Crystal Elements of Color
REAL CRYSTAL COLOR WHEEL


FROM ROCKS TO ELEMENTS OF COLOR CRYSTALS
STANDARD COLORS IN CRYSTAL MINERAL COMPOUNDS

YELLOW,  #13, #16, #50, #57, #67
YELLOW TO BROWN,  #13,#19
YELLOW, BROWN, NEUTRAL DARK, BLUE,  #63
ORANGE,  #07, #52
RED,  #4, #6, #16,#35, #50,#71
CRIMSON,  #4, #12
MAGENTA,  #16, #28
PURPLE,  #16, #17
ULTRA BLUE,  #16, #25, #57, #61
AZURE,  #27
CYAN,   #25, #28 Iceland Spar, #50, #51, #66
TURQUOISE,   #38, #62
GREEN,  #26, #50
YELLOW-GREEN,  #03,#17


CRYSTAL COLOR CHART

MINERAL ELEMENTS IN THE CRYSTAL REAL COLOR WHEEL
INTERNAL ELEMENT COLORING = IDIOCHROMATIC (+)
EXTERNAL ELEMENT COLORING, ALLOCHROMATIC (-)

Click a number to read about that crystal on a Real Color Wheel.
ALUMINUM = Al, ANTIMONY = Sb, ARSENIC = As, BERYLLIUM = Be, BARIUM = Ba, CARBON = C, CHROMIUM = Cr, COBALT = Co, COPPER = Cu, CALCIUM = Ca, FLUORINE = F, IRON = Fe, LEAD = Pb, LITHIUM = Li, SODIUM = Na, MAGNESIUM =Mg, MANGANESE = Mn, MOLYBDENUM = Mo, MERCURY = Hg, NICKEL = Ni, STRONTIUM = Sr, SILVER = Ag, TIN = Sn, TITANIUM = Ti, TUNGSTEN = W, URANIUM = U, VANADIUM = V, ZIRCONIUM = Zr, ZINC = Zn
ELE YEL ORG RED CRM MAG PRP ULT AZU CYN TRQ GRE Y-G
Na -23
Ni -17
Pb +69 +25
Pb +70 +71
S +72 +74 +73 +74 +72
Sb +11
Sn +21 +21 +21
Sr +73 +73
Ti +42 +19 +19 +19
Ti +20 +20 +20 +20 +20
U +65
V +71
W +77 +77
Zr +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43
Zn +03 +03 +03
Zn +15 +15 +15 +15 +15
Zn +67 +32 +32 +32
Zn +33
ELE YEL ORG RED CRM MAG PRP ULT AZU CYN TRQ GRE Y-G

ALUMINUM = Al, ANTIMONY = Sb, ARSENIC = As, BERYLLIUM = Be, BARIUM = Ba, CARBON = C, CHROMIUM = Cr, COBALT = Co, COPPER = Cu, CALCIUM = Ca, FLUORINE = F, IRON = Fe, LEAD = Pb, LITHIUM = Li, SODIUM = Na, MAGNESIUM =Mg, MANGANESE = Mn, MOLYBDENUM = Mo, MERCURY = Hg, NICKEL = Ni, STRONTIUM = Sr, SILVER = Ag, TIN = Sn, TITANIUM = Ti, TUNGSTEN = W, URANIUM = U, VANADIUM = V, ZIRCONIUM = Zr, ZINC = Zn

ELE YEL ORG RED CRM MAG PRP ULT AZU CYN TRQ GRE Y-G
Cr -16 +52
Cr -55 -41
Cr +75 -47
Cr -50
Cr +57
Cu +12
Cu +25 +25
Cu +26
Cu +27
Cu -60 -60
Cu +33
Cu +37
Cu +38
Cu +62
F +24 +24 +24 +24 +24 +24 +24 +24 +24 +24 +24
F +68 +68 +68 +68 +68 +68 +68 +68 +68
Fe +03 +03 +03
Fe -16 -16 -16 -16 -16 -16 -16 -16 -16 -16
Fe +36
ELE YEL ORG RED CRM MAG PRP ULT AZU CYN TRQ GRE Y-G

ALUMINUM = Al, ANTIMONY = Sb, ARSENIC = As, BERYLLIUM = Be, BARIUM = Ba, CARBON = C, CHROMIUM = Cr, COBALT = Co, COPPER = Cu, CALCIUM = Ca, FLUORINE = F, IRON = Fe, LEAD = Pb, LITHIUM = Li, SODIUM = Na, MAGNESIUM =Mg, MANGANESE = Mn, MOLYBDENUM = Mo, MERCURY = Hg, NICKEL = Ni, STRONTIUM = Sr, SILVER = Ag, TIN = Sn, TITANIUM = Ti, TUNGSTEN = W, URANIUM = U, VANADIUM = V, ZIRCONIUM = Zr, ZINC = Zn

ELE YEL ORG RED CRM MAG PRP ULT AZU CYN TRQ GRE Y-G
Fe -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50
Fe +45
Fe -17 -17 +78 -17
Fe -28 +55
Fe -47
Fe +56
Fe +66 +66 +66
Hg +04 +04
Li +47 +47 +47 +47 +47 +47 +47 +47
Li +60 +60
Mg +41 +41 +41 +41
Mn +14 -17 -17
Mn +35
Mn +44 +45 +41
Mn -51
Mn +54
Mn +78
Mn -60 -60
Mo +76 +76 +76
ELE YEL ORG RED CRM MAG PRP ULT AZU CYN TRQ GRE Y-G

ALUMINUM = Al, ANTIMONY = Sb, ARSENIC = As, BERYLLIUM = Be, BARIUM = Ba, CARBON = C, CHROMIUM = Cr, COBALT = Co, COPPER = Cu, CALCIUM = Ca, FLUORINE = F, IRON = Fe, LEAD = Pb, LITHIUM = Li, SODIUM = Na, MAGNESIUM =Mg, MANGANESE = Mn, MOLYBDENUM = Mo, MERCURY = Hg, NICKEL = Ni, STRONTIUM = Sr, SILVER = Ag, TIN = Sn, TITANIUM = Ti, TUNGSTEN = W, URANIUM = U, VANADIUM = V, ZIRCONIUM = Zr, ZINC = Zn

ELE YEL ORG RED CRM MAG PRP ULT AZU CYN TRQ GRE Y-G
Na -23
Ni -17
Pb +69 +25
Pb +70 +71
S +72 +74 +73 +74 +72
Sb +11
Sn +21 +21 +21
Sr +73 +73
Ti +42 +19 +19 +19
Ti +20 +20 +20 +20 +20
U +65
V +71
W +77 +77
Zr +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43
Zn +03 +03 +03
Zn +15 +15 +15 +15 +15
Zn +67 +32 +32 +32
Zn +33
ELE YEL ORG RED CRM MAG PRP ULT AZU CYN TRQ GRE Y-G

ALUMINUM = Al, ANTIMONY = Sb, ARSENIC = As, BERYLLIUM = Be, BARIUM = Ba, CARBON = C, CHROMIUM = Cr, COBALT = Co, COPPER = Cu, CALCIUM = Ca, FLUORINE = F, IRON = Fe, LEAD = Pb, LITHIUM = Li, SODIUM = Na, MAGNESIUM = Mg, MANGANESE = Mn, MOLYBDENUM = Mo, MERCURY = Hg, NICKEL = Ni, STRONTIUM = Sr, SILVER = Ag, TIN = Sn, TITANIUM = Ti, TUNGSTEN = W, URANIUM = U, VANADIUM = V, ZIRCONIUM = Zr, ZINC = Zn


CENTERING COLOR ELEMENTS

YELLOW TO BROWN ELEMENTS

Al= ALUMINUM, +63
Be= BERYLLIUM, +13
Fe= IRON, -17
Fe= IRON, +03
W= TUNGSTEN, +77
Ti= TITANIUM, +42
Ti= TITANIUM, +21
Ti= TITANIUM, +19
*Ti= Titanium can cross over the neutral black center of the crystal to become the opposite color in the same crystal, yellow, brown, black, blue.


YELLOW-GREEN TO BROWN ELEMENTS

Ba= BARIUM, +31
Fe= IRON, +35
Ti= TITANIUM,+41
Ti= TITANIUM, +42

RED-CRIMSON TO NEUTRAL DARK ELEMENTS

Fe= IRON, +22
Mg= MAGNESIUM, +15
Mn= MANGANESE, +77
Zn= ZINC, +15


ELEMENTS, QUANTITY ON EARTH-CHART

METALLIC ELEMENTS LIST
Silicon 27.72
Aluminum 8.13
Iron 5.
Calcium 3.63
Sodium 2.9
Potassium 2.59
Magnesium 2.09
Titanium .44
Manganese .1
Chromium .02
Zirconium .02
Nickel .008
Zinc .007
Copper .005
Cobalt .002
Lead .002
Arsenic .0005
Molybdenum .0001
Tin .0003
Mercury .00005
Antimony .00002
Silver .00001
Platinum .0000005
Gold .0000005

NON-METALLIC ELEMENTS
Oxygen 46.00
Hydrogen .14
Phosphorus .12
Fluorine .07
Sulfur .05
Selenium .05
Strontium .05
Barium .04
Carbon .03
Chlorine .02


ROCK AND MINERALS MAKING COLOR 


--- MOHS SCALE OF HARDNESS 34
--- BASALT 34
--- SYENITE  34
--- QUARTZ  34
--- GRANITE  34
--- FELDSPAR 35
--- KAOLINITE 35

SEA MINERALS AND ROCK  35
--- SANDSTONE  35
--- QUARTZITE  35
--- LIMESTONE  36
--- MARBLE  36
--- GYPSUM  36
--- HORNFELS  36
--- DIATOMITE  36
--- FLUORITE  37
--- BARITE  37
--- CELESTITE  37
--- HALITE  37

LAKE MINERALS  37
--- BORAX  37
--- TRONA 37
--- SODALITE  37
--- SULFUR 38
--- CEMENT  39

ORES OF COLOR  40
--- ANTIMONY  40
--- ARSENIC  40
--- COPPER  40
--- IRON  41
--- LEAD  42
--- MERCURY  43
--- TIN  43
--- ZINC  43

COLOR ORES  44
--- B/C MINING  44
--- COLOR, CHEMICAL, CHEMISTRY GLOSSARY 46

 ORE'S COLOR REACTIONS TO EACH OTHER IN PIGMENT 52

---- ANTIMONY  52
---- ARSENIC  52
---- COBALT  52
---- COPPER  53
---- IRON  54
---- LEAD  54
---- MANGANESE  55
---- MERCURY  55
---- SULFUR 56
---- TI 56
---- ZINC  56

COLOR IN CRYSTAL

CRYSTAL TERMS  58
STANDARD COLOR IN ORE AND MINERAL GLOSSARY, TERMS  59
CRYSTAL ORES AND MINERALS, CHEMISTRY DEFINITIONS, TERMS, GLOSSARY  60
REAL COLOR WHEEL IN ELEMENTS AND CRYSTAL  64
CRYSTALS, LIGHT AND COLOR TERMS  66
CRYSTAL CHROMATE ELEMENTS, COLOR PRODUCING 68

--- ELEMENT, SYM., NO., S/G, DESCRIPTION  69

MINERALS AND ELEMENTS IN COLOR CRYSTAL COMPOUNDS

---- 00, DIAMOND 73
---- 01, LIDDICOATITE  73

SULPHIDES, ARSENIDES, ANTIMONIDES  73

---- 02, CHALCOPYRITE  73
---- 03, SPHALERITE  73
---- 04, CINNABAR  73
---- 05, GALENA  74
---- 06, REALGAR  74
---- 07, ORPIMENT  74
---- 08, STIBNITE  74
---- 09, PYRITE  74
---- 10, PROUSTITE  74
---- 11, PYRARGYRITE  74

OXIDES, HYDROXIDES  75

---- 12, CUPRITE  75
---- 13, CHRYSOBERLE  75
---- 14, SPINEL  75
---- 15, ZINCITE  75
---- 15, ZINC SILIATE  75
---- 16, CORUNDUM  76
---- 17, QUARTZ  76
---- 18, OPAL  76
---- 19, RUTILE  77
---- 20, ANATASE 77
---- 21, CASSITERITE  77
---- 22, HEMATITE 77

HALIDES  78

---- 23, HALITE  77
---- 24, FLUORITE  78
---- 25, CUMENGEITE  78

CARBONATES  78

---- 26, MALACHITE  78
---- 27, AZURITE  78
---- 28, CALCITE  78
---- 29, ARAGONITE  79
---- 30, DOLOMITE  79
---- 31, WITHERITE  79
---- 32, SMITHSONITE  79
---- 33, AURICHALCITE  79
---- 34, CERUSSITE  79
---- 35, RHODOCHROSITE  79
---- 36, SIDERITE  79

SILICATES  80

---- 37, DIOPTASE  80
---- 38, CHRYSOCOLLA  80
---- 39, PHENAKITE  80
---- 40, WOLLASTONITE  80
---- 41, DIOPSIDE  80
---- 42, SPHENE  80
---- 43, ZIRCON  81
---- 44, SERANDITE 81
---- 45, OLIVINE  81
---- 46, KYANITE 81
---- 47, SPODUMENE 82
---- 48, LEUCITE  82
---- 49, ORTHOCLASE 82
---- 50, BERYL  82
---- 51, EUCLASE 83
---- 52, GROSSULAR  83
---- 53, LABRACORITE  83
---- 54, SPESSARTINE  83
---- 55, ALMANDINE  84
---- 56, EPIDOTE  84
---- 57, VESUVIANITE  84
---- 58, APOPHYLLITE 84
---- 59, TOPAZ  85
---- 60, ELBAITE  85
---- 61, LAPIS LAZULI  85

PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES 86


---- 62, TURQUOISE 86
---- 63, WAVELLITE  86
---- 64, BRAZILIANITE  86
---- 65, AUTUNITE 86
---- 66, VIVIANITE  86
---- 67, LEGRANDITE  87
---- 68, FLUORAPATITE  87
---- 69, PYROMORPHITE  87
---- 70, MIMETITE  87
---- 71, VANADINITE  87

SULFATES  88

---- 72, GYPSUM  88
---- 73, CELESTINE  88
---- 74, BARITE  88

CHROMATES  88

---- 75, CROCOITE  88


MOLYBDATES  88

---- 76, WULFENITE  88

TUNGSTATES  88

---- 77, SCHEELITE, 88
---- 78 WOLFRAMITE  89


REAL CRYSTAL COLOR WHEEL
TWELVE STANDARD COLORS IN MINERAL COMPOUNDS
MINERAL ELEMENTS IN CRYSTAL, COLOR CHART
 CENTERING COLOR ELEMENTS  94

STANDARD COLORS IN CRYSTAL MINERAL COMPOUNDS

CRYSTAL TERMS

ALLOCHROMATIC, is an element coloring term meaning an outside element is included in the compound.
ANISOTROPIC, Crystals in which light travels at different velocities in different directions.
AMORPHOUS, without crystalline structure, like the opal or glass.
CLEAVAGE, a breaking point along a face, variable.
CUBIC SYSTEM, four pyramids or tetrahedrites block together and make a cube, this system has the highest symmetry, the triclinic has the lowest. The other systems are Tetragonal, Orthohombic, Trigonal, Hexagonal, and Monoclinic.
HABIT, is the shape of a crystal. There are seven systems, and thirty two classes within the systems.
PARTING, similar to cleavage but along the twinning axis.
PSEUDOMORPHS, A crystal inside a rock may change its chemical composition and still keep its original shape, common to quartz.
FRACTURE, broken.

STANDARD COLOR IN ORE AND MINERAL GLOSSARY, TERMS

AGGREGATE, A mineral without an obvious crystal shape, crystals forming masses as gold and silver (dendritic), tree or plant like, or the kidney-shaped hematite [reniform].
COMPOUNDS, Two or more elements form compounds. Oxide compounds are combined with oxygen and a metal element, hydroxides, carbonates, silicates, sulfides, sulfates, arsenides, antimonides, Tungstates, and chromates are all compounds.
CARBONATES, carbon compounds.
GANGUE, other minerals found with the mined ore.
GOSSAN, The "iron hat" of gangue minerals with iron and manganese oxides, the soluble minerals sink lower to form azurite, malachite, and cuprite. Sulfur sinks still lower and forms sulfides like chalcocite.
HALIDES, contain halogens, negative elements, fluorine, chlorine, iodine and astatine.
NATIVE, Uncombined with other elements, natural.
OXIDES, a mineral combined with oxygen as the sole anion. These are usually hard because of close packing.
HYDROXIDES, have the complex anion [OH].
PSEUDOMORPHS, A crystal inside a rock may change its chemical composition and still keep its original shape, common to quartz.
SILICATES, Silicon combined with oxygen, [SiO4].
STREAK, The color left behind from an abraded mineral.
SULFIDES or SULPHIDES, Metallic ores formed in the presence of sulfur and the absence of oxygen, [C03]2-.
TENOR, The metal content of an ore.

CRYSTAL ORES AND MINERALS, CHEMISTRY
DEFINITIONS, TERMS, GLOSSARY

ATOM, smallest particle of an element with all its properties.
ATOMS, are measured in Nanometers, [1nm = 10m[-]9th].
ATOM CENTER, the nucleus is occupied by protons and neutrons of similar mass. This is the mass of the atom, the volume is made by the cloud of electrons.
PROTONS, have a positive charge, the number of protons equal the atomic number, hydrogen has one proton.
NEUTRONS, have no charge.
ELECTRONS, have a negative charge orbiting the nucleus, electrons and protons are equal in quantity, so there equal in [+-] charges.
ATOMIC NUMBER, the quantity of protons in the nucleus.
ATOMIC WEIGHT, is comparing the atoms of each element to the hydrogen atom.
ISOTOPES, the neutron quantity changes the atomic weight of atoms with similar atomic numbers, so each element has isotopes and different atomic weights, all based on the weight of one carbon isotope.
SHELLS, electrons orbit on seven tracts or shells, lettered K to Q outward from the nucleus. Each shell has a limit to the number of electrons in it, 2 for K, 32 for Q. Hydrogen has one nuclear proton and one electron in K shell, Lithium, with three protons, has a full K shell and one electron in the L shell.
INERT GASES, will not combine with other elements, they have 8 electrons in Q shell, other elements are considered stable if they can attain a similar outer shell content. Atoms trade electrons with other atoms so their electron cloud can become identical with inert gases, the nearest inert gas,
IONS, This trading leads to atoms becoming electrically charged and known as ions, gain an electron, gain a negative charge. Lose an electron and gain a positive charge, remember, electrons are negative.
ANIONS, are negatively charged ions, they have gained one [-] electron.
CATIONS, are positively charged ions, they have lost one [-] electron.
Two atoms are walking down the street and they run into each other. One says to the other, "Are you all right?" "No, I lost an electron!" "Are you sure?" "Yeah, I'm positive!" :-)
VALENCE, the "hook" to hold another "hook", hydrogen has a valence of one, it can hook up with another atom with one valence. Valence is the chemical binding power +/-.
VALENCY, the process of gaining or losing electrons. [Na] sodium, has one more electron then the nearest inert gas, neon [Ne], it's written Na+ to show it's a cation. Fluorine [F] has one less and is written F, meaning it's anion. Valency is the number of electrons an atom will gain or lose to attain the configuration of the most similar inert gas.

MONO VALENT, ions Na+ and F- are both charged by one electron off being stable and inert.

DIVALENT, magnesium has two more electrons then neon, the closest inert gas. By losing both it becomes a divalent cation, written Mg2+.

ATOMIC STRUCTURE, [C] carbon and [Si] silicon have atomic structures midway between two inert gases. Carbon can either gain four electrons to become C4- and resemble neon or lose four electrons to become C4+ resembling helium.

REPULSION, The electrical charge of protons keeps other protons away by mutual repulsion, they have similar spinning directions. When two atoms link, the interaction is by the outermost electrons. There's three ways to do this.

IONIC BONDING, is two elements forming ions of equal and opposite valency, the spare electron of one atom separate to fill a vacancy in the outer shell of another atom. The pair of ions are held together electrically. Groups of ions can be linked this way, a divalent cation can link with two univalent anions.

COVALENT BONDING, shares electrons, two or more atoms coming close together share, and both or all, have eight in their outer shell. Solids containing ionic or covalent bonds are rigid.

METALLIC BOND, metals pack the ions closely together and leave the outermost electrons free to move independently. This lets them be hammered thin, form wire and conduct electricity.

COMPOUNDS. When the linked atoms are of different elements, the result is a chemical compound.

COMPLEX, more then one compound.

COMPLEX IONS. In many minerals, subgroups of atoms are bonded in a covalent way forming complex either ions or radicals, A common example is the tetrahedral arrangement of four oxygen atoms around a single silicon atom, to give a complex anion, written [SiO4]4-.

ELECTRICALLY BALANCED COMPOUND, the complex anion [SiO4]4-must be bonded to a cation or cations with a total valency of four, to get an electrically balanced compound. Two atoms of the divalent metal Mg would fit and the mineral forsterite has the composition [Mg2]4+[SiO4]4-, or it could be written Mg2[Si04]4-.

MOLECULES. Heating a mineral causes the atoms to vibrate faster,breaking the bonds between them. In this way the independent groups in steam, called molecules, move freely. Share electrons, be a molecule.

AMORPHOUS, Substances that do not have the atomic order of crystals are amorphous, they don't have the directional properties of crystal. Opal, natural glass, and flint are amorphous aggregates.

ION SHAPE. Crystals are made up of ions having the shape of spheres, these fit together leaving a space in the center. Three oranges and a pea. The carbonate ion has this shape, a pyramid with three sides and a bottom. The common complex ion [CO3]2- is carbonate.

TETRAHEDRON. Four oranges and a grape would make a Tetrahedron, the shape of the silicate anion [SiO4]4-.

OCTAHEDRON, is two pyramids joined base to base.

CUBES, have all equal sized ions, four polyhedra pyramids equal a cube, as in coordination polyhedra and close packing.

POLYMORPHS, are the structures possible by a compound, Si02 makes five different structures. Diamond and graphite are polymorphs of carbon, graphite is two dimensional, flat and weak. The diamond is a three dimensional latrahedrally-oriented covalent bond, strong and possibly twinned.

TWINNED, two crystals joined inside, interpenetrating each other.

ISOMORPHOUS minerals with identical crystal structure.

SOLID SOLUTION. Olivine groups of minerals, magnesium [Mg2SiO4] and iron [Fe2SiO4] are forsterite and fayolite, melted together. If the olivine contains 75% forsterite it's written like this, [Mg0.75Fe0.25]2SiO4.


REAL COLOR WHEEL IN ELEMENTS AND CRYSTAL

Any reflected color has the energy of reflected light radiating off the colored element or composition making that color.
Light is a painters element, it has shape when it is confined and its intensity and mass can be measured. Full sunlight weight is equal to the weight of a single grape, spread out over an entire football field, and that is constant weight! This light reflects off the primary and compounded elements we see around us. Permanent pigments are made of these elements, either organic, inorganic or synthetic. Each element, in it's natural and calcined state is capable of making and reflecting only a select portion of the color wheel. Some carry the whole spectrum. They also have painting characteristics unlike any other element, so if you like a color for its characteristics, it cannot be replaced.
Examples are: 1, Lead, no other element dries as fast or is as opaque as Lead. 2, Cobalt Natural, (cobalt aluminate blue spinel is just another opaque pre-made color), and 3, Antimony Naples Yellow, the most opaque pigment, probably the artist's most favored color before Church-Ostwald and big oil.
They matched the dried color chips with new cheaper elements without regard to its native natural characteristics such as opacity. Rubins would have stopped them if they tried that while he was alive. It's a trend that hasn't stopped. But we are getting better transparent colors! Cyan (Thalo Blue) is the best thing that ever happened to an artist.

So, simplifying your choices is the name of the game here, what colors and what characteristics are most needed to complete a full color painting. Use the transparent pigments that are available and be selective in choosing the opaque ones.

There are 36 colors in my Artist's Real Color Wheel. It joins the Light, Crystal and Pigment color wheel together.

Start with yellow at the top and "Read Red Right," the three R's of color. Play the wheel like a typewriter. There are only twelve basic colors you must remember, forward, backward and opposing across the middle. "Across the middle" is what makes the Real Color Wheel different from all the rest still being taught today as of 06-11-01. With this colorwheel, when an artist wants dark yellow it's dark yellow on the warm side like Naples Yellow, not the cool yellow-Green side. That's artist friendly!

On the 12RCW colorwheel (YYYYMMMMCCCC) yellow is represented by "Y" Magenta by "M" and Cyan "C". A pure unadulterated yellow would be Y or YYYY, half yellow and half magenta would be YYYYMMMM or YYMM, the color red. A 12RCW can be shortened to four characters. Orange is YYYM. Scarlet-crimson is YMMM. The opposite of YYYY or YY is MMCC, Ultramarine blue. That's 1 part primary yellow added to 1/2 part magenta and 1/2 part cyan, that's Blue.

HERE ARE THE SYMBOLS OF Primary, Secondary and Tertiary SUBTRACTIVE PIGMENT COLORS

YYYY=Yellow, YYYM=Orange, YYMM=Red, YMMM=Scarlet-Crimson, MMMM=Magenta, MMMC=Purple, MMCC=Ultramarine, MCCC=Azure, CCCC=Cyan, CCCY=Turquoise, CCYY=Green, CYYY=Yellow-green.

Cobalt is pre-made tertiary pigment paint for the color MCCC, Azure, but it is opaque. It's in the range of the ancient mineral color Azurite. Cu3[C03]2[0H]2, a copper idiochromatic color. Azure can easily be mixed with todays analogous colors, copper phthalocyanine blue and a good ultramarine blue (or the primary transparent cobalt violet, magenta). In fact with a cobalt violet, (the cool magenta) or Opera, you don't need Ultramarine Blue, you can make it. One way or the other, Azure is a beautiful color that nature uses often. An original cobalt blue was of the mineral Azurite. Azurite could be found in both transparent and opaque ultramarine blue to phthalocyane blue (cyan) colors but mostly in cobalt colored hues.

Each element can only make its own range and texture of colors. No other element has its similar unique capabilities. By modifying the element we can make its opposite or complementary color, just as the modified Cuprite crystal of copper and the modified sediment of copper do naturally.

By explaining minerals and crystals, and the elements that make and color them, you will understand the Real Color Wheel. This color wheel joins the pigment and the light color wheel together as one, and agrees with the natural phenomenon from your eyes, the "after image."



CRYSTALS LIGHT AND COLOR TERMS

ALEXANDRITE EFFECT, The chrysoberyl alexandrite is red in candle light and green in daylight.

ALLOCHROMATIC, minerals colored by a foreign element are called allochromatic. Ruby is an aluminum oxide colored by chromium, so it's allochromatic foreign and not written in the symbol AL203.

IDIOCHROMATIC, minerals colored by elements which are a regular part of the chemical composition. The peridot crystal is in the olivine category, it's a magnesium, iron, silicate. The green comes from iron, making this an idiochromatic home color (not foreign) crystal.

ANALOGOUS, colors are side by side on the color wheel rim.

INCIDENT ANGLE, lights entering angle.

REFRACTIVE INDEX, when light enters a cube or amorphous structure the incident ray is slowed by the atoms inside. The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum compared to the speed in the structure is called the refractive index. In crystals other than the cube crystal, the light splits in different directions at different speeds.

REFRACTION, The deviation of a ray of light upon entering a transparent medium, is refraction away from the normal. The emerging ray is separated into the colors of the spectrum. Red refracts most, violet and magenta the least.

DOUBLE REFRACTION, an incident ray enters and splits, each ray traveling at a different speed.

DISPERSION, Diamonds, glass and water give dispersion of light with the proper incident and reflecting angles, thus splitting up white light into its spectrum colors. The water droplets in a rainbow are at the proper angle of refraction to give each color seen by you. Each person sees their own rainbow. The axis from the sun through your eye to the center of the rainbows circle is the basis for the angle of an incidence you see as the rainbow's refracted light. Any medium in which the high-frequency light travels more slowly then the lower frequencies are called dispersive.

DIFFRACTION, diffraction is light bending around the edges of a mass.

ISOTROPIC, crystals in which light travels in all directions at the same velocity.

INTERFERENCE COLORS, a thin film of soap or oil will change the direction of the incident ray laterally and cause the prism effect, as the thickness changes the color's change.

LUMINESCENCE or FLUORESCENCE, is stimulated by radiation.

PHOSPHORESCENCE, persisting luminescence after stimulation.

PLEOCHROISM, the change of color when viewed from different directions.


CRYSTAL CHROMATE (COLOR) ELEMENTS
THERE ARE 92 NATURAL ELEMENTS. EIGHT ELEMENTS MAKE UP 99% OF THE EARTH'S CRUST.

On the ELEMENT PERIODIC TABLE, #22 through #30 are the coloring elements that give color to crystal compounds. Elements color in harmonies.
See the colors, http://www.pinterest.com/pin/369928556866757278/

Analogous, is side by side around the rim of the color wheel. Centering, means moving from the high chroma rim to the center's natural dark position. Complementary colors are opposite colors, 180 degrees apart, triadic colors form an equilateral triangle, they're 120 degrees between colors. Split complementary colors are on each side of the opposite, making a "Y".

Aluminum- Easily displaced, makes yellow and sometimes blue.

Arsenic- Yellow, orange red and sometimes greenish.

Cadmium- Green, yellow-green, yellow, orange, red to deep red, a substratum dye. Cadmium is not a solid pigment.

Chromium- Analogous system of connected colors. Green [emerald], Yellow-green, Yellow, Orange, and Red [ruby].

Cobalt, Oxides and native, Magenta [MMMM] and cool magenta [MMM1/2C], natural or calcined to Cobalt Blue [MCCC] and Ultramarine Blue [MMCC].

Copper- Green [CCYY] is in the mineral malachite, Cyan-green [CCCY] in turquoise, cyan-blue [CCCC] in azurite, all analogous colors of the copper element.

Iron- Yellow [YYYY] in sapphire, Blue [MMCC] in spinel both opposite colors. Green [CCYY] and Red [YYMM] in sphalerite.

Coppreas, green vitriol, or ferrous sulfate.

Lead- White, Yellow, Orange, Red, Brown-Purple Mortuum.

Manganese- Light (tint) Pink-Orange [YYMM] in spessartine and rhodochrosite.

Nickel- Yellow-Green [YYYC] in chrysoprase.

Titanium- White pigment, titanium dioxide. Titanium is a centering element that goes from Yellow to Orange, than Red to Brown and Brown to Blue in the Rutile crystal. It is an element that can cross over the center dark, reaching its complementary color Ultramarine Blue. The Real Color Wheel uses this pattern to darken Yellow instead of using Black as in the RGB color wheel.
The "centering" term means the crystal itself has the ability and changes from any full spectrum color to a dark colorless color. This color scale is different in each crystal. The Real Color Wheel follows the crystals lead.

Vanadium- Green [CCYY] in beryl, Yellow [YYYY], Brown [YYMMCC].

Zinc- Yellow-green in sphalerite. 



COLOR PRODUCING ELEMENT, SYMBOL, NUMBER, S/G (Specific Gravity), DESCRIPTION

SPECIFIC GRAVITY, [S/G] Is the ratio of size to weight by water displacement, Corundum SG=4, is four times the weight of the same volume of water. Archimedes Principle, SG= A/A-W.

ELEMENT, SYMBOL NUMBER, S/G

Aluminum Al 13 2.7 metallic, ore bauxite.

Antimony Sb 51 4.6 brittle metallic, ore stibnite.

Arsenic As 33 --- poisonous, pentavalent As+5.

Astatine At 85 --- rare element, halogen family, unstable.

Barium Ba 56 3.5 malleable, active, divalent metal, compounds in barite.

Beryllium Be 4 1.8 hard, light, divalent, steel-gray metallic element,

idiochromatic primary and secondary colors.

Boron B 5 --- ore of Borax.

Bromine Br 35 3.1 liquid, dark-red fuming, resembling chlorine and iodine.

Cadmium Cd 48 8.6 divalent metallic element, allied to zinc, Pigment in 1842.

Calcium Ca 20 --- divalent metal, compounds limestone, chalk, gypsum.

Carbon C 6 --- Diamond and graphite are organic, polymorphs of carbon, graphites two dimensional atomic structure is flat, as is soft graphite, black. The three-dimensional tetrahedrally-oriented covalent bond of diamonds is strong, hard and clear, the opposite of carbon. Diamonds can receive the full range of colors from other elements, they are allochromatic. The opposite color to black is clear, not white.

Chlorine Cl 17 --- Gaseous, combined in salt.

Chromium Cr 24 --- Brittle metallic, source of red in allochromatic compounds.

Cobalt Co 27 --- Metallic silver pink element calcined to make its opposite color cobalt blue and electrofide to make chrome.

Copper Cu 29 8.92 Malleable, red-brown metal element. Red-brown is opposite cyan.

Fluorine F 9 --- Non-metallic corrosive pale yellow gas, combined in fluorite.

Gold Au 19.3 Yellow malleable metal.

Hydrogen H 1 --- Colorless inflammable gas, lightest element.

Iodine I 53 4.93 dark-gray crystalline solid, heats to a dense violet vapor.

Iron Fe 26 7.86 Malleable metallic, silver element. A full spectrum element.

Lead Pb 82 11.34 Malleable, blue-gray metal.

Lithium Li 03 .53 Silver-white. Soft, lightest metallic.

Magnesium Mg 12 1.74 Silver-white metallic, burns white hot.

Manganese Mn 25 7.2 Brittle, gray-white element, allochromatic.

Mercury Hg 80 13.55 Fluid silver-white metallic element.

Molybdenum Mo 42 10.2 Hard, silver-white high melting, metalloid.

Nickel Ni 28 8.9 Hard silver-white, malleable, allochromatic element.

Oxygen O 8 --- Colorless gas, converts elements into oxide compounds.

Phosphorus P 15 1.82 Solid non-metallic element in two allotropic forms, yellow, poisonous, inflammable and luminous. Red, now rare, is less potent, [SG] 2.20.

Platinum Pt 78 2.5 Malleable, gray metallic element.

Potassium K 19 .86 Silver-white metallic, oxidizes rapidly.

Selenium Se 34 4.8 Gray, non-metallic allotropic element, resembles sulfur.

Selenium Se 34 4.5 Red, similar to gray.

Silicon Si 14 2.4 Non-metallic element, amorphous and crystalline forms.

Silver Ag 47 10.5 Malleable silver element.

Sodium Na 11 .97 Soft silver-white metallic element, oxidizes in moist air.

Strontium Sr 38 2.6 Bivalent metallic element found only in a combined state.

Sulfur S 16 2.07 Nonmetallic solid element, used to form sulfates as white lead pigment, and sulfides, burns blue.

Titanium Ti 22 4.5 Dark gray powdered metallic element

Tin Sn 50 7.31 Malleable, low melting silver colored metal.

Tungsten W 74 19.3 Bright-gray, metallic.

Uranium U 92 18.7 White, radioactive, metallic.

Vanadium V 23 5.96 Gray powder metallic, rare.

Zirconium Zr 40 6.4 Metallic, resembles titanium.

Zinc Zn 30 7,14 Blue-white metallic element.



MINERALS AND ELEMENTS IN CRYSTAL COMPOUNDS WITH COLOR CHART NUMBERS
THE CRYSTALS COLOR CHART
Brittle crystals make the best pigments.
Hard oxides of metal are inert pigments.
Idiochromatic is an internal element coloring the crystal.
Allochromatic is an external element coloring the crystal.

00,

DIAMOND, C, [Hardness] H10, Diamonds can receive the full range of colors from other elements, they are allochromatic. This section describes the color and properties each element adds. Diamonds were not made from coal. http://geology.com/articles/diamonds-from-coal/

01,

LIDDICOATITE, a six sided continuous crystal, clear and colored by iron. The colors of magenta and green are separated in sections and graduated from one end to the other in each crystal, a natural color opposition. All mineral oppositions match my pigment and light color wheel.


SULPHIDES, ARSENIDES, ANTIMONIDES

02,

CHALCOPYRITE, CuFeS2, [Hardness], H3.5, [specific gravity] SG-4.2. Ore of copper, tetragonal crystal system. It occurs on crystals of galena and has a brassy yellow opaque, metallic color. Idiochromatic colors of iron. 

03,

SPHALERITE, Zn,S, H3.5, SG-3.9, zinc blend, ore of zinc, cubic system, idiochromatic colors.

ZINC, yellow-green, standard color #11, [CYYY], transparent.

IRON, Idiochromatic colors from, yellow, tan, brown, black, orange and red. High dispersion showing the spectrum like a diamond.

CHROMIUM, crimson and dark green. Transparent to opaque. 

04,

CINNABAR, HgS, H2, SG-8.09, sulphide of mercury ore.

MERCURY, red, standard color 12RCW#3, [YYMM], opaque, vermilion-red to brown is the color scale for the masses, and transparent scarlet is the color for crystals. Cinnabar has internal coloring, idiochromatic coloring, because the color comes from the element that's crystallizing, in this case mercury, the liquid metal. The amorphous mass is crushed and used as the pigment vermilion, it's a heavy and a fast drier, precious and rare. 

05,

GALENA PbS, H2, SG-7.6, ore of lead, sulfide, cubic crystals often twinning. Oxides are white lead pigment. 

06,

REALGAR, AsS, H1.5, SG-3.56, monoclinic crystal system.

ARSENIC sulphide, red standard color, #3, [YYMM], transparent to opaque. Realgar was crushed as a pigment by the ancients as the first red. It's an idiochromatic crystal pigment.

07,

ORPIMENT,As23, H1.5, SG-3.4, monoclinic, transparent to opaque, yellow to brown in the same crystal, water soluble.

ARSENIC di-sulphide, orange standard color, 12RCW#2, [YYYM], yellow to orange pigments, crushed, idiochromatic pigment.

08,

STIBNITE, Sb23, H2, SG-4.6, ore of antimony, orthorhombic crystal system, lead-gray metallic. Antimony oxide native, is Naples yellow pigment. 

09,

PYRITE, FeS2, H6, SG-5, cubic, metallic brass-yellow.
 

10,

PROUSTITE, Ag3AsS3, H2, SG-5.6, trigonal, transparent. SILVER and ARSENIC, crimson color at it's best. It tarnishes because of the silver content, idiochromatic, silver added the deep magenta to the red of arsenic. 

11,

PYRARGYRITE, Ag3SbS3, H2.5, SG-5.85, ore of silver, trigonal.

SILVER AND ANTIMONY, a deep warmer crimson then proustite. Idiochromatic, deep crimson, transparent, dark in mass. 


OXIDES, HYDROXIDES

12,

CUPRITE,Cu20, H3.5, SG-6.14, cubic, crystals found on copper.

COPPER, crimson, standard color 12RCW#4, [YMMM], transparent. Crimson cuprite crystals are opposite in color to the turquoise colored copper sediment, chalcocite. Idiochromatic. 

13,

CHRYSOBERLE, BeAl2O4, H8+, SG-3.74, orthorhombic crystal.

BERYLLIUM, standard yellow centering to brown crystal.

ALUMINUM, yellow is aluminum's home base, but color isn't really it's strong suite, it's the light tricks that make it a special crystal element.

The "cat's eye" gem, it has an opposite color line of light inside, a pale ultramarine blue. Instead of just giving color, aluminum has an array of light tricks to perform with.

14,

SPINEL, MgA1204, H8+, SG-3.6, cubic octahedra, idiochromatic.

MANGANESE, deep transparent red pigment color that lightens to Cadmium Red opaque. The Ruby is Cadmium Red transparent. Idiochromatic.

ALUMINUM, adds yellow sometimes, enhances other elements. CHROMIUM, allochromatic chromium, which gave the red to rubies gives spinel a real kick in the red mass dark, and it never leaves the red spectrum color.

COBALT, yellow-green, green, cyan and bright blue, with allochromatic cobalt, it does well here in aluminum's opposite second home.

15,

ZINCITE, [Zn,Mn]O, H4, SG-5.6, Native zinc oxide, ore of zinc,

MANGANESE, yellow-orange to deep red, idiochromatic, it could be a pigment, rare, brittle, and opaque.

15, ZINC SILIATE, is found in New Jersey, at the Franklin Mine.

ZINC, yellow, yellow-green and green transparent, and opaque white, opaque yellow, orange, red, brown and black. Idiochromatic zinc makes all the colors except those in the cyan spectrum. 

16,

CORUNDUM, Al2O3,H9 STANDARD MOHS', SG-3.99, trigonal system, transparent.

CHROMIUM added for red and green, allochromatic.

IRON, makes crystals in blue, cyan, dark-green, yellow, orange, red and magenta. All transparent, all brittle, and all expensive as crushed pigments.

Ruby is the standard transparent red, #3, [YYMM]. It's opposition color mixing to dark neutral is Thalo Blue,(Cyan). In pigments, Thalo Blue Transparent mixes dark with Cadmium Red Opaque also. The other oppositions in paint are acrylic Thalo Green and Acra Violet (later changed to Magenta by Liquitex.) Burnt Umber (for yellow) and Opaque or Transparent Ultramarine Blue. All these pigment oppositions are in the painting section and as individual colors. Clicking here will take you to that section in new windows.

Sapphire blue is the standard transparent blue, #7. [MMCC].

Sapphire yellow is the standard transparent yellow, #1, [YYYY].

Sapphire pink deep is the standard magenta, #5, [MMMM].

ALUMINUM is just one surprise after another, here it is, the softest metal element making the hardest hydroxide, only the softer carbon element makes a harder crystal, the diamond is H10 STANDARD MOHS'. 

17,

QUARTZ, SiO2, H7 STANDARD MO HS', SG-2.65 trigonal, clear crystal with allochromatic colors.

MANGANESE, standard purple, #6, [MMMC], transparent, amethyst crystals are from magenta to purple.

IRON, rose quartz is a light magenta. Citrine is from yellow to orange, centering dark, through brown. Iron also gives black [deep-red] to onyx, and red and orange in fire agate.

A second verity of quartz is mass and opaque, the aggregate crystals are too small to see.

COPPER, green to cyan, chalcedonies, jasper, and red carnelian, two opposing colors.

NICKEL, yellow-green standard color, #12, [CYYY], chrysoprase. Quartz has a complete range of colors except for ultramarine blue. All allochromatic with foreign elements, giving color to the crystal. Brittle, easy to crush into transparent pigments. 

18,

OPAL, Si02+NH2O, H6.5, SG-2.1, amorphous crystal, diffraction from spheroids give color. Transparent, translucent and opaque in different crystals. 

19,

RUTILE, TiO2, H6.5, SG-4,23, tetragonal.

TITANIUM, red to brown and yellow to brown, colors centering to neutral dark. Just on the other side of the darkest center in the coloring wheel, brown is mixing with ultramarine blue and getting cooler, some of that blue color shows up. Titanium is the only element that can cross over the dark center. Idiochromatic. Transparent, translucent and opaque in the same crystal. Purple rutile is also found in the Alps, idiochromatic.

20,

ANATASE, Tio2 H5.5, SG-3.9, tetragonal, metallic luster,

TITANIUM, yellow to yellow-brown or red to red-brown, brown changes to a neutral dark by continued mixing with the opposite spectrum colors, ultramarine, azure and cyan. All idiochromatic within titanium.

21,

CASSITERITE, Sn02, H6, SG-6.9, ore of tin, tetragonal, metallic. The crystals are clear, yellow, red-brown or black. A one trick pony. This is the yellow pigments natural trip to neutral dark.

22,

HEMATITE, Fe2O3 r H5r SG-5.26, ore of iron, trigonal reniform masses, Cadmium Red streak, metallic.


HALIDES

23,

HALITE, NaC1, H2.5, SG-2.2, salt is a cubic crystal that may show orange, spectrum purple #6 [MMMC] or blue coloration. It is brittle, soluble, and transparent. 

FLUORITE, 

24,CaF2, H4, SG-3.18, cubic system. Fluorite is allochromatic, it accepts a range of eleven colors, there is no cyan color. Fluorite is also a fluorescent, green to violet, Translucent. 

25,

CUMENGEITE, .Pb21Cu2OC142[OH]40, H2.5, SG=4.6, cubic or tetragonal, two different crystals, depending on the majority mineral element.

LEAD, standard ultramarine blue color, 12RCW#7, [MMCC], opaque, idiochromatic. Cumengeite.

COPPER, standard cyan color, #9,[CCCC], opaque, idiochromatic. Boleite crystals. 


CARBONATES

26,

MALACHITE, Cu2[C03][0H]2, H4, SG-3.6, mass or monoclinic systems.

COPPER, green standard color, 12RCW#11, [CCYY], opaque, crushed pigment, idiochromatic.

27,

AZURITE, Cu3[CO3]2[0H]2, H3.5, SG-3.7, monoclinic.

COPPER, Standard Azure color, 12RCW#8, [MCCC]. Cyan-blue transparent to opaque, shows blue in mass. This was a popular ancient pigment color, crushed, rare. Copper Blue and lead white or vermilion will turn black, so there must be a painting isolation layer. It was usually applied with egg and varnished over and never mixed with other colors. The many hues and opacities of azurite ranging from an opaque ultramarine blue, cobalt blue to a opaque or transparent cyan, all effected by oil in a bad yellowing way. 

28,

CALCITE, CaCO3H3STANDARD MOHS', SG-2.7, trigonal crystals, also aggregate and mass, colorless transparent to translucent.

IRON, Yellow allochromatic.

COPPER, "Iceland Spar", Cyan, allochromatic, polarizing filter. Adds ultramarine blue from different viewing angles.

COBALT, "Sphaeroc Cobaltite", standard Magenta Cool, 12RCW#5, [MMMM], allochromatic.

29,

ARAGONITE, CaCo3, H3, SC-2.94, ortharhombic system, phosphorescent, clear.

30,

DOLOMITE, CaMg[Cu3]2, H3.5, SG-2.85, trigonal, translucent clear, double refraction like the diamond.

31,

WITHERITE, BaCO3, H3.5, SG-4.3, orthorhombic crystal system with twinned hexagonal pyramids, that's like the four sided pyramid the Egyptian's were so fond of. Light-translucent, colorless or centering yellow-green to brown, allochromatic. ORE SOURCE OF BARIUM, found with lead. Pigment extender. 

32

SMITHSONITE, ZnCO3, H4, SG-4.4, trigonal crystal system.

ZINC, translucent green, Idiochromatic, pale. 

33,

AURICHALCITE, [Zn,Cu]5[Cu3]2[0H]6, H1, SG-3.64, orthorhombic. White opaque.

ZINC AND COPPER, turquoise-green outside, white inside, opaque, crystal forming fragile hollow balls, idiochromatic.

34,

CERUSSITE, PbC03, H3.5, SG-6.5, orthorhombic of many forms, clear transparent, brittle lead and carbon.

35,

RHODOCHROSITE, MnCO3, H3.5, SG-3.7, scalenohedral crystals in the trigonal system, opaque and transparent.

MANGANESE, red standard color, 12RCW#3, [YYMM], idiochromatic. 

36

SIDERITE, FeCO3, H4.0,SG-3.9, trigonal, rare gemstones.

IRON, yellow-green to brown, centering colors in different crystals, transparent or translucent. This crystal is the cool side of the Yellow scale to neutral dark. 


SILICATES

37,

DIOPTASE, CuSiO2[OH]2, H5, SG-3.3, trigonal, opaque.

COPPER, Dark-turquoise standard color, #10,[CCCY], idiochromatic, brittle. An ideal native pigment.

38,

CHRYSOCOLLA, [Cu,Al]2H2Si2O5[OH]4.nH2O, H2, (with quartz H7), SG-2,6, monoclinic aggregate, idiochromatic copper.

COPPER, turquoise standard color, 12RCW#10, [CCCY], pale opaque.

Rare crushed opaque pigment, replaced by man made Egyptian frit for a huge market by the Phoenicians.

39,

PHENAKITE, Be2SiO4, H7.5, SG-3, trigonal rhombohedral crystals, clear, allochromatic, triadic. NOTICE: CLEAR IS OPPOSITE OPAQUE. WHITE IS A TRANSLUCENT TO OPAQUE COLOR, NOT CLEAR. CLEAR HAS NO WHITE IN IT.

BERYLLIUM, magenta, cyan, yellow, all pale and transparent. ANOTHER ALL COLOR CRYSTAL. 

40,

WOLLASTONITE, CaSiO3, H5, SG-3, triclinic, tabular or masses. White opaque, orange fluorescence.

41,

DIOPSIDE, CaMgSi2O6, H6, monoclinic.

MAGNESIUM, yellow-green or purple [opposites], internal coloring.

CHROMIUM, dark green. Brittle translucent, foreign coloring. 

42,

SPHENE, CaTiSiO5, H5.5, SG-3.5, monoclinic wedged shaped crystals and masses.

TITANIUM, yellow-green or yellow, to brown with neutral dark areas, in a transparent crystal. Centering yellow to neutral dark, through warm brown, is a common trait observed with titanium and iron. This is the way my coloring wheel works with yellow going to Brown as the neutral dark instead of Black. To reach Black, one would need a Transparent Yellow pigment that hasn't been around for a hundred years (1900). The outlawed Indian Yellow Brown Side, from cow urine, from mango leaf feed cows in India. This would mix with a Transparent Ultramarine Blue to a neutral dark. We artists were deprived from 1900 to 2005. Idiochromatic.

CHROMIUM, green, rare crystal, allochromatic. 

43,

ZIRCON, ZrSiO4, H7, SG-4.6, tetragonal system ends with a four sided pyramid, transparent. Clear to red-brown opaque.

ZIRCONIUM, full spectrum of pale colors, additional heat makes yellow and blue crystals.

Brittle, idiochromatic, the transparent crystals are doubly refractive and rival the diamond in dispersion. 
 

44,

SERANDITE, Na[Mg2+,Ca]2Si3O8[0H], H4.5, SG-3.5, triclinic.

MANGANESE, red-orange, pale, opaque. A weak manganese color with two electrons gone, idiochromatic.

45,

OLIVINE, [Mg,Fe]2SiO4, H7, SG-3.3, orthorhombic crystals from brown-green to green.

MANGANESE, red-orange opaque, shows up as brown when mixed with yellow-green, like the light color wheel, idiochromatic.

IRON, yellow-green, transparent, with two minerals, iron making a transparent yellow-green and manganese making an opaque split-analogous red-orange, what you get is a transparent yellow-green going to opaque brown in the same crystal, or anywhere in between, the peridot series. 

46,

KYANITE, Al2SiO5, H7.5 across 4.5 down, SG-3.7, triclinic.

ALUMINUM, white, pale-green to gray, opaque to translucent. Pleochroistic, (changing colors with direction), transparent light green background when perfect, with a "blue light" stripe, translucent. The aluminum element plays tricks with light and your eyes that no other element can. 

47,

SPODUMENE, LiAlSi2O6, H7, SG-3, monoclinic, transparent, ore of Lithium.

LITHIUM, yellow-green, yellow, orange, red, and a Cool Magenta Standard crystal called "Lilac Kunzite". Clear to pale translucent, idiochromatic. Red-orange phosphorescent, the opposite of the missing cyan. It's mind boggling :)

ALUMINUM, yellow-orange, enhances iron and chromium.

IRON, warm green, allochromatic.

CHROMIUM, cool green, allochromatic, works well with aluminum, as in the Corundum ruby compound. 
 

48,

LEUCITE, KAlSi2O6, H5.5, SG-2.5, tetragonal, opaque, white.

ALUMINUM, very pale yellow-orange crystal. The aluminum spin on this compound is interference colors on the cut face, like an oil film on water, with orange fluorescence in long-wave ultraviolet light and blue under X-rays. 

49,

ORTHOCLASE, KAlSi308, H6 STANDARD MOHS', SG-2.5, monoclinic.

ALUMINUM, pale yellow-orange opaque crystals. The transparent yellow gem (moonstone), has internal light diffusion, another light trick by the inclusion of aluminum. 

50,

BERYL, Be3Al2[Si03]6, H7.5,SG-2.7, hexagonal crystal system.

BERYLLIUM element in Beryl crystal, cyan, yellow, idiochromatic.

ALUMINUM, yellow-orange, idiochromatic,

IRON, green, yellow-green, yellow, orange, red, scarlet, magenta purple, blue, azure, cyan, turquoise, iron at it's best will display the whole spectrum in Beryl. Allochromatic.

CHROMIUM, green standard, 12RCW#11, [CCYY] and red, allochromatic.

MANGANESE, red, allochromatic.

Double elements in yellow 12RCW#1, [YYYY], cyan 12RCW#9, [CCCC], red 12RCW#3, [YYMM], and green 12RCW#11, [CCYY], all standard colors. Yellow (heliodor), magenta (morganite), cyan (aquamarine) and green (emerald).

ALUMINUM in beryl excepts a lot of foreign chromates, just as it does in the corundum and spodumene compounds, Here an aluminum light trick is found in aquamarine, light cyan is seen from one direction and deep blue from a 90 degree off angle.

51,

EUCLASE, BeASi04[0H], H6.7, SG-3, monoclinic system.

BERYLLIUM, standard color cyan, 12RCW#9, [CCCC], yellow to cyan, idiochromatic, transparent.

52,

GROSSULAR, Ca3Al2[SiO4]3, H7, SG-3.5, cubic, garnet group.

ALUMINUM, standard color orange, #2,[YYYM], yellow to orange, centering to brown, idiochromatic, transparent, CHROMIUM, green, allochromatic.

53

LABRACORITE, NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8, H6, SG-2.5, sodium-aluminum series of plagioclase feldspars.

ALUMINUM, blue to cyan color plus an unusual effect called schiller, the inside glow of cyan color moves with you, playing off included lamellae minerals. Idiochromatic, opaque.

IRON, yellow to red, the allochromatic intrusion of hematite reverses the spectrum to show it's opposite colors. 

54,

SPESSARTINE, Mn3Al2[SiO4]3, H7, SG-4, cubic, garnet family.

ALUMINUM, yellow-orange, turning red to orange with manganese.

MANGANESE, orange to red, transparent, idiochromatic.

IRON, red, transparent, allochromatic, adding transparent red until it's a deep transparent red. This is only a 30 degree span of color with no complementary intrusion toward centering. This is the light "almandine garnet".

55,

ALMANDINE, Fe3Al2[SiO4]3, H7, SG-4, cubic, transparent, Garnet.

ALUMINUM, yellow-orange, added to the red of iron, idiochromatic.

IRON, red, idiochromatic, transparent.

CHROMIUM, red, transparent, allochromatic. These two elements together make a transparent red and transparent red deeply saturated. This red is so deep and spectrum dark it has to be very thinly sliced to see any color at all. "Deeply saturated" means a transparent to opaque color skipping translucent.

56,

EPIDOTE. Ca2[Al,Fe3+]3[SiO4]3[OH], H7, SG-3.4, monoclinic.

ALUMINUM, yellow-orange, transparent, idiochromatic, pleochroistic directional change of color.

IRON, yellow-green Epidote has a unique coloring system, combining split analogous colors yellow-green and orange, through brown to a warm neutral dark transparent color. 

57,

VESUVIANITE, Ca10Mg2Al4[SiO4]5[Si207]2[OH]4, H7, SG-3.3,

MAGNESIUM, wants to go dark and opaque, or transparent, either way, it does it with flair.

ALUMINUM, yellow, transparent, standard 12RCW#1 [YYYY], and blue, transparent, standard 12RCW#7 [MMCC], centering to neutral. Crystals in the tetragonal system, some masses in the orange or azure range. By centering yellow to brown, the three analogous colors of this gem, yellow-green, yellow and orange go to brown. On the other side of this analogous range is blue, blue crystals were found in Norway. Idiochromatic.

CHROMIUM, green, allochromatic. 

58,

APOPHYLLITE, KCa4Si8O2O[F,OH]8H2O, H4.5, SG-2.

White to pale cool green, opaque, idiochromatic, non-metallic mineral. 

59,

TOPAZ, Al2[F,OH]2SiO4, H8 STANDARD MOHS', SG-3.53, orthorhombic crystal system.

ALUMINUM, yellow, mostly orange, red and magenta, some azure crystals come from Zimbabwe.

Idiochromatic colors of aluminum under high pressure. 

60,

ELBAITE, Na[Li,Al]3Al6[BO3]3Si618[OH]4, H7.25, SG-3.05, trigonal, tourmaline group, transparent, pyroelectricity w/heat.

IRON, green, red, and pink Magenta, brown.

LITHIUM, yellow, magenta, idiochromatic.

ALUMINUM, yellow, blue, idiochromatic.

MANGANESE, orange and red, allochromatic.

COPPER, green, cyan, allochromatic. Many Elbaite crystals show more than one color in a clear rainbow ordered spectrum. 

61,

LAPIS LAZULI, H5-6, SG-2.8, or higher if pyrite is included. This is the Standard Color for ultramarine blue opaque, 12RCW#7, [MMCC], an ancient pigment. A rock of many compounds. Lazurite, a sodium aluminum silicate with sulfide, deep blue crystals. Hauyne, Sodalite, (a sodium aluminum silicate with sodium chloride that occurs in crystals and masses), and Nosean. Lapis lazuli is a contact metamorphic mineral found in limestone and granite, the best is found in Afghanistan, from ancient times until today.


PHOSPHOSPHATES ARSENATES VANADATES

62,

TURQUOISE, CuAl6(PO4]4[OH]8.4-5H2O, H5.5, SG-2.7, triclinic.

ALUMINUM, transparent.

COPPER, turquoise standard color, 12RCW#10, [CCCY], transparent. Transparent turquoise crystals are rare, it's usually found in opaque masses, idiochromatic. 

63,

WAVELLITE, Al3[PO4]2[OH,F]3.5H2O, H3.5, SG-2.36, orthorhombic crystal system, acicular, like the needles of Rutile suspended in clear crystal, only these needle crystals form a dense rock like mass.

ALUMINUM, yellow, brown, blue, centering standard, transparent. Aluminum really does it big this time, each needle starts at the center radiating outward, concentrical ringed bands form around the center, each band ending as a cleavage line, twenty or so bands per complete needle crystal. The band itself can change from clear transparent to opaque white while at the center, the second band range is transparent yellow crystal, than brown, than blue. From brown to blue, the crystal can change into an aggregate and lose it's crystal properties. THIS MINERAL PHOSPHATE SHOWS THE CENTERING OF YELLOW TO BROWN AND BROWN TO BLUE, LIKE MY REAL COLOR WHEEL FOR PIGMENTS. 

64,

BRAZILIANITE, NaAl3[PO4]2[0H]4, H5.5, SG-2.9, monoclinic.

ALUMINUM, yellow, cool, transparent, idiochromatic. 

65,

AUTUNITE, Ca[UO2]2[PO4]2.10-12H2O, H2, SG-3.1, tetragonal.

URANIUM, yellow, translucent, Idiochromatic uranium, warm to cool yellow, pigment in the 1940's, fluorescent yellow. 

66,

VIVIANITE, Fe3[P04].8H20, Hardness 1.5, SG-2.68, monoclinic.

IRON, standard color for cyan, 12RCW#9, [CCCC], transparent, idiochromatic. Cyan to green crystals.

Laminae fibrous, long thin radiated crystals, transparent clear when first mined, turning cyan with light exposure. 

67,

LEGRANDITE, Zn2[AsO4][OH],H20 H5, SG-4, monoclinic family.

ZINC, yellow, cool, transparent, idiochromatic.

ARSENIC, standard yellow, 12RCW#1, [YYYY], transparent, idiochromatic. Bright yellow idiochromatic, with zinc and arsenic. Arsenic taking it to the warm side in the luminous shadows. Probably the strongest yellow color in crystal form. 

68,

FLUORAPATITE, Ca5[P04]3F, H5 STANDARD MOHS', SG-3.2, apatite family, hexagonal system, transparent.

Yellow, yellow-green, green, cyan, blue, purple and a violet close to magenta, [MMM,1/2M-1/2C. Two-thirds of the color wheel without any metallic elements in the compound. 

69,

PYROMORPHITE, Pb5[P04]3C1, H3., SG-6.5, hexagonal system.

LEAD, cool yellow to bright yellow. LEAD MAKES TWO OPPOSITION COLOR CRYSTALS, THIS YELLOW PYROMORPHITE AND CUMENGEITE BLUE. MY PIGMENT CRYSTAL REAL COLOR WHEEL IS THE REAL COLOR WHEEL.

Yellow to yellow-green in the shadows, translucent, some times found on azurite, the opposite color. 

70,

MIMETITE, Pb5[AsO4]3CAsO1, H3.5, SG-7.24 monoclinic, transparent.

LEAD, yellow, cool, idiochromatic.

ARSENIC, yellow to orange, idiochromatic.

Cool yellow, warm yellow and orange analogous colored crystals are found around the world. 

71,

VANADINITE, Pb5[VO4]3C1, H3, SG-6.8, hexagonal system. VANADIUM, scarlet, transparent, idiochromatic.

LEAD, standard red, 12RCW#3, [YYMM], transparent, idiochromatic. Vanadium, a rare metallic element, compounded with lead makes a red transparent crystal. 


SULFATES

72,

GYPSUM, CaSO4.2H20, H2 STANDARD MOHS', SG-2.32, monoclinic, white, idiochromatic yellow and green to a centered brown. 

73,

CELESTINE, SrSO4, H3.5, SG-4, orthorhombic, ore of strontium.

STRONTIUM, blue or yellow, idiochromatic, opposites. THIS CRYSTAL IS ONE OF MANY THAT PROVES WITH NATURE; THE REAL COLOR WHEEL HAS THE SAME THIRTY SIX, TWENTY FOUR, TWELVE, SIX AND THREE COLOR SETUP, BOTH IN LIGHT AND PIGMENT.

74,

BARITE, BaS04, H3.5, SG-4.5, orthorhombic. Ore of barium.

BARIUM, yellow to yellow-orange and blue to azure (Cobalt), opposite colors on the Real Color Wheel. transparent to translucent, idiochromatic.

CHROMATES
 

75,

CROCOITE, PbCrO4, H2.5, SG-5.99, monoclinic, transparent.

LEAD, no color, transparent.

CHROMIUM, red, transparent, idiochromatic.MOLYBDATES 

76,

WULFENITE, PbM4, H2.75, SG-7, tetragonal.

LEAD, no color, transparent.

MOLYBDENUM, yellow, orange, red, transparent, idiochromatic. 


TUNGSTATES

77,

SCHEELITE, CaWO4, H4.5, SG-6, tetragonal, forming octahedra crystals or masses, ore of tungsten.

TUNGSTEN, colorless, yellow, orange, brown, transparent, crystals. Idiochromatic. Tungsten has very unique spectrum of colors, it's a curve to neutral dark. THIS CRYSTAL HAS THE SAME COLOR PATH AS THE PIGMENT INDIAN YELLOW GENUINE, which we no longer have available. (Banned in 1899 by England) THIS YELLOW IS ON THE REAL COLOR WHEEL. W/N.
 

78,

WOLFRAMITE, [Fe,Mn] WO4, H4.5, SG-7.5, monoclinic.

IRON, red, matching the manganese, iron can be, and can center any color to a neutral dark, red dark is in the yellow dark of the Real Color Wheel, and YELLOW CENTERS THROUGH BROWN. Idiochromatic.

MANGANESE, red, transparent, idiochromatic, Manganese and iron, two red elements making a very deep red-brown that looks black, found with white and clear quartz.
 



ROCK AND MINERALS OF COLOR

MOHS SCALE OF HARDNESS 

1-Talc, 2 Gypsum, 3 Calcite, 4 Fluorite, 5 Apatite,
6 Feldspar, 7 quartz, 8 Topaz, 9 Corundum, 10 Diamond

BASALT

Basalt is the most common of the earth's volcanic rocks, its crystals are continuous and elongated. Basalt magma is sometimes as hard as glass, but rarely. Ancient Hawaiians found it on the highest interior facing cliffs of Haleakala, the volcano on Maui.

SYENITE

Syenite forms in silicate-less magma, consisting typically of feldspar and hornblende.

QUARTZ

Quartz is the most common crystal mineral, oxygen and silicon, it has the hardness of H7. Quartz is found in ore mineral veins and needs a hollow space to form, As rocks and veins weather, quartz is freed of it's matrix and breaks loose to form sand. Cemented sand is sandstone, intruding magma going through sandstone will again form ore and quartz.

GRANITE

Granite is also igneous or fire intrusive. It's composed of quartz and feldspar, Granite magma intrudes limestone or dolomite and forms marble. Marble is heat and calcium of limestone, plus calcium magnesium of dolomite, plus silica. Veins or lodes of ore in marble include, tin, copper, uranium, iron, zinc and lead. Marble is metamorphic limestone.

Granite, intrudes with its hottest leading edge forming cassiterite, tin. The copper sulfides form second, chalcopyrite is the primary copper ore formed in quartz. Third would be cobalt, nickel and arsenic. Than the zinc-lead zone, with zinc sulfide as sphalerite ore, lead sulfide is galena ore, than silver. Finally, the iron rich zone with iron carbonate as siderite ore, the dominate mineral of the world.

FELDSPAR

Feldspar is common in granite magma intruding on sandstone sedimentary rock, it hardens into a crystal softer than quartz. Feldspar can be morphasized with pressure to a harder crystal like tourmaline or topaz.

Feldspar is the second most common mixed mineral silicate crystal, made from potassium, sodium and calcium, an alumino-silicate. It contains aluminum in the ore, bauxite, clay and rock. Clay is hydrated silicates of aluminum.

Potash feldspar is microdine, add iron and it's red to green, green amazonite was mined and used as a pigment on murals in 1300 B/C, in Egypt.

Plageoclase feldspar is sodium and calcium.

KAOLINITE

Kaolinite, is clay and chalk after feldspar. Carbonic acid, is present in rainwater or vapors, this pheudomorphs the kaolinite from feldspar.

Porcelain is made from kaolinite clay and is mined in Cornwall, England.



SEA MINERALS AND ROCK

SANDSTONE

Sandstone is a sedimentary rock, an intact mineral of quartz sand. It's cemented together by the commonest cement, calcium carbonate.

QUARTZITE

Quartzite is metamorphic sandstone, an intact mineral or solution of suspended silica growing on quartz crystal, sand is broken quartz crystal.

LIMESTONE

Limestone is a sedimentary mineral cemented by calcium carbonate and is made of once living organisms, the dissolved mineral is calcite. In this same category of sedimented rock is salt and gypsum. Powered and heated, "calcined" limestone makes plaster of Paris, mural mortar, we'll get to slaking lime in the mural chapter.

MARBLE

Marble is metamorphic or recrystallized limestone, being metamorphic is being made with pressure.

GYPSUM

Gypsum's are crystals of hydrous calcium sulfate, crystal deposits formed as precipitates from sea water or in limestone. These circulating waters contain sulfuric acid generated by oxidation of sulfur ore minerals.

Gypsum crystals are called selenite when there clear, alabaster, when there translucent and fibrous, satin-spar, when there opaque and bendable,

Gypsum heated forms sulfur dioxide gas and sulfuric acid. Heated in the presence of lead, either with fumes or in a natural combinations, will form basic lead carbonate, called lead white. Gypsum, after being heated loses most of its sulfur and becomes plaster of Paris, lime plaster is better to paint on.

HORNFELS

Hornfels are a combination of clay and fine quartz sand, forming silt which makes shale. Pressure forms hard rock hornfels.

DIATOMITE

Diatomite is diatomaceous earth, a porous chalk like material, a sedimentary rock that forms on a sea floor or lake bottoms. It's a form of opaline silica, microscopic plants secrete silica to form hard shells of opal. Diatomite is a common filler in paint and paper.

FLUORITE

Fluorite is crystal of calcium fluoride, found in veins with the metallic ores of lead and silver, or with barite, gypsum, calestite and dolomite, or by itself.

Fluorite forms a full color wheel, it's the only non-metallic element that has this capability. There's also a luminescence fluorite which emits a visible light when crushed, heated or radiated. England mines "Blue John" which was carved into bowls, cups and vases. The Chinese mined a green variety and carved statues.

BARITE

Barite is crystal of barium sulfate, called heavy spar, it has no coloring power by itself. Barite is a non-metallic mineral crystal mined in England, filling the cavities in limestone. As barium it's an extender in lead based and cadmium paints.

CELESTITE

Celestite is strontium sulfate, the ore of strontium. This strontium element supplies "the rockets red glare".

HALITE

Halite is sodium chloride, rock salt.

LAKE MINERALS

BORAX

Borax is found in dry lakes as in Tibet, it was called "tin-cal", a Chinese word. Boron is also found in boric acid and in the mineral sassolite, mined in Tuscany, Italy. It can be found in a mineral called tincalconite and ten others. Borax and shellac form the paint called "water shellac". Boron hardens metals, and makes soaps and medicine. Molten borax will dissolve insoluble metal oxides and is the flux for soldering, brazing and welding metals.

TRONA

Trona is soda ash in its hydrous state as sodium carbonate. In its anhydrous state, it's soda ash. 1/5 soda ash and 4/5 sand quartz, make glass, with enough heat.

SODALITE

Sodalite is sodium aluminum silicate with sodium chloride, it forms in massive crystals, like over an acre.

MINERALS, SULFUR

SULFUR is abundant in gypsum and as an anhydrite from sea water, it is also found in limestone to some extent. Sulfur was used as an insecticide in 1000 B/C, ancient Greece gathered it in Delphi, from a deep crevice exuding sulfurous gases from Mount Parnassus. Sulfur burns a blue flame and emits sulfur dioxide gas.

SULFURIC ACID is sodium carbonate and is used in making glass. It was once called "oil of vitriol", a di-basic acid of sulfur made from sulfur tri-oxide. To "vitriolize", means to treat with sulfuric acid, it gives a glassy appearance to metallic sulfates; white vitriol is made from the lead or zinc ore, blue vitriol is made from copper, green vitriol is made from copperas, a ferrous sulfate, iron.

SULFIDE contains the free radical or more electropositive element, it effects changes with other ores.

SULFATE, to treat with a salt of sulfuric acid will make a sulfate. Lead sulfate compounds form on lead, you "sulfatize" when you roast galena, the lead ore that contains sulfur.

SULFUROUS ACID is dissolved sulfur di-oxide gas in water, to form salts called sulfites.

SULFITE is the salt of sulfurous acid which makes the cadmium sulfides from yellow to red. Arsenic sulfides are yellow-green, yellow, orange and red. Copper sulfides are green to blue. Lead sulfides range from white to red. Oil coal-tar colors go from hansa yellow to ultramarine blue moving around the magenta side.

CEMENT

CEMENT, like in Portland Cement, is made of lime, from heated gypsum, sand and alumina, the oxide of aluminum present in clay. That makes cement hydraulic, the clay absorbs water and the cement sets quickly, too quickly for mural work. Heated gypsum burns off sulfur as it becomes lime, any traces left behind would also be bad for a murals pigments. So don't use gypsum lime for murals, use limestone lime. Soak, or slake the lime from six months to twenty years, the longer the better and add 3 sand to 1 lime to make cement. Use a fine sand or marble powder for the last coats, three coats are better then one and six coats are better then three.

CEMENT FONDU is a cement with a high aluminum content.

KEENE CEMENT has alum salts added and makes a very hard mass.

CASEIN CEMENT, casein added to cement makes it harder and set faster.

HIDE GLUE CEMENT Add less than one percent hide glue into the cement to slow setting from ten minutes to two hours.

OXYCHLORIDE CEMENT is also called, PLASTIC MAGNESIA. It's calcined magnesite, it's calcined just short of becoming magnesia (as limestone becomes lime), and made into cement with a strong solution of magnesium chloride. This is casting stone.


ORES OF COLOR 

ANTIMONY

ANTIMONY native is Naples yellow, a very early pigment replenished in the Vesuvius eruption of 79 A/D. Antimony oxide was made artificially since the early eleventh century. Antimony sulfides are found in the mineral galance stibnite, in Italy and Human, China.

ARSENIC

ARSENIC, Arsenopyrite is arsenic's main ore. Arsenic disulfides are red realgar and yellow orpiment, both were used in the early Egyptian days.

COPPER

COPPER ORE native, is brittle unless it's heated or annealed, as the ancient Anatolias did in 6000 B/C. The ancient Eskimos ground fish hooks out of this native copper. Copper pitch ore was used all through the Neolithic Period.

CUPRITE is a cubic transparent ruby-red crystal, formed as a secondary mineral from exposed copper ore. TENORITE is black copper oxide.

CHALCOCITE is another secondary mineral of copper, found in metallic sulfides, precipitating in still waters as a soluble sediment.

CHALCANTHITE is retrieved from the chalcocite sediment, this is the basis of the ancient blue vitriol, and it made blue and green frit. Notice, it's the complementary color of cuprite. I'll point this out while proving my color theory and color wheel oppositions.

ANTLERITE is copper's chief ore mineral, it's a copper sulfate.

CHALCOPYRITE is the primary ore formed in quartz.

CHRYSOCOLLA has a hardness of 2.5, it's a light cyan colored ore that the Egyptians wore as jewelry, they matched this color with copper and tin glass frit. Small scarabs were found glazed and considered as good luck pieces, it was a sample of the color pigment the Phoenician's sold on the ancient world market.

MALACHITE is a secondary mineral ore of copper carbonate, a native green pigment when crushed.

AZURITE is another hydrated salt of copper carbonate, this one's a deep cyan color, it was also used as a pigment all throughout the ancient years. Soak azurite long enough and it will turn green, ammonia turns copper blue. It was the basis for colors from cyan to ultramarine.

ACETATE is a salt by acetic acid or vinegar. A hydrated copper acetate was said to be the first artificial color. It was made by the Romans in 1000 B/C and was called vertigris. They would have had to suspend Egypt's chalcocite sediment in vinegar to precipitate a salt. Egypt had murals of wine harvests 2500 years earlier. I suspect Egypt made it first, before Rome, since they did so much with copper.

PHTHALOCYANINE is copper with one of its atoms removed to make a non-metallic pigment. This pigment doesn't react to sulfur as metallic copper does, it's transparent and covers from yellow-green to cyan. This is perhaps the most important color ever discovered. PB60 anthraquinone is transparent ultramarine blue.

IRON

GOETHITE is iron hydroxide crystals found yellow to brown in earthy masses, it's an ore of iron that contains the natural yellow ferric oxide pigments.

IRON OXIDE ranges from white calcite, yellow ocher, sienna, red oxide, brown and green umber to black. Adding heat (calcined), brings out the red side and adds a transparent quality if silicates are involved, as in sienna. Magnesium is the purple side of caput mortuum, present in iron.

HEMATITE is iron ore, heat it to 1830 degrees and get iron. Hematite naturally crushed and oxidized leaves a red streak powder that was the stone-age red and Egyptian rouge.

PYRITE is iron sulfide and sulfuric acid, dissolved in water to leave behind limonite. Fifty four percent of pyrite is sulfur, decomposed pyrite is hydrated iron oxide.

LIMONITE is a secondary ore of iron that forms yellow to brown oxides. RCW colors.

SIDERITE is iron carbonate, going from yellow to brown.

CALCITE is a native iron pigment mineral that is white. Iron will make all colors.

CALADONITE is a green earth iron silicate mineral.

LEAD

GALENITE or GALENA. Galena is lead sulfide mineral, native, and it contains sulfur. Roasting the galena ore produces a basic lead carbonate, white lead sulfate. Also formed is a water soluble salt compound of lead arsenate.

CERUSSITE is a native lead carbonate mineral, white lead.

VANADINITE washes to lead vanadate, a red-orange crystal.

WULFENITE is a transparent orange crystal.

LEAD ACETATE is a colorless crystal formed by acetic acid touching lead, it is water soluble and called sugar of lead. Lead acetate can be used as a siccative.

LEAD IS CORRODED with fumes of acetate and carbonic acid in steam. It forms a white lead sulfide or oxidized white lead and contains the free-radical that effects so many pigments. This is artificial basic lead carbonate, our white pigment. Hydrogen peroxide will stabilize and remove the free-radical, turning lead sulfide to lead sulfate, a stable white lead.

LEAD CARBONATE is formed by mixing in solution, lye and carbonic acid with lead acetate. It's the whitest lead but not as opaque as white lead oxide.

MERCURY

CINNABAR is the ore of mercury, mercuric sulfide, the red crushed ore is the color vermilion. Cinnabar is found in crystal and masses in South Central Spain and in China. China did more carving in it than painting with it. The rest of the world found it a very useful pigment. The Carthaginians and the Romans both worked the Spanish mines.

TIN

TIN ORE is found in Cassiterite, a tin dioxide, the principle ore of tin, along with wood tin. The symbol for tin is Sn, for stannum.

Tin ore is found in rock forming minerals like feldspar, quartz and mica. First, tin was exposed on cliff faces, where the rocks eroded exposing the veins. Eventually it entered streams and rivers to be stream mined. Tin was mined in Eastern Greece, ancient Anatolia, Upper Syria, the Tigris Euphrates Valley, Afghanistan, the Mekong River and England.

TIN OXIDE is black and fires white, mix tin oxide and cobalt oxide with heat and you get cerulean blue. You can get a similar blue by mixing and firing tin and copper chalcanthite with quartz sand like the Egyptians did, this made their highly prized frit colors, which they traded through the Phoenician's, ancient world wide. Smelt tin ore and copper ore and you'll get bronze. Bronze is the metal the Egyptians made their saws out of to cut the limestone for their great pyramids.

ZINC

ZINC: The zinc primary sulfide mineral is water soluble, and is often found with galena.

ZINC SILIATE: Zinc SILIATE comes in a variety of colors, transparent yellow and green, opaque white, yellow, green, red, brown and black. All these colors were found in the Franklin Mines of New Jersey.

ZINC OXIDE: Zinc oxide is called zincite and is colored white, yellow, orange and red.


COLORED ORES
B/C-MINING


40,000 B/C- Tribes_mined flint in Egypt and France.

6,000 B/C- Neolithic communities like Anatolia hammered copper, Copper works were found in Catal Huyuk, a culture in Turkey.

6,000 B/C- Eskimo's N W of Hudson Bay had copper fish hooks made from glacial copper.

5,000 B/C- Pre-dynastic Egypt mined gold, silver, chalcedony, (a milk colored quartz), chrysoprase, a nickel stained apple-green chalcedony, green feldspar, (light-green amazonite), green fluorite, malachite. Crushed malachite was their green eye shadow paint. Hematite was red rouge. Lapis lazuli was jewelry.

4,700 B/C- Egypt's IV Dynasty smelted bronze.

4,000 B/C- Egypt's casting gold, copper and bronze, bronze saws cut the blocks of lime stone for the pyramids of Giza. They burnt gypsum and limestone for plaster to cover walls, make columns, and as supports for murals. An Iron and nickel alloy knife was made and found, probably from a meteorite.

3,400 B/C- Afghanistan and Mesopotamia were mining lapis lazuli.

3,000 B/C- Galena was found in every country from Morocco to Greece, from Russia to China. Neolithic miners dug for flint in England, a small figurine of a pregnant woman was found at the back of a limestone cave. Old Kingdom Egypt was painting murals of miners, smelters, farmers and "the good life".

2,700 B/C- Gold found in the Royal Caves of Ur, sprinkled on the dead.

2,000 B/C- The Nubia people mined at least a 1,000 tons of gold for Egypt, that's why I suspect the top of the Great Pyramid was covered with gold. The Phoenician's smelted galena and silver, bronze was all over the Mediterranean and China.

1,500 B/C The Hittites of Anatolia smelted iron, Zinc was smelted from lead.

1,350 B/C King Tutankhamen, of the XVIII Dynasty had smelted tools of iron, a lifelike gold casting of him was in his tomb.

1,100 B/C The Phoenician city of Gadez, became a tin market. 1,000 B/C Greece was smelting bronze.

1,350 B/C King Tutankhamen, of the XVIII Dynasty had smelted tools of iron, a Lifelike gold casting of him was in his tomb.

1,100 B/C The Phoenician city of Gadez, became a tin market. 1,000 B/C Greece was smelting bronze.

600 B/C Clay plate painting of "miners" at Corinth, Greece.


B/C PIGMENT PALETTE

Here's the mineral palette back when Sandarac, (Sandracca) was King and Zeus had a son named Castor. Castor is also the brightest star in Gemini. Castor oil was added to Sandracca (sandarac) about 2000 B/C, to soften, extend and make it pliable. Sandracca was a major medium into the A/D's, when mastic, wax, egg, and oil started replacing it.

WHITE

ANTIMONY GALANCE, stibnite ore was roasted or found native.

GYPSUM, native calcium sulfate, calcined 250 degrees.

IRON, native ore calcite, oxide.

LEAD, Lead white, "ceruse", basic sulfate of lead, native or burnt galena ore.

LEAD, "White vitriol", made with sulfuric acid fumes.

LEAD, Lead white carbonate oxide, made by acetic acid fumes and carbonic acid fumes on lead in a closed container.

MAGNESIUM, carbonate found native, the whitest ore pigment.

MICA. Silicate laminated natural, native. Japanese pigment.

SHELL, powered.

TIN. Calcined tin oxide.

ZINC oxide found native.

ZINC "White Vitriol", made with sulfuric acid fumes.

BLACK

BONE and HORN. Roman "atramentum", charred deep black.

CARBON. Oil soot, lamp black. IRON. Iron oxide, native.

MANGANESE. Black manganese dioxide native, ancient "pyrolusite".

ROCK, Slate gray, crushed.

SULFUR. Ultramarine ash, the first washing contains some matrix rock, this leaves a cool opaque gray.

YELLOW

ARSENIC. Orpiment, arsenic sulfide, native, Egypt early, 3000 B/C.

ANTIMONY. Naples yellow, native, 500 B/C, replenished 79 A/D in the Visuvious eruption.

IRON. Yellow ocher natural, "minette", "sil", "chamois", heated to gold ocher, flesh ocher and red.

IRON. Raw sienna, heated to burnt sienna and translucent vermilion.

IRON. Amberg yellow, a very bright fresco yellow ocher no longer available, except at Kramer in Germany, native.

LEAD. Lead oxide white heated to a cool yellow, "Massicot", "King's Yellow", "Cassel Yellow", lead also heated to orange, red and brown.

LEAD-TIN. Lead-tin Yellow is a light cool yellow often mistaken for Naples Yellow.

ORGANIC-ANIMAL. Indian yellow is magnesium euxanthate, an early dye used in, sandarac, (Sandracca), mastic, cera colla and oil pigment until 1899. Made from cows urine, India. Yellow to brown and brown, orange to yellow, transparent.

ORGANIC-PLANT. Tree sap, "gamboge" translucent, alcohol base, Thailand.

ORGANIC-PLANT. "Turmeric" root, "curcuma" root, transparent yellow to brown, India, Asia.

ORGANIC-PLANT. "Saffron", flower power, bright yellow, India.

TIN. calcined from white to pale yellow.

Painting on Location's Magdalene c/o Tan Swee Ming wrote: Ni Hao! (means: How do you do.) Where did the word Yellow come from? Ellie Clemans from the Painting on Location listserver sent us this information. The Latin word "hellus", which came from the Greek word "khloos", which came from the Sanskrit words "hari" for yellow and "hiranya" for gold.

ORANGE

ARSENIC. Realgar, arsenic di-sulphide, native, Egypt 3000 B/C. "Risalgallo", Roman, red-orange clear crystal.

IRON. In clay, burnt sienna, high in silicic acid until calcined from raw sienna, than it's high in silica and is transparent.

TIN, calcined from pale yellow to pale orange.

ZINC. Zincite, native zinc oxide, ore of zinc, a brittle mineral ranging in color from yellow, orange to deep-red, opaque.

The word "orange" comes from the Sanskrit "naranga" which was related to the Tamil word "naru" meaning fragrant.

RED

COPPER. Cupric crystals native, transparent red. That is the opposite of the copper pigment color.

HEMATITE IRON, ore, native red streaks of iron oxide, where abrasion has ground off hematite ore in place.

IRON, in clay, "cinabrese", Cennini described a native light vermilion red that is now exhausted.

IRON, in clay, "Armenian bole", red ocher.

IRON, in clay, "sinopia", native red oxide, Roman 100 B/C

IRON, in clay, "sinopis", a very light red ocher from Asia Minor, exhausted.

LEAD. "Minium", red lead oxide is made by heating white lead in the presence of air, turns dark in fresco as all leads do, this was a mastic, oil and wax pigment that is unaffected by alkalis. Phoenician, 1000 B/C, Greek, Roman, 500 B/C.

MERCURY. "Cinnabar" native, is the ore of mercury. "Vermilion" natural was one of the two most prized and expensive pigments of the ancients, not counting gold. Mercuric Sulfide.

ORGANIC-PLANT SAP, Brazilwood lake, blood red transparent. "Dragon's Blood", ruby red lac, Singapore, as ancient as karmes.

ORGANIC-PLANT FLOWER. Safflower red, "Carthame".

ZINC. Zincite red, native red oxide zinc ore.

The word "red" came from the Sanskrit word "rudhiras".

MAGENTA

COBALT, native is a pale violet-magenta color. Cobaltite is a native mineral ore, cobalt arsenic sulfide, it's a cool magenta color.

IRON, in clay, "Pozzuoli Red". A rosy opaque magenta, Roman. Very good in fresco, it hardens like a natural cement.

ORGANIC ANIMAL. "Carmine", cochineal insect, a transparent dyestuff precipitated on clay, also roasted darker. "Karmes" another insect with similar color, 2000 B/C or earlier. "Nacarat carmine" is the highest quality color.

ORGANIC PLANT ROOT. "Madder lake", boiled Rubia Tinctoriun root on clay or transparent water based in wax soap, Egypt, Greece. Light rose to dark magenta, not for fresco.

TIN. Highly heated tin oxide makes a pale magenta. 

BROWN

IRON. Burnt green earth, ferrous hydroxide and silicic acid, transparent like sienna.

IRON, "Caput mortuum" is red ocher or oxide calcined, or native.

IRON MANGANESE. Raw umber, "umbra", "terre d'ombre", Manganese dioxide and iron hydroxide. Calcined raw umber makes burnt umber.

PURPLE

MANGANESE. Manganese violet oxide, native.

ORGANIC-ANIMAL. "Tyrian" is Greek, "Ostrum" is Roman, "Byzantium", are all names for purple, from the Murex shellfish family. The color ranged from pink to blue transparent. According to Pliny it was the celebrated "Imperial Purple" of the Romans.

BLUE

COBALT. Black oxide of cobalt fires cobalt blue. China 2500 B/C on pottery, 500 B/C Roman, maybe earlier, they made a smalt after the Egyptian frit of copper.

COBALT-TIN. Cobaltous stannate, cobalt and tin oxide in potash glass, light cobalt blue colored smalt, Egyptian or Greek or Roman.

COPPER. "Azurite" natural, blue to cyan, Egypt 3000 B/C, "chessylite", hydrous copper carbonate.

COPPER. Copper hydroxide plus copper carbonate, "blue verditer", "mountain blue", "Bremen blue".

COPPER. chalcanthite, "Blue vitriol", copper salts and sulfuric acid fumes make a copper sulfate.

IRON. Pompiian blue lake, a ferris-cyan, Roman 100 B/C.

SULFUR. Lapis lazuli native, 3000 B/C, sodium sulfosilicate ore.

CYAN

COPPER. Chrysocolla, a native copper silicate, first a pigment in Egypt, then a jewel, glass-frit then became a pigment of the same color.

COPPER. "Egyptian blue" 3000 B/C, copper silicate transparent, "Pozzuoli blue".

COPPER. Frit, copper salts fused in potassium silica glass, Egypt 3000 B/C.

COPPER. Verdigris, hydrated copper acetate crystals, water or resin soluble. This color is usually listed under green, (vert) means green. Since this was the first artificial color made by the Romans, I made some. Using materials I knew they had I put copper in ammonia, this turned the ammonia blue, a few drops of acetate acid (vinegar) and the color changed, it precipitated a light cyan-green salt. Mixing the salt with damar, I painted with it, and, well it does go a little farther, I mixed the salts in sulfuric acid and it turned clear. I was stirring the mix with my steel palette knife and it put a copper plating on it! I wonder if the Romans ever rust proofed any of their iron. I remember reading once, that at in an Egyptian excavation they found some clay pots with holes in them for wires, the archaeologists thought they were using them as storage batteries for plating, I believe it.

ORGANIC-PLANT. Indigo, India. Woad, England. Both transparent cyan dyes, Indigo was the better.

ORGANIC-PLANT. Check out an interesting article in Scientific American's Archeology Magazine August 2000 about Mayan fresco and the cyan pigment they were using. It was Indigo (a plant based dye) bonded to clay through a process of baking the indigo and clay at a specific temperature. The indigo was then permanently bonded to the clay and the indigo-clay powder was used as a permanent blue color for fresco. This magazine is currently at Barnes and Noble, if you want to check out the article.

GREEN

COPPER, Malachite, ore of copper, copper carbonate. Crushed into pigment.

IRON-COPPERAS. ferrous sulfate, "green vitriol", transparent.

IRON. Ferrous hydroxide plus silicic acid, native, "Veronese green earth", "tirolean", "bohemian", translucent.

COLOR CHEMICAL, CHEMISTRY GLOSSARY

ACID- Boric acid is a very mild acid, as is acetic acid. Carbonates and sulfides of metals are sensitive to mineral acids. Acid vapors and weak acids bleach lapis lazuli and syn. ultramarine blue, a colloidal sulfur. Acid liberates hydrogen ions, an electrically unbalanced or charged atom, Hydrochloric acid is violently caustic on metals.

Sulfuric acid is weaker than hydrochloric acid.

ALKALI- Alkali or base, is caustic and reactive, sodium hydroxide is caustic soda or lye, both lye and ammonia are strong alkalis. Alkali yields to hydroxyl [OH] ions, the opposite of acid. Sal soda is a sodium carbonate or washing soda or soda ash, it's weaker but it will still dissolve wool and react with oils fats and wax. Sodium bicarbonate or sodium acid carbonate is baking soda, the dry mix of alkali and acid neutralize each other when the're hydrated, and carbon dioxide is set free. Borax is sodium tetraborate, a mild alkaline salt that's used as a flux with glass.

ALUM- A double sulfate of aluminum and potassium crystal, a 5% solution will harden hide glue, gelatin and all proteins. It makes cement hard, and is a mortar for dyeing textiles. It's an astringent, alkali.

ANHYDROUS- To lose all water, including crystallizing waters.

ANHYDRITE- A mineral, calcium sulfate.

ANILINE- An oily liquid first obtained from indigo, used as a basis for aniline dyes, today coal-tar is the base.

ATOM- The smallest unit constituent of an molecule containing protons, neutrons and electrons, the number and arrangement of which determine the element.

AZO- Unsulfonated dyestuffs, diazonium salt with a phenol, Hansa Yellow.

CADMIUM- A metallic element that looks like tin. Chromite cadmium from lemon yellow through, yellow light, yellow medium, yellow deep, yellow extra deep, yellow orange, orange, red scarlet, red light, red medium, red deep to red purple.

CALCINATE- Calcination means to heat, burn or cook, Calcinating a salt of iron makes an iron oxide, slow oxidation is rust.

CROMA- Color saturation of any hue (color).

CHROMITE- The principle ore of chromium containing iron and magnesium.

CHROMITE- A salt of chromous acid, a coloring agent. Chromite white lead, from yellow through orange to red lead.

CHROMATE- A salt of chromic acid with a radical atom that will easily leave its host molecule. To make a chromate, you change a chromogen from colorless to colored. A chromate of lead is red lead. Chrome red, or red lead is basic chromite of lead treated with chromium salts of chromic acid.

CHROMOGEN- A substance that colors when oxidized, forming colored compounds, like Azo.

CHROMIUM- Element, metallic, occurring in compounds to make pigments, a hardening element as with chromium steel. Chromium compounds are chromic acid and its salts, called chromates. First the metallic and acid name, followed by [ATE], sodium sulfate. This is the salt of sulfuric acid and a sodium compound. The salt of acid with fewer atoms to the molecule, ends in [ITE], sodium sulfite, the sodium salt of sulfurous acid. [IC] and [OUS] designate numerical variations in an acid or oxide, [OUS] being smaller and more unstable, these that don't contain their maximum complement of atoms are called unstable. [THIO] means sulfur-bearing, [AZO] means nitrogen-bearing.

CHROME- The adverb for chromium, chrome yellow is composed of chromates of lead, barium, or zinc, Chrome green is made from chromic oxide, chrome red is a basic chromate of lead.

CHROME- A word element meaning color.

CHROMOPHORE- Any chemical group which produces color in a compound as the azo group -N=N-, the structural layout of atoms which is found in many colored compounds.

COMPLIMENTARY COLORS- A color and its opposite on the "real color wheel" will combine to a neutral dark on the pigment color wheel and white on the light color wheel. To find the complimentary by eye use your color reversing image retention. Look at the color swatch in a bright light for 5 seconds, then switch to a blank white paper. The reversed color will appear.

COMPOUNDS- Composed of two or more elements or ingredients. Binary compounds consist of two elements, first named is the metallic or electrically positive, followed by the negative, which ends in [IDE], sodium sulfide is a binary compound of sodium and sulfur, zinc oxide is zinc and oxygen.

CRYSTALLIZATION- with water, as the blue transparent crystals of copper sulfate contain seven molecules of water to each molecule of salt. Without the water it's an anhydrous white powder.

CYANOGEN- A gas with a univalent radical, added to iron gives ferricyanide salt or Prussian blue.

DICHROMIC- A color exhibiting two color phases, usually a transparent color that looks different when white is added as opposed to adding water. Dioxine Purple is Dichromic

DICHROMIC- Chemical, of a compound containing two atoms of chromium.

EFFERVESCENCE- to give off bubbles of gas, as when mixing ammonia and beeswax while making wax soap cera colla.

EFFLORESCENCE- means losing water to air.

ESTER- Ester or salt, containing glycerin is a glyceride. Oil is a glyceride of fatty acid from plants, glycerides in drying oils are unsaturated and combine with oxygen forming insoluble linoxyn.

ESTER- A product formed by the reaction of an acid with alcohol, silicon esters are ethyl silicate (alcohol and silica), volatile. Adding water has a chemical reaction called hydrolysis, producing hydrated silica, a stone preservative that is inorganic and imperishable. This is a complete painting medium, great for outdoor murals. It has an alcohol cleanup until it's dry. Ethyl Silicate is made by Union Carbide Company.

FATTY OILS- Drying, vegetable oils, linseed, poppy and walnut oils dry by absorbing oxygen, siccatives speed up the drying process. All oils turn yellow. Stand oil is thickened without oxygen appears clear but it does yellow. In fact it yellowed more than my cold pressed linseed oil.

FORMALDEHYDE- the best hardener for egg, casein, rabbit hide glue or any protein. A 37 % solution of formaldehyde is called formalin, a 10%solution of formalin is sprayed on the dried protein to harden it. Formalin is a fungicide and prevents mold.

HYDRATION- To lose water as hydrated oxides do when exposed to heat.

HYDROUS- Containing water as in hydrates or hydroxides.

HYGROSCOPIC- means to absorb water from the air, like calcium chloride, alcohol, clay and lye.

INERT- Inert has no action to effect changes to itself.

INORGANIC- Minerals and ores are inorganic and inert.

MASS TONE- The color perceived by laying down a thick coat of pigment.

ORGANIC- Plants and animals are organic. An organic salt is called an ester.

MOLECULES- The smallest physical unit of an element or compound consisting of one or more like atoms in the first case, and two or more different atoms in the second case. Molecules of red iron oxide are; Fe2,O3, Fe = iron, O = Oxygen, 2 equals two iron atoms, 3 equals three oxygen atoms. Synthetic resins rearrange the molecules.

RADICALS- Two or more elements hook valences together and act as a single element in a reaction, as [HO] is hydroxyl.

SALTS- Salts are neither acid or base, but they could have those reactions. Salts are produced by action on metal or another salt, or by the neutralizing reaction of an acid or base.

Sodium chloride is table salt, it's soluble, inert and neutral, some salts are active. Barium salt is insoluble. Some pigment salts are made by mixing two solution salts together, forming two new products (called double decomposition), one will remain soluble, the other precipitates as a powder, as some pigments do.

Salts of metals categorize themselves in color, nickel is green, copper is blue, cobalt is rose and anhydrous blue, chromium is yellow to dark red and iron is from yellow to brown including red to brown. This note is taken in my color theory of rim and centering colors in elements.

Normal salt of acid is named for the metal than the acid, ending in [ATE]. Sodium sulfate Na2SO4 is sodium salt of sulfuric acid, combined. The salt of acid with fewer atoms to the molecule ends with [ITE], sodium sulfite NA2SO3. Unstable or unsaturated acids and salts have open hooks and end in [OUS]. Ferrous (iron) oxides are exceptions, these are called "loose linkages".

SICCATIVE- Salts of metal oxides soluble in oil, they speed the absorption of oxygen by oils and dry them faster, 2% maximum is recommended.

SOAP- Made by treating a fat with an alkali, any metallic salt of an acid contained in fat.

SODIUM- A soft metallic element that oxidizes rapidly in moist air, occurring only in combined states.

PHENOL- Carbolic acid, a hydroxyl derivative of benzene, used in organic synthesis. Phenolate, a salt of phenol.

POTASH- Potassium carbonate, obtained from wood ashes. Caustic potash (pot-ashes).

POTASSIUM- Similar to sodium element, used in hard glasses.

POLYMERIZATION- means internal changes.

POTASSIUM BICHROMATE- hardens proteins, it's a fungicide.

REACTION- An irreversible chemical change, as when oil dries.

UNDER TONE- The thin wash color of a pigment, as opposed to

the MASS TONE (from the tube) or TOP TONE (adding opaque white).

VAT PIGMENTS- include, perylenes, Isoindolines, indanthrones, phthalocyanines, and quinacridones.

VALENCE- Valence is a hook on an atom that links two atoms together, the amount of hooks is the valence number. Oxygen has two, carbon has four, the benzene radical has six.


ORE'S COLOR REACTIONS TO EACH OTHER

ANTIMONY

ANTIMONY Naples Yellow, orange and vermilion react as lead does and it's just as painterly. Antimony oxide white, is Timonox, a British trademark, 1920. It reacts less than lead white with sulfur, has none of the drawbacks of zinc and would give titanium the best run for the money, plus, if we had it, we would still have Naples yellow, a very dense light skin color the portraitist used as the base instead of white. They also used Lead-tin yellow. If we had an artist's union we would bring antimony back along with Indian yellow, brown side and orange side.

ARSENIC

ARSENIC native yellow is orpiment, a sulphide of arsenic. Native red arsenic is realgar, an arsenic di-sulphide. These are ancient colors not available today, the best crystals looked clear and transparent to me. Arsenic tri-sulfide is made today if you can find it.

COBALT

COBALT turns black with sulfur.

COBALT Oxide is black, calcinated it becomes cobalt blue, fired in potash glass it becomes smalt, a popular early Roman color.

COBALT blue today is a mixture of cobalt oxide, aluminum oxide and titanium white, it's not the same color. When a color must be mixed using two pigments, you don't need it, but it could be handy as an opaque tint of Thalo blue.

COBALT violet transparent is a very important transparent cool magenta, cobaltous phosphate by Bocour New York (closed), was the best I had ever seen, there was a German cobalt violet dark, cobaltous oxide arsenate if they still make it.

COBALT salts with potassium nitrite make the color aureolin yellow.

COPPER

COPPER turns lead, zinc lithopone, a zinc sulfide on barite, and mercury, black.

COPPER is turned blue by alkalis like ammonia, the color is precipitated from the ammonia with acetic acid, vinegar. This makes the ancient Roman color, verdigris.

COPPER turns black with sulfur. the new phthalocyanine cyan (blue as it's mislabeled) PB15 has an atom removed so it's not effected by lead and sulfur.

COPPER ARSENATE is emerald green, the most poisonous of all colors. It's a tint of non-poisonous phthalocyanine green.

COPPER CARBONATE BASIC is malachite green native and azurite blue native. Native colors are usually unaffected by anything at all, they are inert.

COPPER non-metallic phthalocyanine cyan to green should replace all other copper colors, there inert and safe to use.

IRON

IRON RESISTS LYES, SULFUR AND ACIDS AND MAKES THE MOST COMPLETE COLOR WHEEL OF ALL THE ELEMENTS, BY ITSELF.

IRON is ferric oxide, iron and the gas cyanogen make ferrocyanide, a salt of ammonium ferrocyanide makes Prussian blue.

IRON hydroxides are the yellow to brown ocher, based in clay.

IRON oxide's are the calcined yellow to brown ocher's, turned into red ocher's or red earth's, even higher heat would bring up the violets, until finally, caput mortuum, a purple brown. Raw sienna is an iron hydroxide, burnt sienna has been calcined, higher heat would make a vermilion transparent because of the high silicic acid content in the clay.

LEAD

LEAD SOAPS TURNS YELLOW IN OIL, POPPY OIL IS THE LEAST YELLOWING BUT THE SLOWEST DRYING OF THE OILS THAT DRY, WALNUT OIL IS NEXT, THAN LINSEED OIL.

LEAD sponificates or turns clear in oil, apply lead thickly in the last coats or with age you will see through it to a lower color. Today's lead white is much a thinner grind and slower drying.

LEAD has a free radical atom that will leave the lead and turn some colors black, this is white lead sulfide. Hydrogen peroxide will stabilize and remove the free radical, turning white lead sulfide into white lead sulfate, a stable white. Roasting lead ore, glance, will also produce basic lead sulfate, as the ancients did.

LEAD will turn black with hydrogen sulfide, and permanently yellow with heat. Like the ancient massicot yellow, and King's yellow. It will also heat to orange and red. The red lead is the fastest drier.

LEAD can not be used in fresco, the lye turns white lead brown, permanently. Nor can it be used in water colors or pastel, the sulfur in the air will turn it dark.

LEAD is very poisonous, Titanium white is the all around better color, with zinc white a close second, but it is too brittle, Combine lead and zinc and you get the best of both.

LEAD turns these colors (metals) black; tin, copper, cadmiums (they are sulfur colors), ocher's and earth's if poorly washed will also contain iron sulfates. Nickel yellow and nickel Naples yellow also turn black. They don't seem to make much antimony lead Naples yellow any more, it's great in portraits. Arsenic will also turn black. Lead started winning the paint war when sandracca then oil was introduced and the water based, tin based paints of Egypt began losing.

MANGANESE

MANGANESE native black oxide, manganese carbonate white, manganese green, blue and violet are all good dryers.

MERCURY

MERCURY and sulfur make vermilion, the natural pigment cinnabar is no longer available, today's synthetic vermilions don't contain either element, so there safe to use in any combination.

MERCURY, basic sulfate of mercury is bright yellow and turns black with sulfur and copper.

SULFUR

SULFUR will turn all lead colors black, also tin, copper, cobalt, cadmium's, manganese, arsenic and antimony.

TIN

TIN oxides turn lead black, it works with all other metals.

TIN oxides are black, by calcination they become white, tin oxide (stannous chloride) plus cobalt oxide (cobalt sulfate) fired together become cerulean blue, tin and copper fired together become an even cleaner cyan tint, like the Egyptian frit. Cerulean blue is one of the tints phthalocyanine PB15 will tint to.

TIN chromate (stannic) is yellow mineral lake.

ZINC

ZINC oxide white covers less well than lead white, but does not yellow as lead does. It works well in water color. Hydrogen sulfide reacts to make a different white, zinc sulfide from zinc oxide, they're both good. Zinc can be made yellow, orange or red.

ZINC does not work with fresco or tempera emulsions, lyes and acetic acid effect it.

ZINC white and sulfuric acid make white vitriol transparent.

ZINC fades Prussian blue, cadmium yellow, cobalt yellow and coal tar pigments when used in water colors and gouache.


Nanotechnologists Change the Color of Iron Oxide Particles Using a Magnetic Field
Source: AZoNano.com
Author: n/a
7/8/2007

Researchers from the University of California, Riverside in the U.S. have demonstrated that, by applying and changing the strength of an external magnetic field, they can control of the color of iron nano-particles suspended in water.
Researcher Yadong Yin said, the key is to design the structure of iron oxide nano-particles through chemical synthesis so that these nano-particles self-assemble into three-dimensionally ordered colloidal crystals in a magnetic field. Ours is the first report of a photonic crystal that is fully tunable in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from violet light to red light. The finding may have applications in new optical microelectromechanical systems, reflective color display units, fiber optics, sensors, and lasers. Yin said, What should make the technology commercially attractive is that iron oxide is cheap, non-toxic and available in plenty.



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