the horizon's center-line of your picture and radiate toward the foreground. These lines can bend to show the direction, elevation and movement of the flow, crossing these grid lines with wave lines that stop the action.


A water diamond is a sparkle that is peaked at the top and rounded on the bottom. They form with their ends on the concentric rings around you. You are seeing directly into the water, at a 90 degree angle of incidence. If the sun were directly overhead these diamonds would sparkle with the sun's reflection instead of being dark. Paint them with a flat brush.

Stop the action of waves at these distinct points and time the rhythm to position the succeeding wave patterns, they have to be logical.

1, Face.
2, Fall.
3, Explosion, higher than the face was.
4, After Tumbles.
    Beach Wash, incoming is lead by foam.
    Beach wash, receding leaves dark sand and shiny rocks.

wave diagram

Wave Page


Position your painting support directly below the scene, so the top of the painting is touching the bottom of the scene. The sides of the canvas support mark the sides of the image you are painting. Draw in a chalk center line and the horizon line first.

Mark the support sides with reference points from the image.

Measure with only one eye, your right eye, and keep your head at the same relative position to the painting throughout.

Don't paint a picture of more than 90 degrees without two center lines because you will have to move your head from side to side to see the whole scene. Most paintings should be in the 60 degree area, you have that much undistorted overlapping vision. Compose the picture from what you see, if it's not perfect, move.


The horizon viewed at sea level with both eyes will appear almost flat because your focus with both eyes is on one point, shared by the view of both eyes and you have compensated it flat. You can't do that at higher elevations.

At sea level the horizon line is 2 1/2 miles away, at 10,000 foot it's 200 miles away.

Both eyes can see a total of 180 degrees, your eyes are angled in your head, not both facing forward. Each eye is angled off the frontal plane by 30 degrees, the overlapping view is 90 degrees, the least amount of distortion is in the center 60 degrees. Each eye can see 135 degrees, each eye can see 45 degrees that the other eye can't. The overlap of both eyes is 90 degrees, 90+45+45=180, your total view including your peripheral view is 180 degrees.

The horizon line is curved, the higher your elevation the more the curve is noticeable. Astronauts see a sphere.


A MARKING POINT in the picture is an easily recognized still object or a crossing of objects, or a tangent meeting point of objects, they are easy to find at a glance. Find a marking point on the center line close to the horizon line as your center marker. This center mark can be on any distance away from you, on any concentric ring around you.

Find left and right side scene marker points also close to the horizon line. The top marking point will complete the format of the final painting because the bottom is marked by the top of your picture.

Distant objects are relative to nearby objects from your viewpoint through "linear triangulation". Start by making at least two triangles using obvious marker points joining and starting from one common marker point. Two more triangle marking points anywhere in the picture will connect to one of the existing points forming another lineal triangle, if you're using different lineal distanced marker points. If you used objects on a similar "concentric ring", you would have "plane triangulation", they work equally well. These triangles will insure the accuracy of the objects position.


Draw with a piece of inexpensive school chalk, because it contains no wax or oil. Soft finer pastels are even better. On colored grounds use white chalk and on white grounds use a pale gray.

Draw simple outlines on obvious concentric rings with chalk, the biggest patterns first, start on the reference points. Inside these big patterns show the texture with short directional lines. Simplify this texture with sparse, 1 to 10 representative lines of size, shape or direction.

Before painting in the final outlines with a liner brush, dust off the loose and caked on chalk with a feather or soft brush. Paint the outlines in Ultramarine Blue or Yellow, whichever color is appropriate. When the medium is oil, thin the color with turpentine so it will dry fast. If you're painting in acrylic, thin the pigment with a little water and medium mixed together to give the film strength.

The outline you draw belongs to the objects behind it, in the background, unless you're going with a darker foreground for contrast. Never let the outline show as a line, it's unnatural, use the contrast of the shape's color or intensity against it's background.

Wash off the chalk before blocking in the local colors. Cover the first 100% with as little overlap as possible. Keep the wash graduations smooth so you can use any part in the final picture.


The vanishing points of a square are 90 degrees apart on your horizon line. It's impossible to show two 90 degree vanishing points in a 60 degree picture. A 60 degree equilateral triangle held with a point under one eye will accurately mark a 60 degree picture on your horizon line. A book or sheet of paper will be 90 degrees, lay your painting support on the ground, place a corner between your feet and follow the sides leading to the horizon line, that's 90 degrees. Notice, the odds are good that you can't see both horizon line vanishing points in a 90 degree picture, and most undistorted pictures are 60 degrees. Compose the picture from what you see, if it's not perfect, move.

Lineal Perspective is relating the size of the object to the distance it is away from you. The curve of the earth cuts off your ground level line of sight vision at 2.5 miles, a raft would disappear over the horizon at that distance if you were 60 inches tall. At 10,000 foot, you can see 200 miles.

First draw vertical the center line.
The horizon line is always at your eye level, draw it on you're painting.

A square building viewed from the top has four sides and four 90 degree angles in view. From the flat front side, none of these 90 degree corner angles are visible. The top edge can look like a straight line, except there are no straight lines in nature, it's actually curving down to touch the horizon line 180 degrees to the sides and out of the picture. The perpendicular sides of this building are in the 3rd and 4th point perspective, they curve up and down to the aerial and terrestrial vanishing points. The front perpendicular sides of the building reach up to the azimuth directly above, a vanishing point up and out of the picture.

If we can see two sides of the building, the top (and bottom) closer 90 degree angles use up 90 of the 180 degrees. You're painting and undistorted view is only 60.

Aerial and Four Point Lineal Perspective on Location 
(en plein air)

This is me or you lining up a painting to an image sixty degrees wide on the horizon line.
The horizon line is your eye level. Directly above our canvas support is the bottom of our image.
Looking over the top two corners marks the left and right of your painting.
Painting a 60 degree image.

Aerial perspective on Concentric Rings

Ring 1 is about 10 yards out, you should 
first notice a value difference 10 yds. out,
find some objects to mark this distance. 
Lots of objects in a row are nice. 
Within this first ring are the 
darkest dark shadows, 
not to be repeated 
in any other ring.
Magenta and Green 
make the darkest neutral
shadows in the foreground.
Ring 2, 15 to 25 yards out.
Ring 3 is 25 to fifty yards out.
Ring 4 is 100 to 500 yards out,
here starts the split analogous 
Green and Purple mixed together,
for the bluer distant shadows 
of objects and cloud cover.
Ring 5, is 5 miles away.  The mountain shadows are completely made of Diox. Purple and Thalo Green and White.  The highlights in this fifth ring are made by mixing a tint of Purple and Green with the local hue from a closer ring.
Ring 6,  Is five to ten miles away. Purple and Green change to a tinted Ultramarine Blue. 
Ring 7, is from 10 to 20 miles away. 
Ring 8, is 50 miles away, a tint of ring 7. 
Ring 9, is 50 to 100 miles away, a tint of ring 8. 
Ring 10, is more than 100 miles away and very close to the sky color.

The Aerial Palette for 10 Concentric Rings.
Aerial Perspective Palette

Aerial Perspective Palette, hue to dark

<All Ring 1 foreground noonday shadow colors change from a 
Magenta-Green to Purple-Green shadow in the middle ground.
Change colors to a tint of Ult.Blue for the background.
Nine A/M morning shadows are a neutral dark mix of 
Bt.Umber and Ult.Blue.
Click her for a color-in picture to download in a new window,
Click here for the full color wheel in a new window.

4 Point Lineal Perspective

The horizon line is 25 miles out at sea if you are 6-foot tall standing at sea level,  it's 200 miles out if you're on a 10,000 foot high mountain.
The pictures blue line is the horizon line around you in three 60 degree chunks.
The center section is the only undistorted section of the three.  It can be seen with both eyes at the same time.
This section should be the maximum and normal width of your landscape support.  The dimensions of this support would vary depending on how far away the support is away from you.
Each eye is aimed 30 degrees off center, each eye sees 120 degrees. The full visible horizon in front of you, including all of your peripheral vision of both eyes is 180 degrees.   For top accuracy use only one eye and keep your head in the same place and only use that center 60 degrees of overlapped vision. 


Here is the straight horizon line used in conjunction with the surrounding concentric ring horizon line. 

See how hard it is to relate the 90 degree angle of a box turned at this adjacent angle on the straight horizon, the straight horizon line would have to be a very long gentle curve.  It's simple on a concentric circle horizon line and the Horizon Bar Tool.

Every square object has a right and left vanishing point 90 degrees apart on a straight horizon line if it's adjacent plane is more than 30 degrees parallel to you. Under 30 degrees requires the concentric circle horizon line because you have to turn your head to see both vanishing points..

The box is where your feet are, the horizon line is where your eye level is.


Open Perspective Paintings list.

First draw the center line. A circle's center line always goes to the Center Vanishing Point, C.V.P.

The horizon line is always at your eye level.

Your view of this subject circle has tangents that mark the horizontal center line on the circle's perspective plane. The tangent points on the subject circle from the center line Vanishing Point is the horizontal center of the circle.

Doing that makes for four 90 degree sections, divide each section in half to find the 90 degrees centered on your horizon line.

These are your centered Right and Left Vanishing Points 90 degrees apart. The remaining 90 degrees, 45 on each side should be positioned on the curved Horizon Line. They are lower than the Center Vanishing Point.

If two sides with one 90 degree angle is in view, the building's top visible sides are angled toward vanishing points ninety actual degrees apart on your horizon. No matter how tall the building is, or how far away it is, the sides are angled to these points. These points can be shared by other buildings if they're aligned to the first buildings side. As the buildings recede, the top angles will seem to increase and flatten out, but the angles on and touching the horizon line are decreasing. The total of the three angles will still equal 180 degrees. The three angles are the two vanishing points on the horizon line to the top of the building. The farther away the building is the closer it's top angle is to flat, but they still lead to the vanishing points 90 degrees apart on the horizon line and the combined angle total is still 180 degrees.

Have you ever heard there are no straight lines in nature? It's true, If you are standing in the center of a set of railroad tracts, the lines at your sides are parallel, they curve and join at some point out there in front of you, toward the horizon. The same with a telephone pole, it has straight lines at eye level and curves to a point up there, heading to the astral vanishing point. There is another vanishing point down below, the terrestrial vanishing point. The center of the curve is at your eye level.


The "astral" and "terrestrial" vanishing points are above and below the building, 180 degrees apart. Since we're working with two sides and no angles, they stay 180 degrees apart. Can you imagine how tall a building would be to meet up with the astral vanishing point? See what I mean about no straight lines in nature, The building starts off at eye level as two parallel lines, than they curve gradually upward toward the astral vanishing point directly above you.

The terrestrial vanishing point could be used like this. Your looking obliquely down at a table top with a lighter on it. With your angle of vision it's 45 degrees below the horizon line or, 45 degrees below your eye level. The sides of the lighter are heading down to the terrestrial vanishing point, they are not going plum-line or straight down, they have angles to meet at the terrestrial vanishing point.

To find the optical center of any side of a building, in any rotation, join the four corners of a side with an "X". Straight up from the center of the "X" is the top of the gable.

The ground your standing on, if it's level, connects visually to the distant horizon line. Let's say you and your friend are both six feet tall. A hundred yards away, on level ground, his eyes and your eyes would still be on the same height, level to the horizon line. The line connecting your feet is the variable, it's angled up to the horizon line making him seem smaller.

To use this principle on an object, let's say a canoe is setting sideways in front of you. You want to draw it one hundred yards out there. You need to get the right length to distance ratio to make it appear the same size. This is easy, connect the two end points of the canoe to a vanishing point on the horizon line in the direction you want the canoe to be in, either on or off the center line of your picture. The canoe is correct anywhere between these two lines. The same principle applies to the mast if it were a sailboat.


A piece of equipment I made is used to plot two vanishing points of any building 90 degrees apart. It can be ten foot long or longer for larger paintings. A bar attaches to the back of the painting, level with and behind the picture's horizon line. It has two straight edge bars on pivots that clip onto the main bar and lock down on the perceived vanishing points of the top of the building. Sometimes times both vanishing points are off the page in a 60 degree wide picture. This tool will adjust for the earth's curvature.

Match up the buildings most extreme top angles with the straight edge arms and hinge clip them onto the horizon bar, matching and lining up the angles of the straight edge bar to the buildings image. I look at the building and point to the extended vanishing points on the horizon line to the left and right in my pictures view and clip the arms on at those points. That position works now for any building in my picture with those compass aligned angles, as in a row of buildings down a street. Swinging the bar down will give you the correct angles of the windows, doors, bricks, etc. 


Your reflections are only there for you to see, they angle straight toward you, not straight up and down in relation to the sides of your picture.
New window link to Reflections.



Light interpretation as it relates to object edges. With the sun overhead and both the foreground and background in sunlight, the object behind is darker than the closer objects top edge.

Look at the sky as the background, notice any object is darkest next to the light while the sky is lightest next to the dark object.

It's coolest next to the warm, as when a sun lit edge meets the shadow.

The "Culminating Point" is a reflective term, the closest part of an object is the brightest if there is no direct incident light to interfere.

The sky's contrasts combine both the earthbound object's contrast rules and the water contrast rules, it can either be lighter or darker behind the closer cloud.


Have you ever noticed that barometric pressure keeps the cloud bottoms flat? If you made ten lines, a radiating grid from your center line's vanishing point on the horizon to the top corners and across your picture, and spaced the horizontal lines one hundred feet apart starting at the zenith to the horizon line, the variable would be the space between the horizontal lines. This grid would be the barometric bottom of the clouds.

On earth grids, concentric lines around you are the horizontal grid lines. On sea grids, use only the center vanishing point lines and any wave's horizontal lines.

Earth and Sea Grids will keep objects attached to the ground plane, see sea waves in perspective.


34-3, GRIDS



All concentric ring lines stay an even distance around you, you are the bull's eye of a target. Any distance line that is obvious in your scene will form on a concentric ring. Color values, distance, can be recognized from ring to ring. There's a difference between colors in the ring 10 yards in front of you and the ring 50 yards in front of you, try it, soon you will see the difference in every ten yards. Don't use one distance's palette colors in another's ring.

Colors within the first 10 yards are at they're highest chroma, the lights are brightest and the shadows are the deepest. Here are my basic ring distances away from me, 10 yards, 50 yards, 100 yards, 500 yards, 1/4 mile, 1/2 mile, 1 mile, 10 miles, 50 miles, 100 miles. Each ring's colors would not be repeated inside other rings. The foreground rings use the opposition of green and magenta for a medium neutral dark [CCYY+MMMM], the background uses green and purple [CCYY+CMMM], adding the extra cyan gives a more ultramarine blue to the mix.

Click HERE for this web image map of concentric ring colors and values.



The color and brightness of objects are effected by the addition of air and moisture in the air, air is a filter of Yellow and adds Reflected White Light, plus Cyan and Magenta.

What this means in paint is a slight difference in color opposition's, instead of the main opposition being Magenta and Green, it's Green and Purple, the split opposition or split analogous opposition. This filters out the Yellow. The mix of Green and Purple make the cool Blue of the distance.

When Yellow is used in the distance, it's mixed with white. Yellow light and blue light would make white light. Because we have no transparent Yellows or Ultramarine Blues, these pigment colors mix to Green instead of a neutral dark.

Shadows in the foreground are made by adding the opposite color to the local color, in the background the cooler split complementary color is added to the local color instead of the medium opposite color. Split complementary colors are two colors next to each other called "analogous". That is two colors opposite one color, across the wheel. Here's an example, Green is opposite Magenta, the split complementary colors of Green are on each side of Magenta, Scarlet and Purple. Add a split complementary color, Purple pigment to Green pigment for the cool distant color.



35-17,19 OIL MEDIUMS.

35-20, ACRYLICS.


??RIDDLE?? What six, divided in two, is one? A. The basic six color wheel making the primary 3 color wheel in light or pigment.

There are two different basic three color systems in one six color wheel, one for pigments, one for light. They each use the same colors differently.

In each case, the three primary colors divide to the other systems secondary three colors. One six color wheel includes both systems, six basic colors make the two systems and one color wheel.


An opaque pigment is a dense solid, like a rock. A transparent pigment you can see through, like glass, water, dye or stain. A "Tyndall" beam of light will pass through a transparent solution unseen.

A translucent is a colloidal solid, particles of solid so small they are continually suspended but not dissolved. Milk is a colloidal liquid, solid fat dispersed in clear water, add more water and it becomes more translucent. It can always be more translucent but never transparent, the beam of light will always show.

Wax, oil and mastic are transparent turpentine vehicles to hold pigments, oil will yellow.

Barite is a translucent Mineral White extender.

Aluminum hydroxide is a mix of potash and alum precipitated together in solutions, it sponificates clear in oil.

Clay is hydrated aluminum silicate, and ranges from translucent to opaque. It is decomposed feldspar.

Pigments that contain clay are Ultramarine Blue, Ochers and Burnt Ochers, Umbers, Raw and Burnt Sienna, Green Umbers, Venetian Red, not Naples Yellow.

Opaque Chalk, calcium carbonate, converts to Plaster of Paris when heated. It's best in pastels.

Barite is heavy spar, mineral white, barium sulphate, it's translucent in oil and used to extend the Cadmium Red substratum dye pigment. Barite is a translucent Mineral White in oil paint.

Gypsum is a hydrated calcium sulphate called light spar, it ranges from transparent to a calcined White that sponificates clear in oils and is used in cements when calcined. It contains some sulfur that will effect some pigments. Gypsum is best in W/C's and pastels.

Ultramarine Blue is colloidal sulfur in a substratum form deposited on a base. A translucent pigment on a translucent base of Barium Sulfate or Aluminum Hydroxide.

Cadmium Yellow is a substratum color precipitated on a filler or base such as clay or barium. Cadmium Lemon is an opaque pigment precipitated on Titanium White as a base, it's an opaque color.

The reason Cadmium Yellow and Ultramarine Blue mix into a green opaque color is they are both opaque substratum colors instead of transparent colors. Food coloring is transparent. If you mix yellow and Ultramarine Blue, [a mix of Magenta and Cyan], together as dyes, they would make a neutral dark. An element like Iron decomposes from Yellow to Brown to Black.

Green Ocher, Yellow Ocher, Sienna, Red Ocher and Brown ocher are the colloidal iron particles precipitated on clay, they can never be transparent, only degrees of translucent and opaque.

If three primary transparent pigment colors were combined, they would form a neutral dark. You could use either a warm Quinacronone Magenta or a Cool Cobalt Violet [duel-toned from Violet to Magenta], either Magenta would work. Added to a Cyan Ferric-ferrocyanide or a Cyan Phthalocyanine, they would make Ultramarine Blue. The third primary to mix in would be Cobalt Yellow or Indian Yellow, they would make a neutral dark. Cobalt Yellow is translucent so it's far from perfect and we have not had Indian Yellow since 1890.

Staining coats an opaque solid with a transparent dye, both colors are seen in combination on the solid opaque, The more dispersed the solid the more translucent the liquid. Bleeding colors happen when the dye separates from the solid or the colloidal color moves within the drying medium.

Yellow will mix either analogously around the rim of the color wheel, making Yellow-Green or Green with Cyan, or Orange and Red with Magenta. Or it can move to the center of the color wheel and be a warm tan or brown as it does in the crystals.


Crystals will show that Brown, Yellow and Red are different hues of the same coloring element. They will also prove elements stay within there color boundaries. The painting properties of a pigment depend on the elements making that pigment. The copper element could never be yellow, each element has it's own limited range. Copper is an example, with it's limited range only going straight across the color wheel. The Cuprite crystal [Cu2O], is a transparent Red-YYMM, #3 on the Standard Color Index. The ore of copper [Cu] is an opaque Red-Brown, off of the full chroma rim, a centering brown color. It's opposite color on the other side of center is Cyan, Copper's dissolved color.

Turquoise is a transparent phosphate crystal of copper,

CuAl6[P04]4[OH]8.4-5H20, #9,[CCCC], Cyan, on the Standard Color Index.

Red-Scarlet,[3Y4M], plus it's complement, Cyan-Turquoise or Cyan Yellow/side, [4C4Y+3C3M], looks like this, as an opposition formula. [3Y4M]+[4C4Y+3C3M] = [7Y7M7C] or [7YMC] or [White], they all equal Neutral White light. Of course the same formula will make the neutral dark on the pigment color wheel. The transparent Mercury sulfide crystal, [HgS], is the Standard Color for Scarlet, #4, [YMMM]. Cinnabar also forms as an opaque mass, and makes the perfect opaque Red #3, Vermilion, it also makes colors ranging toward the center, through the color brown. Mercury won't cross over the center, as most elements won't.

The transparent Yellow-Green crystal, Sphalerite, [Zn,Fe]S, is #11. Sphalerite is the ore of zinc. It has an analogous color range from Green to Red, when it becomes allochromatic with the addition of the foreign element iron to the compound. Some elements like carbon, iron, fluorine, and zirconium can produce the entire color circle.

Transparent yellow moves to brown in the elements Iron, [Fe], and Titanium,[Ti], as in the allochromatic Citron crystal, Quartz,[SiO2], and the idiochromatic Sphene, [CaTiSiO5], which has Titanium already in the compound.

Transparent yellow can also turn red with the element iron, as in the Sphalerite crystal, and Titanium dioxide turns red or brown in the Anatase crystal, [TiO2].



My Card.
Here is a 2", 200dpi, Real Color Wheel to carry in your wallet, print it out. Take it on location.

Pigments are transparent, translucent or opaque, some need added bulk and are precipitated on transparent, translucent or opaque bases.

BARYTA WHITE- Opaque. This is a heavy spar with very little coloring power, usually it's a pigment additive. Barite is crystal of barium sulfate, called heavy spar. Barite is a non-metallic mineral crystal mined in England, filling the cavities in limestone. As barium it's an extender in lead based and cadmium paints.

HYDRATE OF ALUMINA, alumina, the oxide of aluminum present in clay, transparent to translucent


WAX, Transparent

Here are some permanent chemical pigments used in oil and acrylic paints today.


PY3 stable di-arylide = Yellow Lemon on barium sulfate, Gamboge, Indian Yellow
PY83 stable di-arylide = Yellow Deep, Madder Lake, Alizarin Crimson, Italian Brown Pink Lake.
PY83 stable di-arylide HR = Indian yellow
PY153 dioxine nickel complex = Indian Yellow Golden & Brown, Gamboge, Indian Redgold, Sap Green, Indian Yellow Green
PO69 isiondolin = Yellow, Orange
PR260 isoindolin = Indian Yellow Golden, Vermilion to Red Scarlet dual-toned
PY129 methin copper complex = Golden Green, Indian Yellow Green with PY153
PR101 synthetic iron oxide = Translucent to Opaque Yellow to Brown


Transparent colors are precipitated on alumina, the oxide of aluminum present in clay. Another base for these colors could be wax, cyclohexanone or an acrylic polymer emulsion.

PY153 dioxine nickel complex + PR 260 isoindolin = Indian Yellow Golden.
PY153 dioxine nickel complex + PY42 synthetic iron oxide = Indian Yellow Brown.
PY153 dioxine nickel complex + PY3 stable di-arylide = Gamboge. PY83 stable di-arylide + PR101 synthetic iron oxide = Italian Brown Pink Lake.

I would love to try PY153 dioxine nickel complex + PY83 stable di-arylide.
But the first acrylic color should be PY153 dioxine nickel complex + PY3 stable di-arylide on alumina, = Gamboge Synthetic.


PY100 azo nickel complex, tartrazine, Indian Yellow for water color.

PY153 dioxine nickel complex + PR 260 isoindolin = Indian Yellow Golden.
PY153 dioxine nickel complex + PY3 stable di-arylide = Gamboge
PR 170:F5rk naphthol carbamide = Scarlet Pink
PV19 quinacridone = Rose
PR122 quinacridone = Magenta
PV23:1r carbazole dioxazine = Purple
PV23 dioxine nickel complex = Permanent Violet Blueish transparent secondary blue, tints to Ult. Blue.
PB60 anthraquinone = Blue Deep to Turquoise
PB15 copper phthalocyanine = Cyan (Thalo Blue) to Green Y/S
PB7 Chlorinated copper phthalocyanine = Turquoise to Green
PY83 stable di-arylide + PG7 chlorinated copper phthalocyanine = Sap Green Y/S
PY83 stable di-arylide HR + PO7 chlorinated copper phthalocyanine + PO43 perinone orange = Sap Green O/S
PY129 methin copper complex = Green Gold
PY ? azomethine = Genuine Green Gold

needed for their opaqueness and brilliance.

PY35 cadmium Zink sulfide = Cadmium Yellow Lemon
PT37 cadmium sulfide = Cadmium Yellow Light, Medium
PO20 cadmium sulfo-selenide = Cadmium Orange
PR108 cadmium seleno sulfide = Cadmium Red Light, Medium
PR101 synthetic red iron oxide = Red Oxide
PY42 synthetic yellow iron oxide = Yellow Oxide
PBr7 natural iron oxide, raw and calcined = Siena and Umber
PB29 silica, aluminium, sulphur complex = Ultramarine Blue
PB28 oxides of cobalt and aluminum = Cobalt Blue
PG17 anhydrous chromium senquioxide = Chromium oxide Green

My Oil Pigment palette, the acrylic palette has no transparent yellows. (2010 W/N just made them!)

White is in the middle of my palette. The left top of the palette is Liquitex Dioxazine Purple, Mussini Ult. Blue Deep or Light, Rembrandt Cobalt Blue Deep, Grumbacher Thalo Blue, Mussini Opaque Green Light and Mussini Thalo Green or Grumbacher Thalo Green Y/S.

The left side goes from the top Liquitex Dioxazine Purple, Mussini Bt. Umber, Mussini Bt. Sienna, Blockx Venetian Red, Mussini Yellow Raw Ocher, Mussini Naples Yellow Light or Deep to Daniel Smith Quinacridone Magenta at the bottom.

The bottom row of colors is Daniel Smith Quinacridone Magenta, Rembrandt Rose, W/N Cadmium Red Light, Rembrandt Chinese Vermilion Extra, Mussini Cadmium Orange, Old Holland Indian Yellow-Brown Lake Extra, Old Holland Indian Yellow-Orange Lake extra, Old Holland Gamboge Lake Extra, Old Holland Cadmium Yellow Medium, Grumbacher Cadmium-Barium Yellow Pale, Bellini Lead Yellow Lemon is in the bottom right corner of the palette.

The right side is from Mussini Thalo Green on the top, then Mussini Permanent Green Light, Mussini Genuine Golden Green, Old Holland Yellow Green and Bellini Lead Yellow Lemon at the bottom.

Notes from the color industry, Alternatives to Cadmium Pigments.

It is apparent that we should not count on cadmium pigments being available forever. Golden Artist Colors has undertaken research in an effort to identify and market suitable alternative pigments. Important characteristics include hue or color position, chroma or color saturation, opacity, indoor light fastness, and tinting strength. Alternatives should also present distinct advantages over cadmium pigments in the areas of potential toxicity, environmental impact and exterior light fastness. This is quite a list of objectives, and presents a difficult task, particularly in the yellow range.

Today, there is no company to my knowledge concentrating on making transparent yellows or reds with dark mass tones. Old Holland oils has the only close Indian Yellow range. Instead, translucent and opaque yellow and red is the direction pigment manufactures are taking.

With the introduction of the Pyrrole family of pigments in 1988, there appear to be good offsets for cadmiums in terms of these identified criteria, for the orange to medium red range. Additional products utilizing this chemistry, currently under development by the industry, will extend this range into the darker reds. The pyrrole family of pigments is currently represented by three colors, Pyrrole Orange, Pyrrole Red Light, and Pyrrole Red. These are strong tinting, high chroma colors with excellent light fastness but without a deep mass tone.

Identifying suitable alternatives for the cadmium yellows has been a somewhat more difficult task. The Bismuth Vanadate family offers many of the attributes being sought, but concerns over the toxicity of the constituent heavy metals (bismuth and vanadium), seem to indicate they may offer little benefit over cadmium pigments. A member of the arylide family of pigments seems to offer the best choice for the artist eschewing cadmium pigment.
This pigment, PY 74, is the colorant in Hansa Yellow Opaque. It is of a hue between Cadmium Yellow Light and Cadmium Yellow Medium. Its relatively high opacity and excellent interior light fastness are characteristics not normally encountered in this class of pigment. Outside, its light fastness is far superior to cadmium yellow and should also exceed the performance of Hansa Yellow Medium (PY 73) and Hansa Yellow Light (PY 3), the other members of this pigment family. There are currently no environmental or toxicity issues associated with PY 74. The tinting strength of Hansa Yellow Opaque is also significantly higher than what might be expected from an arylide and is closer to that characteristic of a cadmium pigment. The arylide yellows are entirely organic in composition, containing no metals. While one pigment doesn't provide a range of choice equal to that available in the current range of cadmium yellows, it is a starting point. Using it as the primary component of a mixing color will extend its attributes to other hue positions.

Although the properties of these new organic pigments are in many ways similar to cadmium colors, they are not identical in every respect. The biggest variation is how the colors mix to create new colors. Organics typically produce cleaner, less muddy mixtures. Other colors, such as the iron oxides, can be added if muddier colors are needed.

Once established, a pigment is rarely deemed entirely superfluous. Cadmium pigments will always have devotees, regardless of any disadvantages, for as long as it is manufactured. An example of this persistence is the continued demand for true Alizarin Crimson, a pigment that fades badly, long after the introduction of the highly stable quinacridone family, from which a nearly identical match may be made. Another example is the continued demand for lead white, despite its toxicity, concerns about environmental impact and suitability of Titanium and Zinc White blends.

These notes come from a chemist, not a practicing artist. No color will match the capabilities of lead white.

We as artists have lost lead yellows, including antimony yellow and the magnesium euxanthate yellow that was called Indian Yellow because we had no champion. That painting art is lost.

Long term availability of cadmium pigments may be determined by regulatory pressure or by reduced demand resulting from the increased use of new pigments.

(End of Paint Industry comments.)

As you can see, we as artists are going to have to contend with another set of pigment color properties. They don't relate to the color properties we had at the turn of the century. More great news, 2003, Liquitex has a new great medium for acrylics. It's called, Blending and Painting Medium. It extends drying time a little and makes blending edges a lot easier.

BROWN IS A TINT OF YELLOW IN PIGMENT. Yellow is the warmest color and the fastest to turn cool with the pigment Black turning it green, never brown. So by using black pigment, Yellow is disabled except for the muddier green spectrum colors. Don't use the pigment Black in landscapes, period. Any dark neutral is easy to mix with any of seven different sets of opposition colors.

Here is a full color wheel of pre-made commercial pigments I like. The color wheel is like a clock face, Yellow on top and "Read Red Right", 12:00=Yellow, 4:00=Magenta, and 8:00=Cyan, are the primary pigment colors.

MY PALETTE IN OILS, 1 to 18 with mixing tips.

01. Lemon Yellow, 02. Indian Yellow Orange Lake Extra, 03. Cadmium Orange, 04. Cadmium Red Medium Light, 05. Naples Yellow Light, 06. Yellow Brown Lake Extra, 07. Yellow Ocher, 08. Venetian Red, 09. Burnt Sienna, 17. Burnt Umber, 11. Dioxine Purple, 12. Ultramarine Blue, 13. Cobalt Blue 12. Thalo Blue, 13. Magenta Quinacridone, 14. Cobalt Violet Phosphate, 15. Thalo Green, 18. Gamboge

These 18 colors are a very complete palette, not every one is used every time. Some of these colors can be replaced internally. For instance, Gamboge, Thalo Blue and Quinacridone Magenta will make a neutral Dark, so you can paint a complete painting with only three oil based paints.

Warm Magenta plus Thalo Green make the perfect Neutral Dark for the foreground. It's an afternoon opposition.

Ultramarine Blue plus Burnt Umber makes another perfect neutral, it has a big range of warm and colors on each side of neutral. This is a morning opposition, Yellow is actually a tint of Brown in the RBG system.

The coolest complementary on the palette mixes Thalo Blue with Cadmium Red Medium, a perfect dark to light, neutral gray. This mixture has a very short range of neutral however because of the opaque red. This is an evening opposition.

Purple and Orange will make an opaque Burnt Sienna.

Cadmium Orange, Cadmium Red Medium and Bt. Sienna will make a good opaque Venetian Red.

Cadmium Lemon Yellow and Bt. Sienna will make Yellow Ocher.

Ultramarine Blue and Bt. Sienna will make Bt. Umber.

Cobalt Violet Light Phosphate, [Cool Magenta], and Thalo Blue will make Violet, Purple, Ultramarine Blue, or Azure.


A full palette with only 3 oil pigments.

Full palette, 3 colors.

The three colors uses to make this color circle were,
Old Holland Gamboge or Indian Yellow
Grumbacher Thalo Blue
Danial Smith or Old Holland Magenta

Full palette, 3 colors.

Here is the same color chart made by my friend Scott Methvin

01. Old Holland, Gamboge Lake Extra or Indian Yellow Extra, Transparent Yellow.

02. Grumbacher Thalo Blue.

03. Danial Smith Quinacridone Magenta.

04. Blocks French Ultramarine Blue Light, the dark has more Magenta in it so it's a different color.

05. Grumbacher Bt. Sienna

06. Grumbacher Thalo Green.

07. Rembrandt Chinese Vermilion Extra, a translucent Red Medium. Extra means synthetic.

08. Grumbacher Cadmium Barium Yellow Pale.

09. Grumbacher Burnt Umber,

10. Grumbacher Carbozle Dioxazine Purple

11. Mussini Cadmium Orange

12. Bocour Cobalt Violet Phosphate, a duel-color from an almost warm Magenta to a cool pink magenta that matches the lithographic printer's magenta.

13. Mussini Yellow Raw Ocher.

14. Blockx Venetian Red.

15. Mussini Naples Yellow Light. The Antimony Lead version is not in wide production.

16, Rembrandt Asphaltum Extra. A weak, oily, warm Yellow-Brown transparent glazing color.

17. Mussini Transparent Yellow Oxide, a translucent dark tan to yellow duel-tone color.

18. Mussini Raw umber, a warm translucent Brown to Yellow-Brown that cools with the addition of White.

19. Mussini Green-Gold Transparent duel-tone warming up to a transparent light Yellow-Green from a mass-tone green-oxide color.

20. Grumbacher Green Earth, a translucent pigment that mixes with Rembrandt's Chinese Vermilion Extra translucent. They mix warm or cool in the flesh range, use Naples Yellow Light for the Yellow. This is an "old masters technique"

21. Rembrandt Chromium Green Oxide opaque.


COLOR WHEEL, Artist's Real Color Wheel in Light and Pigment

New window, Real Color Wheel Main Page

Compare Chart

New Window comparing color wheels.

Go to a larger Real Color Wheel on a new
page in PNG format, very fast and accurate.
Here is the 36 color RCW palette with an extra
warm yellow to match pigments, plus a tinted mode.

The colors are listed in my painting palette order which is different. White is in the middle of the palette. Here is the list of pigments in their spectrum order.

I keep all 37 of these pigments on hand with me.
00. Mussini Zinc Yellow,   01. Bellini Lemon Yellow,   02. YYYY, Grumbacher Cadmium Barium Yellow Pale,   02a. YYYY, Mussini Cadmium Yellow Lemon,   04. Old Holland Gamboge Lake Extra,   05. Schmincke Mussini Cadmium Yellow Middle,   06, Old Holland Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra,   06a. Old Holland Indian Yellow Brown Lake Extra,   07. YYYM, Mussini Cadmium Orange,   08. Rembrandt Chinese Vermilion Extra,   09. YYMM, Cadmium Red Medium,   10, YMMM, Rembrandt Rose,   11. MMMM, Danial Smith Quinacridone Magenta,   12. MMMM, Bocour, New York, Cobalt Violet Phosphate,   13. MMMC, Liquitex Carbazole Dioxazine Purple,   14. Grumbacher Dioxazine Purple,   15. Ultramarine Violet,   16. MMCC, Blocks French Ultramarine Blue,   17. Mussini Ultramarine Light,   18. Mussini Cobalt Blue Light,   19. CCCC, Grumbacher Thalo Blue,   20. CCCY, Rembrandt Blue Green,   21. CCYY, Mussini Phthalo Green,   22. Mussini Opaque Green Light,   23. Grumbacher Thalo Green Yellow/Side,   24. Mussini Permanent Green Light,   25. Winsor and Newton Sap Green,   26. CYYY, Old Holland Yellow-Green Organic Opaque,   27. Mussini Naples Yellow Light,   27a. Mussini Naples Yellow Deep,   28. Mussini Yellow Raw Ocher,   29. Mussini Translucent Yellow Oxide,   30. Rembrandt's or Mussini's Asphaltum,   31. Mussini Raw Umber,   32. Mussini Burnt Umber,   33. Mussini Burnt Sienna,   34. Blocks Venetian Red,   35, Rembrandt Chromium Green Oxide,   36. Grumbacher Green Earth,   37. Mussini Genuine Golden Green,

Interactive Real Color Wheel Matching Tube Pigment Colors in RGB and YMC.

Each colors number relates to it's position on the 36 color Real Color Wheel. These 36 RCW colors get dark just as they do in crystals.
Opposite complement pigments mix dark shadow colors just as nature makes shadows on sunlit items.
The top color Yellow is the color numbered (1a.) The number (1b) is a darker version of (1a)
on the way through the dark middle to it's opposite color, (19a) Ultramarine Blue.
Just as the Titanium Crystal, Rutile 

Test your monitor, the top button is the deepest Black.
The lower radio button is White. Go back to White.

Enter a color name or hexidesimal code, FFFFFF = White (all colors full, the numbers 000000 = black (no color). Use numbers in groups of 33 to be web safe. Examples: FF0000 is red, 990000 is a dark red color red and no other colors, 660000 is a darker red, 33000 is very dark red. 00FF00 is green, 0000FF is blue, CCCCCC is neutral gray.

Top-tone is adding White to the color. Under-tone is adding clear. Mass-tone is thick out of the tube.
Click the radio button to change the background to the matching tube color.

01a. Bellini Lemon Yellow, Lead Chromate, a light cool Yellow.  #"FAFF28", RGB, R=255 G=255 B=000, CMYK= 80Y 20M

01a. YYYY, Grumbacher Cadmium Barium Yellow Pale, a middle Yellow.  #"FFFF0E", R=255 G=255 B=014

01a. YYYY, Mussini Cadmium Yellow Lemon, the middle Yellow.  #"FFFF00", R=255 G=255 B=000, CMYK= Y

01b. Mussini Zinc Yellow, the coolest Yellow. An extra color. #"F1F10A", RGB, R=241 G=241 B=010

01b. Mussini Cadmium Yellow Pale, a slightly cool Yellow.   #"FFFA43", R=255 G255 B=040

01c. Old Holland Gamboge Lake Extra, a Yellow-Orange dual-tone changing to a Cadmium Yellow Under-tone.  #"FF9F00", R255, G255 B000 

1c. Old Holland Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra, a dual-toned Orange to Yellow transparent color. #"FF5700", R=255, G=087, B=000 The pale undertone is a strong Yellow-Pale while the top mass-tone hue is Orange and Vermilion mixed 1:1. This color can replace the famous "golden transparent", one of the two color aspects of Natural Indian Yellow.

Here is the dual-toned Under-tone color of Old Holland Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra. #"FFF000", R=255, G=240, B=000

1d. Old Holland Indian Yellow-Brown Lake Extra. It makes a good dark triad neutral, but not a strong Yellow, more like a Cadmium Yellow Middle Under-tone. (Old Holland Indian Yellow Brown Lake, has a Warm Tan Ocher top-tone with a Middle Cadmium Yellow undertone. It makes a poor Orange but will turn Ultramarine Blue to a nice Neutral Dark if that is all you had on a three color palette.) We artists REALLY need this color in acrylics and water colors, not just in oils by only one manufacture. NEW, Liqutex Quinacridone Acra Gold in acrylics. A Yellow/side Burnt Sienna if you will. #"986011", R=152 G=096 B=017. Below is the Under-tone color of Old Holland Indian Yellow Brown Lake Extra and Liqutex Acra Gold Quinacridone PO:49 + PO:45.

1e. Rembrandt or Mussini Asphaltum, the ancient color Bitumen, a transparent dark brown/yellow side, Rembrandt used this favorite glaze to transcend dark (Doerner). The Smithsonian says he did not use this color?  #"331D00", R=051, G=029, B=000. New in Liqutex, Van Dyke Red Hue, mixes neutral with Ultramarine Blue. Way to go Liqutex!

A transparent Under-tone of Rembrandt or Mussini Asphaltum and the new Benzimidazolone PBr:25 is clickable below

1e. Mussini Burnt Umber, a calcined translucent warm Red-Brown. Note: Cadmium Yellow also darkens to this color in the "Real Color Wheel" using this Brown to form all warm Yellows.  #"331500", R=051, G=021, B=000, CMYK= Y M C

02a. Mussini Naples Yellow Light, an opaque Nickel and Titanium replacement for Antimony Yellow. This is the first of eleven pre-made with added white colors, they must be added to a complete painting color palette. This was the traditional (1875) base flesh tone when made with Antimony Lead, later and earlier lead-tin Yellow was used. #"FFEDA8", R=255 G=237 B=168, CMYK= 60Y 20M

03a. Mussini Naples Yellow Deep, (True Naples is either Green-side, Yellow-side or Red-side, higher firing temperatures make warmer, lighter colors.  #"D9A878", R=217 G=169 B=120, CMYK= 60Y 40M

2b. Schmincke Mussini Cadmium Yellow Middle is more Yellow than Grumbacher Cadmium Yellow Medium. #"FFED09", R=255 G=337 B=009, CMYK= Y 20M

05a. Grumbacher Cadmium Yellow Medium. #"FFE709" R=255 G=231 B=009

02c. Mussini Yellow Raw Ocher, opaque tan. #"9B6A26", R=155 G=106 B=038, CMYK= 80Y 20C 40M

02d. Mussini Translucent Yellow Oxide, dual-toned red-tan, add white for a yellow-tan. It has the same mass-tone matching color as Mussini Indian Yellow Brown Lake Extra.  #"986011", R=152 G=096 B=017

A top-tone of Mussini Translucent Yellow Oxide is clickable below

4a. YYYM, Mussini Cadmium Orange, opaque. #"FF8200", R=255, G=130, B=000, CMYK= Y 60M

4b. Mussini Burnt Sienna, transparent Red-Brown. Orange changing to dark brown, goes through Burnt Sienna. Above click is the mass-tone from the tube.  #"4D0000", R=077, G=000, B=000, CMYK= Y 60C M

To See an Under-tone (the color with clear medium) of Mussini Burnt Sienna, click below.

Below is a high Top-tone tint of Mussini Burnt Sienna.

6a. Rembrandt Chinese Vermilion Extra, translucent bright Red Light. #"FF3200" R=255 G=050 B=000, CMYK= Y 80M

07a. YYMM, Cadmium Red Medium. #"FF0000" R=255, G=000, B=000, CMYK= Y M

7b. Blocks Venetian Red, warm opaque. Cadmium Red going to neutral dark black. #"A60000", RGB, R=153, G=000, B=000, CMYK= Y 40C M

10a, YMMM, Rembrandt Rose, transparent Scarlet-Crimson. #"F1004C", R=241, G=000, B=076, CYMK= 90M

An Under-tone of this tube color is here below.

Here below is a light Top-tone of Rembrandt Rose, the perfect Pink, notice it is getting cooler. #"FF4186", RGB, R=255, G=065, B=134

12a. MMMM, Danial Smith Quinacridone Magenta, a warm dual-tone Magenta with a cooler mass tone similar to Cobalt Violet and a warmer top-tone, it mixes to a perfect neutral dark with Thalo Green. #"BD0053" R=189 G=000 B=083, CMYK= M. All complementary colors make perfect neutral grays and blacks, that can be adjusted warm or cool.

13a. MMMM, Bocour, New York, Cobalt Violet Phosphate, transparent dual-toned, dark mass-tone to a cool Top-tone pink when mixed with White and a warm Under-tone pink when mixed with medium. This color is perfect for making Ultramarine Blue using Thalo Cyan. #"BD0081" R=163, G=000, B=109, CMYK= 10C 90M

Cool Top-tone below

Cooler Top-tone with more White below,
Warm transparent Under-tone below

16a. MMMC, Liquitex Carbazole Dioxazine Purple, transparent. With the addition of White, this pigment completely changes into a cooler color Purple, it is dual-toned. #"300030" R=048, G=000, B=048, CMYK= 80C M

A tint Top-tone color of this pigment is this radio button below. 

16a. Grumbacher Dioxazine Purple, the same mass color as #13, this tube color looks like this. With the addition of White this pigment fills the warm slot. The tinted color of this pigment is this radio button.

18a. Ultramarine Violet, translucent, from the tube. #"260035", R=038 G=000 B=053, CYMK= 80C M

A Top-tone tint of this color is:

19a. MMCC, Blocks French Ultramarine Blue, translucent. #"150036", R=021, G=000, B=036, YMCK= C 80M

A Top-tone tint of this color is:

19b. Mussini Ultramarine Light, translucent. #"150064", R=021, G=000, B=100

A Top-tone tint of this color is:

22a. Mussini Cobalt Blue Light, opaque. Nobody makes a true Cobalt Blue anymore, the artificial colors are in this Opaque Azure range, there are no Transparent Azures available. #"00255C", R=000, G=037, B=092, CMYK== C 80M

A Top-tone tint of this color is:

25a. CCCC, Grumbacher Thalo Blue, transparent, a perfect Cyan. This colors Mass-tone is Ultramarine Blue transparent, and the Top-tone tint color is RGB Cyan, just like the sky. The more white that is added, the warmer the color becomes. #"000040", R=000, G=000, B=064, CYMK= C. Paint the sky with Thalo Blue and Dioxine Purple to make all the colors between and including the Ultramarine Blue color. In crystal Cyan darkens by adding magenta's dark.

A middle Top-tone tint of this color:

A very high Top-tone tint of this color is, RGB, Cyan:

27a. CCCY, Rembrandt Blue Green, a transparent Turquoise color. #"003020", R=000, G=048 B=048, CYMK= 20Y C

A lighter tint of this color is:

29a. Mussini Opaque Green Light, a mix of Titanium and Phthalo Green, cool opaque, too handy to be in the auxiliary color wheel. #"007559" R=000, G=117, B=089, CYMK= 60Y 80C

31a. CCYY, Mussini Phthalo Green is Blue/side, transparent. #"003010" R=000. G=048, B=016, CYMK= Y C

A tint of this color is: RGB, 000, 225, 233,

32a. Grumbacher Thalo Green Yellow/Side, transparent. Has a warmer mass-tone than Top-tone . #"003000" R=000, G=048, B=000 

A Top-tone tint of this color is: RGB, R=000,G=255, B=176

33a. Mussini Permanent Green Light, warm opaque. #"00590A", R=000, G=089, B=010, CYMK= 80Y 80C

A tinted Top-tone by adding white of this color is: RGB, R=000,G=255, B=147

34a, Rembrandt Chromium Green Oxide, warm opaque. #"009B7A", R=000, G=080, B=000, CMYK== Y 80C 40M

34a. Grumbacher Green Earth, warm translucent. #"3E5600", R=062, G=086, B=000 

35a. CYYY, Old Holland Yellow-Green Organic Opaque has a cooler mass-tone than Under-tone. #"79C700" R=121, G=199, B=000, CYMK= 20C Y, Here below is the warmer Under-tone mixed with a clear medium.

35b. Winsor and Newton Sap Green, #"233A00, R=035, G=058, B=000, transparent dual-tone, from a mass-tone cooler dark to a warmer tint mixing Yellow-Green and White. Caution; Most brands include black in this pigment and don't give it a permanent rating. Be safe and don't use it or use a synthetic.

A tint with added white of this color is: RGB, R=152, G=197, B=000

36a. CYYY, Brillant Yellow-Green, transparent in acrylic, opaque in oil. #"DBFF76" R=121, G=255, B=028, CYMK= 10C Y

36b. Mussini Genuine Golden Green, #"606300", R=096, G=099, B=000, CYMK= Y 40C 40M

A Top-tone tint by adding white to this dual-toned color is: RGB, R=246, G=255, B=000

36c. Mussini Raw Umber, a translucent cool Brown/green side. (Yellow-Yellow-Yellow-Green darkens to this color in my light to pigment color wheel).  #"332500", R051, G=037, B=000, CMYK= Y 80C 80M

These colors make painting very easy indeed.
Return to White


a cool neutral tint. #"CCCCCC" R=180, G=180, B=180, CMYK= 20Y 40C 20M, RCW= Any triad or complementary set of colors, plus white.


Top-tone is adding White to the color.
Under-tone is adding clear.
Mass-tone is thick out of the tube.
Transparent is clear like colored glass.
Translucent is floating colloidal compounds of colored elements.
Milk is translucent.
Opaque is dense and light blocking.
Y is a color, YM is a color, YMC is a color, YYYYYYM is a color
YYM = Orange.
YM = Yellow and Magenta make Red.


All dots are links to pigment colors. The center links to the photo color chip chart.
Colors are numbered from 1 to 36, the outer most dot starts with letter "00", they are tinted colors.

Lead Yellow, cool opaque Naples Yellow Light Naples Yellow Deep Acrylic Vivid lime
Green, Oil Yellow Green Opaque Brilliant Yellow Green,
translucent in acrylics Cadmium Yellow Cadmium Yellow Medium Cadmium Orange, opaque Green Gold, Transparent Indian Yellow-Orange Lake
Extra Yellow Raw Ocher, Opaque Translucent Yellow Oxide Chinese Vermilion Extra,
translucent Permanent Green light Chromium Green Oxide Indian Yellow-Brown
Transparent Burnt Sienna, translucent Cadmium Red Light-Medium, Opaque Thalo Green, transparent Raw Umber, translucent Burnt Umber, translucent Venetian Red Oxide, Warm, Opaque Opaque Green Light Pigment Photo Chip Chart Rembrandt Rose, Translucent Turquoise Blue-Green, transparent Quinacridone Magenta, Warm Thalo Blue Cyan, Transparent Cobalt Magenta, Cool Ultramarine Blue, Translucent Ultramarine Blue Light Manganese Violet Cobalt Blue French Ultramarine Blue Purple, Transparent Raw Sienna, translucent Ultramarine Violet



RCW#1.00.1,   Bellini Lemon Yellow Lead Chromate, Oil, Opaque, PY-34

RCW#1.00.1,  Light Chrome Yellow Light, Lead Chromate, PY-34

RCW#1.0.1,   Mussini  Zinc Yellow, Opaque

RCW#1.0.2,  1.0.2  YYYY, Hansa Yellow, Monoazo Yellow, PY-74, Translucent

RCW#1.0.4,  Light, Yellow Light Hansa, Arylamide, PY3, Translucent

RCW#1.0.5,  Nickel Titanate Yellow PY53

RCW#1.0.6,  YYYY, Grumbacher Cad. Barium Yellow Pale, Opaque

RCW#1.2,  New Gamboge, Anthrapyrimidine PY108, O.H. Gamboge Lake Extra, organic, Translucent.

RCW#1.3.5,  Old Holland Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra, Dioxine Nickel Complex, Isindolin, dual-toned Transparent, tint.

RCW#1.4,  Warm Gold ocher - Azo Yellow, Monoazo Yellow, PY-151, Translucent

RCW#1.6.1,  Indian Yellow Gr/s, Nickel Chelated Azo PG10F, transparent. Very little green side.

RCW#1.8,  Old Holland Indian Yellow-Brown Lake Extra, Dioxine Nickel Complex + Synthetic Iron Oxide, dual-toned transparent, tint.

RCW#1.9 Rembrandt or Mussini Asphaltum, Transparent PBr7

RCW#1.10.5,  Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

RCW#2.00.5 Mussini Naples Yellow Light, Titanium Dioxide, Rutile-Nickel-Tin-Titanium, Chromium-Antimony-Titanium Yellow PW6, PY53, PBr24, Opaque

RCW#2.0,  Schmincke Mussini Chrome Yellow Orange Lead Chromate, PY34, Opaque

RCW#2.3,   Mussini Translucent Yellow Oxide, Translucent

RCW#2.4,  Mussini Yellow Raw Ochre, Natural Hydrated Iron Oxide, PY43, Mussini Translucent Yellow Oxide, Translucent

RCW#3.00,  Mussini, Naples Yellow Deep, Lead Antimonate, PY41, Opaque

RCW#3.0,  Cadmium Yellow Deep, Opaque

RCW3.3,  Raw Siena, Natural Iron Oxide, PBr7, Opaque

RCW#3.4.5,  Italian Deep yellow Ocher R/s, Opaque

RCW#3.6,  Quinacridone Deep Gold PO48, Transparent

RCW#3.7,  Brown Oxide PR101, Transparent

RCW#3.10,  Mussini, Burnt Umber, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

RCW#4.0.1,  Isoindolinone Yellow R, PY110 transparent, mass-tone

RCW#4.0.4,  Benzimidazolone Orange, PO62, Transparent

RCW#4.0.5,  YYYM, Mussini Cadmium Orange, Cadmium Sulfo-Selenide, PO20, Opaque

RCW#4.6,  Burnt Sienna PBr7, Translucent

RCW#4.10,  Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

RCW#5.7,  Italian burnt Sienna PBr7, Translucent

RCW#5.10,  Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

RCW#6.0.5  Vermilion Extra, Isoindolindon, PR260, Translucent

RCW#6.10,  Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

RCW#7.0.5,  YYMM, Cadmium Red Medium or Light, Opaque

RCW#7.0.6,  Thioindagoid Red PR88, opaque

RCW#7.5,  Warm Red Oxide PR:10, opaque

RCW#7.6,  Red Oxide - Blockx Venetian Red Warm, Synthetic Iron Oxide, PR101, Opaque

RCW#7.9,  Bemizimidazolone Brown PBr:25, opaque

RCW#7.10.5,  Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

RCW#8.0.5,  Irgazine Red PR254, Opaque

RCW#8.10,  Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

RCW#10.00,  Light Portrait Pink, Naphthol Red AS-D + Titanium White + Diarylide Yellow, PR:122, PW:6, PY:83, Opaque

RCW#10.0.5,  Naphthol Crimson, Naphthol AS, PR170, Translucent

RCW#12.0,  YMMM, Rembrandt Rose, Permanent Rose, Translucent Scarlet-Crimson, Quinacridone Rose Bata, PV:19, Transparent

4RCW#13.00,  Light Magenta, Quinacridone Violet, Titanium Dioxide, PR122 Y, PW6, Opaque

RCW#13.0,  MMMM, Quinacridone Magenta Y, PR122, Transparent

RCW#14.00.5,  Cobalt Violet, PV49, Opaque Cool Magenta

RCW#10.5.22,  Cobalt Violet, Cobalt Phosphate, PV14, Transparent Cool Magenta, dual-toned

RCW#15.0,  Manganese Violet PV23 R/s, Top-tone, Transparent

RCW#15.6,  Manganese Violet PV23 R/s, Mass-tone, Transparent

RCW#16.0,  MMMC, Dioxazine Purple, Carbazole, Warm, PV23, Top-tone, Transparent

RCW#16.6,  MMMC, Dioxazine Purple, Carbazole, Warm, PV23, Mass-tone, Transparent

RCW#18.0,  MMCC, Blockx,Ultramarine Violet, Alumosilicate of Sodium, PV15, Top-tone, Transparent

RCW#18.6.5,  MMCC, Blockz, Ultramarine Violet, Alumosilicate of Sodium, PV15, Mass-tone, Transparent

RCW#19.00,  Light Blue Violet Acrylic, Ultramarine Blue + Titanium Dioxide, PB29, PW6, Opaque

RCW#19.0,  French Ultramarine Blue PB29, Translucent

RCW#19.2.5,  Ultramarine Blue Light PB:29, Opaque

RCW#19.3.5,  Ultramarine Blue Deep PB29, Complex Silicate of Sodium and Aluminum with Sulfur, Translucent

RCW#22.0,  Cobalt Blue PB28, Oxides of Cobalt + Aluminum, Opaque

RCW#25.00.5,  King's Blue Deep, Tint, Zinc Oxide + Titanium Dioxide Rutile + Synthetic Ultramarine PB29, PW4, PW6, PB29, Opaque

RCW#25.01.5,  Cerulean Blue PB-36, Oxides of Cobalt + Chromium Opaque PB:15.3, Opaque

RCW#25.0,  CCCC, Thalo Blue - Phthalo Blue, Cyan PB:15.3, Pathalocyanine, Top-tone, transparent

RCW#25.0.3,  CCCC, Old Holland, Manganese Blue, Barium Manganate PB:33, Cyan Top & Mass-tone, Transparent

RCW#27.0.5,  CCCY, Rembrandt Blue Green, Turquoise PB15.3 + PG36, Pathalocyanine, Top-tone, Transparent

RCW#27.6,  CCCY, Rembrandt Blue Green, Turquoise PB15.3 + PG36, Pathalocyanine, Mass-tone, Transparent

RCW#28.03,  Bright Aqua Green, Phthalocyanine Green + Phthalocyanine Blue, Titanium Dioxide, PG7, PB15, PW6, Opaque

RCW#29.03,  Mussini Opaque Green Light, Phthalocyanine Green, Monoazo Yellow, Cobalt-Titanium-Nickel-Zinc-Aluminum-Oxide, Opaque

RCW#31.03.5,  CCYY Tint, Emerald Green, Brominated Copper Phthalocyanine, Titanium Dioxide, PG36, PW6, Opaque

RCW#31.0.1,  CCYY, Mussini Phthalo Green, Y/S, Brominated Chlorinated Phthalocyanine, PG36, Transparent

RCW#31.0.5,  CCYY, Mussini Phthalo Green, Phthalocyanine Green, PG7, Transparent

RCW#33.3,  Mussini Permanent Green Light, PG-7 + PY-3, Phthalo Green + Monoazo Yellow, Opaque

RCW#33.6,  Hooker's Green Permanent PG36 + PY3 + PO49, Transparent

RCW#34.4,  Rembrandt Chrome Oxide Green, PG-17, Chrome Oxide, Opaque

RCW#35.0,  YYYC, Yellow-green Organic, Opaque Hooker's Green, PY73, PG7, PR101, Arylamide Yellow GX + Phthalocyanine Green + Red Oxide, Opaque

RCW#35.6,  Grumbacher Green Earth Natural, high silicone clay, PG:26, Translucent

RCW#35.10,  Winsor and Newton Sap Green Syn. Transparent, Duel-tone

RCW#36.00.8,  Priderit Yellow PY157, Yellow-green, Opaque

RCW#36.0.5,  Brilliant Yellow Green, PG7, PW6, PY3, PY97, Chlorinated Copper Phthalocyanine, Titanium Dioxide, Arylide Yellow 10G, Translucent in Acrylic, Opaque in Oil

RCW#36.4.9,  Old Holland Indian Yellow-Green Extra, Dioxine Nickel Complex, Methin Copper Complex, PY153, PY129, Transparent

RCW#36.6.9,  IrgazineGreen PY129, Dual-tone, Translucent

RCW#36.8.5,  Golden Acrylic Green Gold, Nickel Azo PY:150 + Thalo Gr.Y/s PG:36, Hansa Yellow PY:3, Dual-tone, Translucent

RCW#36.9.5,  Mussini Golden Green Genuine, Azomethine Metalcomplex, PY129, Azomethine Copper Complex, Transparent

RCW#36.10.9,  Raw Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, PY42, Translucent

RCW#36.10.1,  Green Umber, Translucent

RGB to PIGMENT IN MASSTONE, TOP-TONE (add white) and UNDER-TONE (add clear media)

RCW#1.0.1: Arcs: 1 to 36, Values: full color= 0, tint= 00 to 09, shade= 1 to 10, Temperatures: cool= 1, warm= 9

Bellini Lemon Yellow Lead Chromate, Opaque

YYYY, Mussini Cadmium Yellow Lemon, Opaque.  Yellow Hansa Arylide.

Mussini  Zinc Yellow, Opaque

YYYY, Hansa Yellow, Monoazo Yellow, PY-74, Translucent

YYYY, Grumbacher Cad. Barium Yellow Pale, Opaque

New Gamboge, Anthrapyrimidine PY108, O.H. Gamboge Lake Extra, organic, Translucent.

Old Holland Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra, Dioxine Nickel Complex, Isoindolin, dual-toned Transparent

Warm Gold ocher - Azo Yellow, Monoazo Yellow, PY-151, Translucent

Indian Yellow Gr/s, Nickel Chelated Azo PG10F, Methin Copper Complex, transparent. Very little green side.

Old Holland Indian Yellow-Brown Lake Extra, Dioxine Nickel Complex, Synthetic Iron Oxide, dual-toned transparent.

Rembrandt or Mussini Asphaltum, Transparent, too oily to use

Mussini Burnt Umber, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

RCW#2.00.5 Mussini Naples Yellow Light, Titanium Dioxide, Rutile-Nickel-Tin-Titanium, Chromium-Antimony-Titanium Yellow PW6, PY53, PBr24, Opaque

Schmincke Mussini Chrome Yellow Orange Lead Chromate, PY34, Opaque

Mussini Translucent Yellow Oxide, Translucent

Mussini Yellow Raw Ochre, Natural Hydrated Iron Oxide, PY43

Mussini, Naples Yellow Deep, Lead Antimonate, PY41, Opaque

Cadmium Yellow Deep, Opaque

Raw Siena, Natural Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

Italian Deep yellow Ocher R/s, Opaque

Quinacridone Deep Gold PO48, Transparent

Brown Oxide PR101, Transparent

Mussini Burnt Umber, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

Isoindolinone Yellow R, PY110, dual-tone, transparent

Benizimtdazolone Orange PO62 transparent

YYYM, Mussini Cadmium Orange, Cadmium Sulfo-Selenide, PO20, Opaque

Mussini Burnt Sienna, Translucent

Mussini Burnt Umber, Translucent

Italian burnt Sienna PBr7, Translucent

Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

Rembrandt Chinese Vermilion Extra, Mercury Sulfide, Translucent

Mussini Burnt Umber, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

YYMM, Cadmium Red Medium or Light, Opaque

Thioindagoid Red PR88, Opaque

Warm Red Oxide PR:10, opaque

Blockx Venetian Red Warm, Synthetic Iron Oxide, PR101, Opaque

Bemizimidazolone Brown PBr:25, opaque

Mussini Burnt Umber, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

Irgazine Red PR:254, Opaque

Mussini Burnt Umber, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

Light Portrait Pink, Naphthol Red AS-D, Titanium White, Diarylide Yellow, PR:122, PW:6, PY:83, Opaque

Naphthol Crimson, Naphthol AS, PR170, Translucent

YMMM, Rembrandt Rose, Permanent Rose, Translucent Scarlet-Crimson, Quinacridone Rose Bata, PV:19, Transparent

Light Magenta, Quinacridone Magenta Y, Titanium Dioxide, PR122, PW6, Opaque

MMMM, Quinacridone Magenta Y, PR:122, Transparent

Cobalt Violet, PV49, Opaque Cool Magenta

MMMM, Bocour, New York, Cobalt Violet Phosphate, Cool, PV:14, Transparent Cool Magenta, dual-toned. Not Available Anymore.

Manganese Violet PV23 R/s, Under-tone, Transparent

Manganese Violet PV23 R/s, Mass-tone, Transparent

MMMC, Dioxazine Purple, Carbazole - Dioxazine, Purple. Warm, PV23, Under tone warmer. Transparent

MMMC, Dioxazine Purple, Carbazole, Warm, PV23, Mass-tone, Transparent

Ultramarine Violet, Alumosilicate of Sodium, PV15, Top-tone, Transparent

MMCC, Blockz, Ultramarine Violet, Alumosilicate of Sodium, PV15, Mass-tone, Transparent

Light Blue Violet, Ultramarine Blue + Titanium Dioxide, PB29, PW6, Opaque

French Ultramarine Blue PB29, Translucent

Mussini Ultramarine Blue Light, PB:29, Complex Silicate of Sodium and Aluminum with Sulfur, Translucent

Ultramarine Blue Deep PB29, Complex Silicate of Sodium and Aluminum with Sulfur, Translucent

Mussini Cobalt Blue Light and Dark, Opaque

King's Blue Deep, Tint, Zinc Oxide, Titanium Dioxide Rutile, Synthetic Ultramarine PB29, PW4, PW6, PB29, Opaque

CCCC, Cerulean Blue PB-36, Oxides of Cobalt and Chromium Opaque PB:15.3, Opaque

CCCC, Thalo Blue - Phthalo Blue, Cyan PB:15.3, Pathalocyanine, transparent

CCCC, Old Holland, Manganese Blue, Barium Manganate PB:33, Cyan, Transparent

CCCY, Rembrandt Blue Green, Turquoise PB15.3 + PG36, Pathalocyanine, Top-tone, Transparent

CCCY, Rembrandt Blue Green, Turquoise PB15.3 + PG36, Pathalocyanine, Mass-tone, Transparent

Bright Aqua Green, Phthalocyanine Green, Phthalocyanine Blue, Titanium Dioxide, PG7, PB15, PW6, Opaque

Mussini Opaque Green Light, Phthalocyanine Green, Monoazo Yellow, Cobalt-Titanium-Nickel-Zinc-Aluminum-Oxide, Opaque

CCYY Tint, Emerald Green, Brominated Copper Phthalocyanine, Titanium Dioxide, PG36, PW6, Opaque

CCYY, Mussini Phthalo Green, Y/S, Brominated Chlorinated Phthalocyanine, PG36, Transparent

CCYY, Mussini Phthalo Green, B/S, Phthalocyanine Green, PG7, Transparent

Mussini Permanent Green Light, Opaque

Hooker's Green Permanent PG36 + PY3 + PO49, Transparent
Hooker's Green, PY73, PG7, PR101, Arylamide Yellow GX + Phthalocyanine Green + Red Oxide, Opaque
Hooker's Green, PBk7, PG7, PY74, Carbon Black + Phthalocyanine Green + Arylide Yellow 5Gx Translucent
They look the same in RGB.

Rembrandt Chromium Green Oxide, PG-17, Opaque

YYYC, Old Holland Yellow-Green Organic,Opaque, Oil.  Vivid Lime Green, Translucent, Acrylic

Grumbacher Green Earth Natural, hard to find natural silicon clay pigment, PG:26, Translucent

Winsor and Newton Sap Green Syn. Transparent, Duel-tone

Priderit Yellow PY157, Yellow-green, Opaque

Brilliant Yellow Green, PG7, PW6, PY3, PY97, Chlorinated Copper Phthalocyanine, Titanium Dioxide, Arylide Yellow 10G, Translucent in Acrylic, Opaque in Oil

Thalo Yellow Green PG7 + PY3 + PW4, Chlorinated Copper Phthalocyanine, Arylide Yellow 10G, Zinc Oxide, Opaque

Old Holland Indian Yellow-Green Extra, Dioxine Nickel Complex, Methin Copper Complex, PY153, PY129, Transparent

IrgazineGreen PY129, Dual-tone, Translucent

Currently available as dry pigment only as Irgazine red, yellow and green.

Golden Acrylic Green Gold, Nickel Azo PY:150 + Thalo Gr.Y/s PG:36, Hansa Yellow PY:3, Dual-tone, Translucent

Mussini Golden Green Genuine, Azomethine Copper Complex, PY129, Transparent

Raw Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent

Green Umber, Translucent


Top-tone is adding White to the color.
Under-tone is adding clear media like oil or water.
Mass-tone is thick out of the tube.
Transparent is clear like colored glass.
Translucent is floating colloidal compounds of colored elements.
Milk is translucent.
Opaque is dense and light blocking, like a rock.
Y = Y is a color, YM is a color, YMC is a color, YYYYYYM is a color
YYM = Orange. YM = Yellow and Magenta, as Red as you can get.

A Picture of my complete palette layout to paint anything in front of me, quickly. NEW WINDOW

THIS CLICKABLE RGB MAP shows the true opposition pigment colors for mixing neutral darks. EACH COLOR WILL OPEN IN A NEW WINDOW
It will be the new "basic" color wheel because the color oppositions are accurate.
The revolution of color wheel, replace your old color wheel now.
The Red-Blue-Yellow is wrong and Yellow-Cyan-Magenta color wheel without correct darks is inaccurate for pigment artists.


Blockx Yellow Cobalt Old Holland Gamboge Lake Ex. Syn. O.H. Indian Yellow Brown Lake Syn. Rembrandt Asphaltum Syn, very oily Burnt Umber Mussini Zinc Yellow, the
coolest yellow. No link Bocour Cad Yellow Lead Chromate Grumbacher Cad Barium Yellow Pale Mussini Naples Yellow Light,
Nickle Titanium O.H. Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Syn. Dual-tone Mussini Raw Umber Blockx Baryum Yellow, very weak O.H. Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Syn. Mussini Naples Yellow Deep Yelow Raw Ocher Mussini Trans Yellow Oxide Green Earth Green Gold Nickel Azo Sap Green Syn. dual-tone Green Umber Earth Green Oxide W/N Flesh Burnt Sienna Rewmbrandt Chinese Vermilion
syn. O.H. Yellow Green Organic Mussini Cad. Yellow Lemon Mussini Cad yellow Middle Rembrandt Chinese Vermilion
Syn Blockx Venation Opaque Warm Red Oxide Cadmium Orange Cadmium Barium Red Light Permanent Green Light Grumbacher Phthalo Green Light Mussini Opaque Green Light Mussini Phthalo Green Turquoise, Rembrandt Blue Green Cadimium Bayrum Red Light Rembrandt Red Rose Rose Madder, Yarka Garance
Violet Grumbacher Thalo Blue O.H. Scheveninge BLue
Light Opaque D.Smith Quinacridone Magenta pr122 Cobalt Violet Transparent, Cool Magenta Dual-tone Cobalt Blue Light Mussini Royal Blue Light Blockx French Ult. Bue Ultramarine Violet Dioxazine Purple Mussini Royal Blue Deep Ultramarine Deep Ultramarine Light Dioxazine Purple tints cool

End of Pigments, Return to START.

THE MOST PAINTERLY MEDIUM OF ALL is this, 75% Dammar and 25% Beeswax paste. Dissolve the beeswax 1:1, in warm turpentine to make the paste and store it. This medium will not yellow. Add 2% drier and it will be dry in twelve hours. BUT, drier is the most yellowing of all. If you want a gloss, use a dammar varnish finishing coat. The Romans mixed this medium and pigments to make their "wax cakes" which were like our tube paints, except they could be redissolved with turpentine. This medium is a big loose paint, you can change your work in progress, great for murals. Dammar gives wax the smooth slippery stroke and allows a build up of paint.

Too much wax will cause the lifting of under-strokes, Wax will dry-brush without drag, turpentine will keep the "soup" flowing. In the B/C old day's of painting, Sandraca was used as an intermediate isolating and final finish glaze, because it was alcohol based, today, since sandarac (sandracca)is no longer available except at http://www.kremer-pigmente.de/ Shellac can be used as an intermediate glaze but not a final. Dammar will do that job.


4 parts Stand Oil, 2 parts Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil, 2 parts Venetian Turpentine, 1 part Turpentine, 1/2 part Wax, 2% Drier.


4 parts Stand Oil, 3 parts Sun Dried Linseed Oil, 1 part Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil, 1 part Dammar, 2% Drier.


3 parts Venetian Turpentine, 2 parts Sun Thickened Linseed Oil, 1/2 part Turpentine, it should just drip off the palette knife. 2% COBALT DRIER, 5 DROPS DRIER PER 2 1/2 OZ. OF MEDIUM dries in 12 to 15 hours.


Windburg Medium, pre-made, IT'S REALLY A GREAT MEDIUM, [get it before they stop making it] mixes 1:1 with turpentine.

Windberg Art Products, 8601 Cross Park Dr., Suite 200, Austin,Tx., 78754

For the artist.

% Stand Oil  Sun Thickened Linseed Oil Cold Pressed Linseed Oil  Balsam Resin Turpentine. Dorland's or Beeswax Drying Mark, Comments
1 part Stand Oil . . . . . . . Wrinkles and skins, add: turp, raw cold pressed, balsam, or mastic.
1 part Stand Oil  . 1/4 part
Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 
. . needs no turpentine. . No drier. Three days dry.  A
1 part Stand Oil  1 part Sun Thickened Linseed Oil  . . . . 1/4 part, Dorland's Wax  dry in 24 hours A+
1 part Stand Oil  3/4 part Sun Thickened Linseed Oil  1/4 part, Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil  . . 1/8 part Turpentine 1/8 part Wax   2% drier, No tack, smooth blend, nice. My current medium until I use it up. A+
Stand Oil 1 part,  Sun Dried Linseed Oil 1/2 part, 1/2 part Raw Cold Linseed oil  . . . 1/8 part Wax  Add 2% Cobalt Drier to dry in 18 hours or Fifth day light tack. A+  I used this formula for all  my 1995 paintings.  Sun dried linseed oil settles strokes. 
1 part Stand Oil,  . 1/2 part Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil,  1/2 part
Venetian Balsam,
. 1/4 part Turpentine, 1/8 part Wax, 2% Drier. A+ Maybe the best medium. 
1 part Stand Oil  1/4 part Sun Dried Linseed Oil  1/4 part Cold Pressed Linseed Oil  1/2 part Venetian  . . . . A beautiful balanced paint and glaze. A+
1 part Stand Oil  . . 1 part Venetian Balsam  . The turpentine evaporates quickly and needs constant replenishing, . No drier, tacky 8 days. Cobalt Drier 2% dry in 12 hours. This mix has an edge bleeding problem.  A-
1 part
Stand Oil 
. . 1/2 part Venetian  . . . . A little edge bleeding, some pick up. B
1 part Stand Oil  . . 1/4 part Venetian  . . . . More pick up, wet 16 hours. C
1 part Stand Oil  . . . 1/5 part Dammar  . 1/4 part Wax  . Stayed thick, doubled paint. A+
. . Cold Pressed Linseed Oil Adding Venetian Balsam makes a great blending glaze. . Turpentine isn't needed to thin it out. - Nice glaze with turpentine.  . Three days dry.  The drier is always optional. An all round good medium used by itself. Adds slippery to Stand Oil. It has no flow-out . 
. Sun Dried Linseed Oil 1 part,  Cold Pressed Oil 1 part, Venetian 1/2  part, . Turpentine 1/4 part, . 2% Cobalt Drier optional. A+
. . . . 3/4 Dammar . 1/4 Wax . Smooth and shows brush strokes, very painterly. Best for murals. A+
alkyd Oil Paint,
It's made of long oil, modified alkyd resin.
. . . . The newer alkyd is fast drying, has no solvent action on dried layers but is sticky . . Dried paint can chip off dried successive layers of paint unless a sticky medium like Alkyd, Liquin, or a oil modified alkyd resin is used. Stand oil, balsams and resins are sticky. A

Turpentine in paint gives the most control but it removes body.

Linseed Oil wrinkles and skins by itself, it has no solvent action and no adhesion qualities.
Linseed Oil yellows, layers must be dry between coats or they will chip off.
Half Oil = Stand Oil 50%, Turpentine 50%. A+ medium.
Boiled Oil = 200 degrees C for several hours, no siccatives (an old masters technique.
Sun Thickened Linseed Oil = Three sunny days in a shallow lead pan 1/8 deep or less.

alkyd Oil Paint,
The newer alkyd is fast drying, has no solvent action on dried layers so dried paint can chip off dried successive layers of paint. It's made of long oil, modified alkyd resin.

Resin Mastic Paint,
Oil-less paint. Dissolves and redissolves itself so it's joined layers are a compleat film. Mix it with up to 50% bees wax. Dammar mixed with wax will not yellow, (the Egyptian Fayum grave paintings prove that). Dammar as a final varnish over an oil and mastic painting will not yellow. You can polish a wax and mastic painting with a soft cloth but never get it glossie. Always have a little wax in your mastic. A+

When making a big blend of sky and water;
Stand Oil 1 part, Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 2/5 part, Wax 1/5 part, Dammar 1/10 part, = Stays very wet- very good blending, smooth and workable, no drier 2 1/2 days wet. Turpentine adds longer workability, work and pickup with Turpentine, glazes well.

Cobalt Drier 2% solution = dipping the palette knife 1/8 inch into the drier and mixing it with 1/4 inch of paint. Or when making a 2 1/2 oz. bottle of medium, add 5 drops drier, dries in 12 to 15 hours. Four drops dries in 20 hours.

Dammar resin and Venetian balsam are both self flowing.
Dammar by itself takes 2 days to dry.
Dammar dries differently than Oil, the whole paint film dries and dissolves as one, this is called solvent action.
Dammar and wax = A+, non-yellowing.
Dammar and Wax and turpentine make a juicy soupier medium. Very painterly - smooth easy blend.
Big loose technique to change and change again - fast setting to over paint - Matt finish. Adds control to solvent action. Fast juicy strokes cover 100%, Dammar gives Wax the smooth slippery soupier stroke and allows the buildup. Wax increases solvency, too much Wax dissolves and lifts under-strokes quickly. Wax will dry-brush without drag. Turpentine keeps the soup flowing - dry in two days. Add Cobalt Drier to dry in 12-15 hours. Dammar dries faster without Wax. More Dammar gives more gloss. A+
Turpentine and Chios resin together are as old as Sandraca "B.C." Wax was added in the early A/D. It's smooth and shows brush strokes in a painterly way. Roman Wax Cakes were made like this. It's easy to pickup when you want to lift an under coat. Best for mural work, permanent and non yellowing.

Wax and paint, 50/50, strokes just slide along, no grab or bite, dry two days, non yellowing. B
Wax and turpentine, no drier, dry 4 days.
Wax, turpentine and Cobalt drier, dry in 12 hours.
Wax and dammar, no drier, dry in 30 hours without drier. A+
Wax and Venetian turpentine, no drier, too slippery, wet 8 days.

Cold Pressed Linseed oil -dry in 3 days -good alone.
Cold Pressed Linseed Oil and Cobalt Drier, dry in 12 hours.
Cold Pressed Linseed Oil - down to earth good painting medium - slippery - adds slippery to Stand Oil - no flow out - no turpentine needed - nice glaze with turpentine. Three days dry. A
Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 1 part, Dammar 1 part, adds bite to the oil - adds self flow to oil - needs wax - Three days dry. B+

Sun Dried Linseed Oil and Turpentine, very smooth for a long time, strokes and marks fall out. It breaks down quickly with turpentine and will run.
Sun Dried Linseed Oil and Stand Oil paints slippery.
Sun Dried Linseed Oil 1 part, Cold Pressed Oil 1 part, Venetian 1/2 part, Turpentine 1/4 part, 2% Cobalt Drier. A+

Stand Oil is yellowing.
Stand Oil and Turpentine, no drier, dry in 5 days.
Stand Oil and Cobalt Drier, dry 24 hours, wrinkled skin.
Stand oil by itself = wrinkled skin - must add mastic or balsam.
Stand oil crawls with cobalt drier, very slow drying.
Stand Oil - too thick to work with, greasy and self flowing - lifts under stroke - four day dry.
Stand Oil and turpentine, dissolve the stand Oil to a consistency thicker than Raw Linseed but thinner than Sun dried. Sets very rapidly, dissolves layers quickly, lifts under layer, difficult to maintain painting consistency.
Stand Oil and turpentine, smooth - blendable - strokes flow out by themselves in an uncontrolled manner - Bleed over - needs Linseed Oil - two day dry.
Stand Oil 1 part, Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 1/4 part, needs no turpentine. No drier. Three days dry. A
Stand Oil 1 part, Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 3/8 part, Wax 1/4 part, Dammar 1/10 part = Stayed thick, doubled paint. A+
Stand Oil 1 part, Venetian 1/2 part, Sun Dried Linseed Oil 1/4 part, Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 1/4 part, A beautiful balanced paint and glaze. A+
Stand Oil 1 part, Sun Dried Linseed Oil 3/4, Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 1/4 part = No tack, smooth blend, nice. A+
Stand Oil 1 part, Sun Dried Linseed Oil 1/2 part, Raw Cold Linseed oil 1/2 part, Wax 1/8 part, Fifth day light tack, add 2% Cobalt Drier to dry in 18 hours. - I used this formula for all my 1995 paintings. - Sun Dried Linseed Oil settles strokes - A+
Stand Oil 1 part, Sun Dried Thickened Linseed Oil 1/2 part, Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 1/2 part, Venetian Balsam Turpentine 1/4 part, Turpentine 1/4 part, Wax 1/8 part, drier 2%. Maybe the best medium. A+
Stand Oil 1 part, Sun Thickened Linseed Oil 1 part, Dorland's Wax 1/4 part, dry in 24 hours. A+
Stand Oil 1 part, Sun Thickened Linseed Oil 3/4 part, Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 1/4 part, Wax 1/8, Turpentine 1/8, and 2% drier, my current medium until I use it up. A+
Stand Oil 1 part, Venetian Balsam 1 part, plus Turpentine. The turpentine evaporates quickly and needs constant replenishing, this mix has an edge bleeding problem. No drier, tacky 8 days. Cobalt Drier 2% dry in 12 hours. A Stand Oil 1 part, Venetian 1/2 part, a little edge bleeding, some pick up. B
Stand Oil 1 part, Venetian 1/4 part, more pick up, wet 16 hours. C

Boiled Linseed Oil paints very smoothly, it's fast drying, but runs and puddles when you add turpentine. It paints better than Cold Pressed by itself and smoother than Grumbacher III, yellows a lot more then cold pressed.

Maroger's, Linseed oil cooked with white lead or red lead, a great and proven painting medium, very smooth. More a little farther down. A+

Poppy Oil, nice, like a soft wax, day to day work wet in wet, soaks into ground. Apply a coat of thin shellac or egg white to the ground to prevent this. Three days dry.

Venetian Turpentine flows like Sun-thickened Linseed and Stand Oil, sticky, flows out long after the stroke. Heavy tacky drag, smooth with turpentine.
Venetian Balsam Turpentine, smooth with enough turpentine, fast setting, hard to maintain consistency, lifts under layer, dry in 50 hours.
Venetian Balsam Turpentine and Cobalt Drier, heavy flow, separates and puddles. Dry in 12 hours.
Venetian Balsam Resin Turpentine 1 part, Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 4/5 part, 2% Cobalt Drier, dries hard and glossie, best blending medium. Controllable light wash. = best glaze. A+

Grumbacher Gel - nice wax and oil feeling - no flow out like Venetian - after four days it was still 5% wet, thin with turpentine, dry in 3 days with 2% drier.
Grumbacher Gel stays thick like Zec.
Grumbacher III - Thinner than Cold Pressed Linseed - gives paint a nice bite and feel to the strokes, like Poppy Oil w/o the Wax feel. Good to use as the thinner instead of turpentine. Two days dry. A
Grumbacher Gel and Grumbacher III have thick and thin covered.

Archival Lean, fast drying. B
Archival Fat, Liquin properties. B

Liquin reduces the length of your strokes and separates them. Fast drier. Oil modified Alkyd resin yellows less than unmodified oil. B

Windburg Painting Medium - needs 50% turpentine to flow - slight bite - great control. The best pre-made medium. Two days dry. A+

Windsor Newton WinGel dries Very fast, One hour. Alkyd and drier medium.

Zec is waxie smooth, a very fast setter, holds all strokes, extends paint 100%, dry in 30 hours.
Zec and Mastic sets too fast, non yellowing, dry in 12 hours.
Zec and Cold Pressed Linseed Oil slows drying to 24 hours. Too much drag. C

Copal sets up fast, dries glossie, redissolves easily.
Copal with drier drags, it dries in one day by itself. Flows paint too much for my location painting, good glazing for portraits, lifts lower layer. Ron Garrett makes a better copal then common store bought copal, I did enjoy using Ron's better than any other brand. Ron Garrett 


These mediums called malbutter and megilp, were made of heated oil, wax and lead made in the past worked very well; they added a buttery character to the paint and a harder finish. Many masters from the North (1550) used Stand Oil, Sun Dried Linseed (dried in lead pans) and balsam. The lead acts as the metal in the drier if the oil was heated to sponificate the lead. Today I still consider it the best oil medium, I like a little wax added also.

MAROGER listed how to make mediums of his past.
Here is a good recipe for Maroger Black Oil.

In this case example, raw is referred to as raw cold pressed, purified linseed oil.
"BLACK OIL is made of purified raw linseed oil cooked with red lead and adding mastic. "
Cold pressed raw Linseed Oil - 96.5g Mastic - 30g Pbo - 4g
This comes out to visually about 1/2 cup oil, a handful of crystals, and about a 1/4 tsp of PbO. If you can make pancakes, you have the skill to make this medium. At this point, you might want to tell your family that you are NOT making food, just so they don't run over and ingest any of this stuff. Now, mix the oil and the PbO together. It will look exactly like orange juice (hence the warning). Now, using a Corning ware or some other such porcelain container and slowly heat the mixture.
If it gets too hot, just remove it, whatever you do, do not let it boil.

As it heats up the transformation will start taking place, turning the mixture from orange to the color of black coffee. Stir occasionally with a wooden spoon or porcelain - NOT A METAL ONE. This is crucial. After the coffee color is reached, let it cook for one hour to make sure the change is complete.
The PbO does not go into the air, there are no poisonous fumes, so don't worry about that. At this point I like to let the temperature down a bit, before I slowly add the mastic, stirring it in. Now it looks like cappuccino for a while.

There is a variation that skips the mastic and goes for 10g of beeswax, but I have never bothered to try it as I want the brilliance the mastic gives - besides you can always make a paste of wax and resin and add it later (I recommend adding some carnauba wax, it is harder than ordinary beeswax). Okay. Now that everything is cooked, you have Black Oil.
I shot these photos as I was making the maroger media. I forgot to shoot it in the "orange juice" stage. This is the cooked black oil media and the porcelain spoon. And the empty tubes in a jar on top of the Chios crystals.

Just forget about this for now, you are not there yet, I don't know why anyone would want to paint with this as it is. Now fill your Jelly jar SLIGHTLY LESS THAN HALF FULL with the turpentine. This is very crucial - if it is exactly half, the transformation will not take place. Then fill the empty tubes that are standing up in a jar with your mixture, seal it tightly, and put it in the refrigerator overnight.
Tell yourself what an alchemical magician you are (I'm only half kidding) as it will transform into the Jelly. And here you are. 

When using this, just a little maybe about a third added to your tube paint should do the trick - if it is slick, you are adding too much. Not only will your paint look incredible, you will be able to blend like you've never done before, add beautiful thin layers, put in detail that will stay, not drip or run, and any layer you make will dry within 24 hours!
I also recommend using Titanium and Zinc as the white paint.

empty tubes and
crystals coffie color

Litharge Yellow and Red, PbO, (Parks 1961)

Maroger uses the term litharge for oxide of lead.

The painters lead yellow pigment is also called litharge. That would be white lead roasted to yellow. In this form it is of the orthorhombic crystal system. Yellow PbO is an orthorhombic crystal. The natural mineral litharge is red lead PbO, a tetragonal system crystal. Produced red lead is tetroxide Pb3 O4 the same as the natural mineral minium, only better.

Red lead is the heated litharge transformation ingredient made from the heating process of white lead. The yellow and red lead are lower in tinting strength the white lead without litharge. Sponifacation turns the white lead transparent in oil and even more so the yellow-orange called red. Black oil adds no color of it's own to pigments but all oil yellows.

Adding heat to lead white forms yellow litharge pigment early on the heat process. Lead Litharge has a early temperature of yellow. Maroger's medium uses the the lead color orange, called red lead. There is a lead heat transformation heating red lead rapidly at a high temperature. This decomposes the red lead and turns it into litharge. Cooking this litharge and oil mix makes it a transparent brown gel called black oil.

Lead heated in a fire will cause white lead oxide to form. Acid gas does a better job making more white oxides. Roast the white to make the colors from yellow to orange, red and brown. Lead white carbonate heats to yellow, orange, red (lead tetroxide, Pbsub3 Osub4, called minium and/or orange lead. It has low tinting strength and good body). Orange lead, called red lead, is higher in litharge oxide which is more transparent.

Artists Pigments, Feller, pg 118. When heated strongly red lead decomposes to form litharge. When heated gently it turns to reddish brown then purple. That would be cuput mortum.

My color wheel uses the same line of darkening as this lead oxide crystal. The colors yellow to orange and red use the same brown as their color's hue darker hue, Burnt Umber.

Jacques Maroger (1884-1962). (pronounced Mar-o-zhay).

In 1907 Maroger began studies with Louls Anquetin (1861-1942). Called the French 'Michelangelo' by his Impressionist compatriots, Anquetin sought the painting power of the old masters through a remarkable mastery of drawing, but his skills were stymied by the then current oil painting materials.

BLACK OIL is a gell made of purified raw linseed oil cooked with lead. It may be used as a medium, a diluent in the palette cup, to grind colors from dry pigments, and it is the basis of other mediums. It will yellow about the same as using a 2% siccative.

MASTIC VARNISH is made of pure gum spirits of turpentine and mastic (dammar) resin tears. It can be added to Black Oil for an instant Flemish type medium. Diluted slightly with turpentine, it may be used as a final picture varnish, after the oil painting has completely dried. It will not yellow as much as the heated oil.

ITALIAN FORMULA MEDIUM combines black oil with beeswax for a transparent paste which dries to a soft semigloss luster and gives an opulent, rich body to impastos.

FLEMISH FORMULA MEDIUM combines black oil with mastic tears, pure gum spirits of turpentine, and beeswax for a transparent gel medium. Colors have more intensely and a rich gloss finish.

All of the formulas have similarly agreeable handling qualities and may be Intermixed wet, but alternate layering is not recommended.


1. The GROUND, or surface to be painted, whether the traditional white lead in linseed oil, acrylic gesso, or some other, should be permanent, stainable but not absorbent, and have sufficient "tooth", i.e. not slippery. A glaze of Maroger Medium and color over a white ground makes a toned surface that is very compatible for painting when dry or wet.

2. OIL COLORS are ideally made of dry pigments freshly ground in Black Oil If TUBE OIL COLORS are used, it is recommended that one part medium be added to each four parts of color. The exception is LEAD (FLAKE) WHITE which may be ground in raw linseed oil.

3. GLAZES are mostly medium tinted with a small amount of transparent color. Some medium should be available on the palette, or in the cup, to add to colors for the feel and relative transparency the artist desires.

4. A meager COAT OF MEDIUM, not too slippery, should be wiped on the area to be painted, unless a dry scumble is desired.

End of Maroger Mediums.


Dammar Mastic dries differently than oil, the film dries as a whole, without a skin, and can be redissolved with a solvent. Because of this fact, layers can be applied over any stage of drying paint. Oil only, may chip off an under layer if it's not completely dry, as oil is not a good binder by itself but stand oil is.

Venetian Balsam Turpentine, can be redissolved, it imparts a high glaze and is a non-yellowing good binder. It flows like sun-thickened linseed oil and stand oil. By itself it has a sticky, heavy tacky drag that lifts the undercoat as you paint, turpentine will make it slick and smooth. Venetian and Stand Oil together melt the paint too much, they need Linseed Oil to make a medium worth painting with.

Stand Oil is greasy and self-flowing and lifts the under-strokes. Stand Oil by itself is the slowest drying oil of all, with turpentine to keep it fluid it paints well. Stand oil does not react well with any drier by itself, it does not yellow. Stand oil and Venetian Turpentine, 1:1:1 with turpentine makes the best of both world's combining tacky with slick, it still has an edge bleeding problem though. Venetian Turpentine or Dammar will inhibit Stand Oil's tendency to wrinkle, and oil mixed in will correct the edge bleeding caused by the balsam.

Both Linseed oil and Stand Oil wrinkle by themselves, add dammar or balsam.

Cold Pressed Linseed Oil is an all round good medium used by itself. It has no flow-out and turpentine isn't needed to thin it out. Adding Venetian turpentine and drier make it a great blending glaze. Oil by itself is not a good binder, under coats must be dry.

Poppy Oil paints like soft wax, very nice, it yellows the least of the oils and is very slow drying so it can be painted into for days, great for portraits. Most pigments are ground in poppy oil with a small addition of wax to retard drying in the tube.

Alkyd Oil Paint is made of long oil, it's fast drying and has no solvent action on dried paint, so successive layers can chip off the shrinking drying under paint. Unless the under coat is completely dry.


Acrylic's final finish should be a Polyurethane Acrylic, high or satin gloss, of 30% Acrylic emulsion and 70% Polyurethane emulsion. Get it an any commercial paint store, after sixteen years of my testing, it's still perfectly clear.
NEW.. May 24 1999. Here is an art supplier I have found that has this outstanding product, for 20 years now I have had to buy this finish from furniture finishing paint suppliers. This is what he wrote me yesterday,"Regarding the ClearFlex; the resin system we use in this product has such a high resistance to water that it was tested by a roofing tile manufacture in Mexico; they now buy a thousand gallons a month (without the UV inhibitors)."
For a long time now, paintings (oil) have needed a protective coating, this layer has always turned brown or powdered and had to be removed at some point. Now, with this acrylic-polyurethane emulsion we do not have to ever change or remove it. Thanks Gary!
Triangle Coating, 1930 Fairway Dr., San Leandro, California 94577-5631

Here's your Email connection to Triangle Coating.

Here is a complete palette, most of them are Liquitex because I liked the soft plastic tube, Winsor and Newton's colors are stronger more pigmented colors.

01, Cadmium Yellow Lemon Light
02. Cadmium Yellow Medium
03. Cadmium Red Light
04. Cadmium Red Medium
05. Naphthol Crimson,
06. Acra Violet, warm Magenta
07. Yellow Oxide
08. Red Oxide
09. Burnt Sienna, Winsor Newton
10. Burnt Umber
11. Dioxazine Purple
12. Ultramarine Blue, Winsor Newton
13. Thalo Blue
14. Turquoise Deep
15. Thalo Green
16. Brilliant Yellow Green
17. Light Emerald Green
18. Permanent Green Light
19. Vivid Lime Green

There are 42 Liquitex colors in all, these 19 are essential.
Liquitex has a new great medium for acrylics, 2003. It's called, Blending and Painting Medium.
It extends drying time a little and makes blending edges a lot easier.

An acrylic photo pigment chip chart of opposite colors to make neutral dark.
The same pigments are uses in W/C, acrylics, oils, cara colla and fresco


NEW ... 3 new Liquitex permenant transparent colors. Yellow to brown, orange to brown and red to brown.
Acra Gold, Acra Burnt Orange and Van Dyke Red Hue. Acra Gold will not make a red like Indian Yellow Orange Side Original would but it can be used as the Indian Yellow Brown Side.
The other two expand the translucent Burnt Sienna's range.


I hope water colors will be your first medium to work in like it was for me. At least get the primary colors making the whole range of colors, including the darkest dark's. For this you need the right pigmented colors. Here is my palette after painting "what was in front of me", for twenty years without black pigment.

The palette is two rows of fourteen wells, Yellow to Warm Magenta on the top, Cool Magenta to Yellow-Green on the bottom. Some wells have two colors in them to aid in the mixing. I like to keep the colors clean, cleanliness is number one. Starting in the top left #1 well. I squeezed in enough Talens Ultramarine Deep to fill the top half, under it in the same well I added Liquitex Burnt Sienna, this will make a Burnt Umber color. Brand names are important, they're rarely the same color.

#O1-WELL, Talens Ultramarine Blue Deep and Liquitex Burnt Sienna, these make a warm or cool Burnt Umber.

#02, Talens Ultramarine Blue Deep and Bocour Venetian Red, a very opaque neutral dark, warm or cool.

#03, Grumbacher Thalo Purple on top and Grumbacher Thalo Green below, a cool neutral for the background distances.

#4, Grumbacher Thalo Crimson for the Warm Magenta on top and Grumbacher Thalo Green below. This is the warm, or cool neutral opposition dark for strong foreground dark's.

#05, MMMM, Grumbacher Thalo Crimson, warm Magenta.

#06, MMYY, Grumbacher Finest Red.

#07, Liquitex Burnt Sienna.

#08, Grumbacher Vermilion Light.

#09, YYYM, Grumbacher Cadmium Orange.

#10, Grumbacher Cadmium Yellow Deep,

#11, Winsor and Newton Cadmium Yellow.

#12, Grumbacher Cadmium Yellow Middle.

#13, YYYY, Winsor and Newton Yellow, warm,

#14, Liquitex Lemon Yellow, cool.

The second row also goes from dark to light, since the paper's white, paint from light to dark. Out line your whites in pencil before you start. Don't paint over the pencil lines or they will become black pigment and permanent. Paint up to the line, let it dry, erase the line, don't damage the paper, then paint in the adjacent color.

#15, MMMM, Liquitex Acra Violet, the Cool Magenta to mix with blues.

#16, MMMC, Grumbacher Finest Thalo Purple.

#17, CCCC, Grumbacher Thalo Blue.

#18, Talens Ultramarine Light on top, and Liquitex Ultramarine Blue on the bottom.

#19, MMCC, Winsor and Newton French Ultramarine Blue,

#20, Grumbacher Cobalt Blue on top, Liquitex Cobalt Blue on the bottom.

#21, CCCY, Talens Turquoise Blue.

#22, CCYY, Grumbacher Finest Thalo Green.

#23, Grumbacher Finest Emerald Green.

#24, Liquitex Permanent Green Light on top, and Bocour Emerald Green on the bottom, opaque warm and cool.

#25, Bocour Olive Green.

#26, YYMM, Grumbacher Cadmium Orange.

#27, Bocour Cadmium Yellow Medium.

#28, Grumbacher Academy Yellow-Green.

Water Colors are really not that transparent, there are no 100% transparent Yellows, reds, browns, ultramarine blues or cobalt blues.


Here are the marking points on a normal twenty year old.

The skull is the basic division of the human body. It is eight heads high. The parting between the legs as one quarter head below the middle of the body.



Divide the head into six parts from top to bottom. This will give you the:

0. The top of the skull,

1. The hairline,

2. The center of the forehead,

2.5 The brow,

3. The pupils,

4. The center of the nose bulb circle,

5. The bottom of the top teeth,

6. The bottom of the chin


The head sideways is one head high and one head wide. The top of the ear is on line with the eye brows.

The ear hole is in line with bottom of the nose, and just above the backbone and skull pivot point.

The bottom of the ear varies with the individual and age.


The face triangle is from the center of each pupil, through the nostrils of the nose to the point between the front teeth. To me this is an important trait, every bodies triangle is a little different.
The smiling mouth lines up under the pupils, the two iris usually equal the maximum smiling width of the mouth.

The charcoal drawing is on a white background.
It was then painted with only two neutral dark making colors, Red Oxide and Ultramarine Blue.
A Burnt Sienna glaze is then used for warmth where it is wanted.

New Window Link. Click to see the painting in progression.

Five eye widths span the center of the skull, everybody is a little different. The space between the pupils is an average of two and a half inches. The width of one eye is usually equal to the space between the eyes.


The neck is 1/4 of a head high.

The shoulders are two head lengths (not widths)wide.

The chin to shoulder line is 1/4 of one heads length.

The chin to nipples line equals one head length.

The nipples to the belly button equals one head length.

From the belly button to the space between the legs is one and 1/4 head.

The width of the waste at the belly button is one head length wide (not head width wide).

From the hip [trunk] top triangle line to the space between the legs, is one head high and two head widths wide. Not more.

The center of the body is the bend line, it is 1/4 head above the space between the legs and two head widths wide. Not more. Here, I lower the 3 torso heads 1/4 of a head to the point between the legs and keep the bend line where it was.

The torso triangle is from the ends of the shoulder line to the center and the top line of the bend line triangle. That bend line triangle is the quarter head high triangle within the trunk triangle.

The rib cage can be represented by an oval two heads high, starting at the shoulder line.

The upper arm, from the shoulder triangles outside edge, is one and 1/2 heads long.

The lower arm is one and 1/4 heads long.

The hand is 3/4 of a head long, equal to the average face.

The chest side view is one head width wide at the nipples.

The upper arm is one and 1/2 head lengths, connecting through the shoulder ball, a quarter head circle reaching the end of the shoulder line.

Just below the leg space, the legs and the body are the widest.

Two egg shaped heads, side by side, upside down, will fit in the trunk area.

From the outside point of the bend line triangle down to the center of the nee cap is two head lengths. The bend line is always the center of the body.

The nee cap is a 1/4 head length circle.

The calf muscle is higher on the outside.

From the center of the nee cap to the ground is two head lengths.

The ankle is 1/4 head high off the ground.

The foot is one head length long.

The ankle bone is higher on the inside.


1. Start with the center balance line from top to bottom.

2. Divide it in half, this is the top of the bend line triangle.

3. Add the head, legs, shoulder line and arm lines.

4. Finish the torso triangle and the bend line triangle.

5. Now add the hands and feet.

That's it, these simple steps include the lines that can catch any action, fast!

Now, to finish the form, put the trunk triangle in, the shoulder balls, nee caps and rib cage.

From the pointed bottom of the bend line triangle, the space between the legs, connect a line to the bottom of the nee cap for the outside of the leg.

Add the calf lines and the stick figure is finished. It's accurate, balanced, and ready to add the muscles.


Two years, 2011 to 2013, 3 hours a week in life painting. Good fun!




I start at the top left and work my way to my signature three times. When I have the first 100% coverage I concider myself 1/2 way done. In this first 100% coverage the lighting of that one hour of the day is captured, more then anytyhing else, capture the light. Note the time the light is perfect.

See what is in front of you as  brush-strokes, what brush will fill in the patterns the fastest, are there sharp corners?, long lines?, big blends?, heavy textures or many changes of color to contend with? Maybe there's a repeated pattern like water diamonds, eucalyptus leaves or grass. Maybe your going to change colors with a glaze. Each of the recommended brushes has a special pattern or job it's best suited for.

The strokes of a "fan brush" here.

Here's some ways to paint a sky.

ACRYLICS. Pre-paint the sky with the cloud color in acrylics and let it dry. Since it's Ultramarine Blue overhead and Cyan at the horizon line and Ultramarine is granular in W/C's and hard to blend in oil and acrylics. I use a Thalo Blue Cyan and Dioxine Purple to blend the whole blue sky then wipe out the clouds with a paper towel square and add the clouds darker colors by mixing a neutral combination like Burnt Umber and Ultramarine Blue.

OIL. Wipe out the clouds from the sky's colors and add the right cloud colors. A very thin pre-oiling of the surface will make paint flow smoother and wipe out cleaner.

Oil painting on paper.

Here is a five year test, 1955 to 2000, no extra linseed oil was added to the tube color. This bleeding stain show the extent oil will impregnate good rag paper. Front and back view. This causes the paper to oxidize with the oil and it become brittle. The paper must be glued to a rigid support. A water based gesso should also be applied first in my opinion. To be sure, no white spaces should be left on any unprimed paper.. or it will turn from white to yellow.

Front view of oil stain.Oil stain, back
of paper.

WATER COLOR. Draw with a pencil harder than a normal 2B, outline the whites and high lights. Wash the #300 paper with a 5" elephant ear sponge, while there's still a slight sheen add colors, paint until the paper is dry. There is no need to tape down #300 paper, hold the corners down with close pins. When it's completely dry, re-spray it with water and start again, the dried colors won't move and can be painted over. Paint all the way to the edges, load the brush accurately, two strokes from one load plus enough left in the puddle for one more stroke. A dry brush will pick up or exchange wet colors. Don't paint with the wrong color, don't leave accidental white spots, outline white areas before hand, soften at least one edge of each stroke, start at the top left and pull, don't push the brush. 


Waterford 300#, Rough and Hot Pressed. A truly great paper.

Twinrocker 300#, Rough, large deckle, light tub size, pre-wash needed, moderate rough texture. Cold Pressed.

Strathmore Gemini 300#, Rough and Cold Pressed.

Strathmore Excalibur 80#, 25% cotton, 75% fiberglass. You must erase pencil lines before painting, hard to brush erase. Fun to paint on.

Fabriano Esport, Rough and Cold Pressed.

Fabriano Classico, 140# only, excellent, hard.

Arches, 300# and 400#, Pre wash, won't stain on first wash, great texture, erases anything.

Acrylics are easier than oils or water colors. One reason is because two coats of white can fix anything and the high lighting can be adjusted. Highlights are not added last or worked up to slowly, they're more part of the whole picture.


A new piece of equipment I made is used to plot two vanishing points of any building 90 degrees apart, it can be ten foot long for larger paintings. A bar attaches to the back of the painting, level with and behind the picture's horizon line. It has two straight edge bars on pivots that clip onto the bar and lock down on the perceived vanishing points of the top of the building. Sometimes times both vanishing points are off the page in a 60 degree wide picture. This tool will adjust for the earth's curvature.

Match up the buildings most extreme top angles with the straight edge arms and hinge clip them onto the horizon bar, matching and lining up the angles of the straight edge bar to the buildings image. I look at the building and point to the extended vanishing points on the horizon line to the left and right in my pictures view and clip the arms on. That position works now for any building in my picture with those compass aligned angles, as in a row of buildings down a street. Swinging the arms will give you the correct angles of the windows, doors, bricks, etc.

Acrylics, are thinner in basic use ability, the perfect consistency of paint for stroking is thinner with acrylics than in oils. Acrylics, as egg tempera, wax-water emulsion, and casein have no dragging properties, smoother then smooth you might say.


Gauze, stretched on a frame and drawn on, shows fore shortening and accurate layouts.

Retical, a string grid on a movable frame held in one spot to relate size proportions. Van Gogh painted his retical in a painting with boats in it.

Mirror, to see in reverse, placed to see the model and picture simultaneously.

Black mirror, to check faults in tonality.

The so called Claude Glass, was named to honor the landscape artist, Claude Lorraine. He did not invent it though. Gainsborough also was associated with this device.
It was a compact-looking fold up mirror, that was slightly convex. Either hand tinted or with a black backing. The overall effect for the artist's purpose was to allow the subtlety of the middle greys to emerge, while suppressing the overwhelming highlights. The darks were still preserved with detail. The convexity of the glass compacted the overall scene and aided in the area of perspective. The Science of Art, Martin Kemp, Yale University Press.

Reducing glass, sees the whole picture without standing back.

Colored glass, cyan will show the strength of warm colors, yellow will expose contrasts.

Plummet, a weighted string to check against vertical.

Pantograph, enlarges images mechanically.

Measuring stick, size relationships measured from an arm's length.

Real color wheel, to show opposition's when mixing neutral dark's or shadows in pigment, instead of using black pigment.

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