Dioxine Purple Ultramarine Blue Cobalt Blue Thalo Cyan Blue Turquoise transparent Green Opaque Thalo Green
Burnt Umber Real Color Wheel in Pigments CenterW Permanent Green Light
Burnt Sienna Top Space
Venetian Red Yellow Green Opaque CENTER
Yellow Oxide bottom SPACE
Naples Yellow Light Green Gold Transparent Bottom
Magenta Rembrandt Rose Cadmium Red Medium Cadmium Orange Indian Yellow Gold transparent Cadmium Yellow Medium Cadmium Yellow Pale


Real Color Wheel.
Biography.  4 Videos of Location Painting.
Household Cylopedia, 1881, colors of paints & inks.
ARTISTS, dated history, pigments, color theory, techniques.
LOCATION, all media, human proportions, perspective, modern techniques.
COLOR, B.C. to A/D pigments, RCW, crystal chart, elements, minerals, ores, rainbows, prisms.
HISTORY, comparative advances in art, European and Asian Cultures, 8000 B.C. to 1912.
MEDIA, grounds, oil, acrylic, water color, wax, cera colla, casein, fresco.
Coloring Book, pattern outlines, aerial perspective palette.

RCW Color Chart with top-tint to mass-tone charts.

This page's links
A/D 79 A/D to today
OLD COLOR WHEEL Compare Color Wheels

30,000-10,000 B/C, Palaeolithic Culture, Euro-African finger painting on mud and rock cave walls. Animal fat mixed with native pigments, yellow, brown and red clay with bone and charcoal soot black. Just like Rembrandt only different:)

These caves were located from Central Africa to the coasts Spain, France and England. The most famous are in the Lascaux area of France and Altamira Spain, where a hollow reed was used to blow the pigment on the walls. The first airbrush.

Flint was mined and chipped for weapons in Central Africa, Tanzania, Egypt and England, also obsidian, a black native volcanic glass found in chalk. In an English mine a chipped obsidian figurine was found of a pregnant woman.

5000 B/C, Egypt's first capitol was in Memphis, perhaps the oldest civilization on earth. Art and sculpture were highly prized by these people.

4000 B/C, Egyptian's are painting on bas-relief murals of plaster in gum water color or maybe lime water. Important people were buried in mastabas. Ordinary people lived in clay and mud (I think the mud was lime based) houses, poured into papyrus forms. Columns were made in this manner and the style was copied in stone, everything was painted, the homes were whitewashed with lime paint and mineral pigments like blue and green copper sediment, and yellow to red earths of iron. The early alphabet was story telling pictures, like in China about this time with the ancient Hisa people. Pigment mediums were water based tree gums, wheat paste glue and lime. Crushed limestone white was baked into quick-lime plaster of Paris, wheat shafts and hemp were added to the mix with sand for strength in building.

3000 B/C, Potash glass frit was made with copper. This was a solid cyan pigment that could be mixed with wax, sandracca (sandarac), egg, casein or mastic, a color in direct competition with India's indigo. Africa was circumnavigated by the Phoenicians under the Pharaoh Necho.

2700 B/C, Temples were built of granite, The Great Pyramids of Gizeh were made with limestone shells )cut with metal saws of bronze?). Statues were pored in gold and bronze, smelting was a highly developed art. The statues of Khafra and The Scribe are so natural and life-like there almost alive. This level of skill won't be reached again until the 4th century in Greece. Walls and paintings are done in either wax and ammonia which made of cera colla or lime fresco. Egypt is at a high art peak and is going to start spreading like the Delta.

1500 B/C, The Greek and Etruscan civilizations are forming.

1100 B/C, Northwestern Dorian invaders have taken over Greece, art degenerates to petrogliphs, this First Dark Age period lasts until 650 B/C. The Mycenaean civilization is over.

1000 B/C, Homer units Greece together with his writings.

RIDDLE?? The Androsphinx is a sphinx with the head of a man, the sphinx is a winged monster with a woman's head that sat outside the gates of Thebes and challenged anyone who passed by to solve her riddle or die. She asked Oedipus "What creature is it that walks on four feet in the morning, two feet at noon, and three in the evening? "Man" Oedipus answered, "as a child he crawls on four, a grown man walks on two and an old man leans on a staff". The sphinx had lost her powers and she threw herself to her death, Oedipus became the King of Thebes.

900 B/C, Egyptian artists were painting in Greece, teaching I suppose. Greek art has abstract qualities as in WWI and WWII art. The Egyptian artists were gaining self control and losing the religious and state controlled bindings, they were becoming more realistic. The wars are costly and Egypt is sliding, winning, but sliding. Good workers are leaving town.

800,700, B/C, Greece, all war scenes, nothing but some pottery survived, with some Egyptian influence mixed in, they were friends, but Greece was crushed and looking outward to other shores.

600 B/C, Etruscans paint the living and dead together, very crudely. Their work is strongly influenced by the influx of Greeks, who were getting good and the artists who were teaching them, the Egyptian's.

500 B/C, Greece is tackling the problems of 3/D and 2 point perspective, their sculpture is already back to being realistic. Myron working in bronze and is the best that ever lived, so far in time.

500 B/C, Egypt is huge, wax painting is huge, ammonia is big in the paint war, mastic, being used in Greece and Etrusca, is still small, but great, and they liked wax, everybody did.

500 B/C, China is 80% of Egypt's size, and hooked on alcohol based paint, lacquer, they could sculpt with it too, for now lacquer was winning. It was the major medium from the Far East Coast to Mesopotamia.

225 B/C, Greece defeats the Gauls, Pergamum sculpts the "Dying Gaul" and "Dead Persian" in perfect realism.

200 B/C, The First School of Pergamum, the Aphrodite of Melos and the Victory of Samothrace are carved in marble.

165 B/C, Hellenistic Epiphanes, "the god manifest" identifies Jehovah with Zeus and himself with both. In Egypt, Cleopatra kills herself with an asp to be with her father, the sun-god Re. So the story goes, I think it was political.

100 B/C, The Second School of Pergamum, genre figures of daily life are carved in marble, Boethus, "The Boy With a Goose" in marble is the greatest sculpture ever carved in my opinion, it deserves the title of "High Art". Michangelo and Bernini in the 14th and 15th centuries would again reach this peak of perfection.

100 B/C, Rome is where Greece was, the Greek artists went to where the action is and helped Rome along. Although Greek art in general was still a high caliber, the bullet was spent.

10 B/C, Perhaps the last great piece of sculpture was of Augustus, at 6'8" in white marble, it could still be call "high art", but it was less than the production work of a hundred years past.

A/D 79, Pompeii, The Vesuvius eruption saves a few Italian paintings and murals, among them is the first classical "Three Graces" Botticelli would paint them again in 1478, Raphael in 1500, Tintoretto in 1578, Hans Baldung in 1525, and Jean-Baptiste Regnault in 1799.

117, The Trajan Column shows a slight change in the reason to sculpture, now a story was being told and the artists were still very good.

200, Christianity was the same thing in Rome and Greece only different and they fought about it. Rome won.

200, Byzantine, MEDIUM, There are no Greek or Byzantine paintings from these Dark Ages but we know the mediums they worked in. Water, turpentine, alcohol, ammonia, and lime water were the paint thinners. Wax and pigments were melted for painting buildings, mastic, turpentine and wax together painted pictures on wood or ceramic. Ammonia and wax made a water based paint that dried insoluble (wax soap-cera colla). Sandracca (sandarac), castor oil and alcohol made a hard finished paint. They also had egg and casein, which were both water based paints.

Pigments were either crushed and opaque from local material or soluble and transparent from imported stock, both palettes were complete.

Two art forms were done in this Second Dark Age, where all paintings were destroyed and were never done again. One was the "pictura translucita", a transparent painting done on polished tin in glazes of mastic, and "cera colla", a wax and ammonia based paint that dried insoluble like today's acrylics.

These guys were really good, it's a shame we lost all their work to a religious internal problem. The next time artists were going to be this good, oil was going to be the preferred medium.

300, Byzantine art is carrying on the abilities of the Greek's, Roman's and themselves, mosaics are as difficult as sculpturing and mosaics in churches was their thing along with painting.

400, The Vatican; priests are painting pictures in the bibles they are making.

476- 842, The Iconoclastic Controversy, most art was destroyed by Rome as being pagan, all art that was hanging in their temples and palaces was destroyed. Only monks and priests paint now, and they don't know how. It wasn't safe for the artist to paint anymore, thirteen generations of no practice ended the art of painting.

500, Rome, Paris, Vienna, very Early Middle Ages, illumination painting on parchment with anegg white medium. Done by religious orders, especially the Benedictines.

547, Mosaics are incorporated in buildings, deep greens, gold, vermilion, blue's with cobalt and lapis, whites of tin, blacks of iron and manganese. Greek and Byzantine changing from Late Antiquity to Early Middle Ages.

600, The French abbeys combine art and writing.

650, Thriving schools divided up France at Luxeuil and Corbie. The Palatine Chapel workshop in Germany on the Rhine and others in Vienna, Brussels, they were all happy to do the work.

*700, The "Lucca Manuscript", describes making transparent stain or dye colors from plants with alum precipitates, These were used for, pictura translucida, gilding, gums, and emulsions. From the same period comes the "Heraclius", describing alum and egg white paint for miniature painting and oil in paint.

1150, St. Francis of Assisi, 118 2-1226, begins leading art out of the Dark Ages by painting his alter.

1200, Italian-Egyptian fresco bueno on soft plaster, still based on the Old Testament started appearing in Siena.


Russian icons on wood were painted in egg-distempera, without oil. Their artists were taught by the Byzantine, who could work in glazed tile not just on parchment or wood. The Russian's would paint icons on wood for the next five centuries.

1200, England is protecting wood with oil paint, this is the first noted use of linseed oil. A recipe for house paint. Max Doerner, "Materials of the Artist", 1933.

Max Doerner, 'Materials of the Artist', 1933.
The current price is $12.80. Artist, this book should be on your shelf. The price doubled to $25 in 2013.
Buy Doerner's book, $12.80


*Theophilus Presbyter, the monk of Paderborn, [Westphalia], talks of paintings on a tin plate with mastic, and the new experiments with oils. He say's the local color is painted in with a fast drying water based paint like egg or casein, or a cherry, fig, or arabic gum. They all mix together well. When they're dry, turpentine, mastic and oil won't effect or lift them. The local object is then shaded and formed with oil glaze, this technique on a shiny surface is called "pictura translucita".


The "Mappae Clavicula", describes wax soap and glue with a final sandracca-castor oil (sandarac-castor oil) varnish.


"Hermeneia of Dionysius", The painter's handbook from Mount Athos, Greece, describes Byzantine methods for white gypsum-glue grounds, and glue, wax and lime painting, mixed 1:1:1. A detailed description of flesh painting using Translucent green and opaque red earths.

With the addition of indispensable Naples Yellow, a person can paint an adequate range of flesh tones. Ochers, vermilion, burnt sienna, caput mortuum, and white lead were other colors noted, also the wax cera colla technique was talked about.

Red oxide is an opaque red [YYMM]+[10% CCCC], a red, cooling off by the addition of 10% cyan, its opposite color. It will get a lot more brown before it becomes cool, on the other side of the color wheels center.

Translucent Green Earth is a clay like ocher or umber with a lot of silica in composition, (ferrous hydroxide and silicic acid). Bohemian and Tirolean Green Earth's are warmer glazing colors than the cooler Veronese Green Earth, this system had a range of colors. Green earth was the first down, it mixed with all the flesh tones and under tones throughout the painting or fresco, this was the most used and important color.

It was this combination of the two iron pigments and the very opaque Naples yellow antimony lead pigment that did the work. Vermilion or a high calcined burnt sienna was the next color added.

1250, Cimabue, 1240-1302, Duecento in Florance, he had Byzantine teachers and worked in mosaic, fresco, and panel painting.

1300, Giotto, 1266-1337, Classic Rome in the Middle Ages, a new cycle of artists was beginning.


Cennini says, in his "Trattato della Pittura" book, Painting on walls in oil paint in Germany is a very common practice. By the 1500's oil on canvas was the way to go.

Sometimes the canvas was glued to the wall with casein, sometimes the casein was the medium also.

Venetian turpentine balsam, mastics and turpentine, with or without wax, and with or without ammonia in the wax, were the choices,.. added to that, thin hide glue will emulsify with egg, vegetable rice paste, nut oil, or gum. Lime and casein were the other choice mediums available.

Wax emulsion is ammonia and wax, called soap, soap plus cherry sap gum is the Byzantine choice up to this time and Giotto's favorite, so say's Cennini.

The support panel was coated with glue than canvas. Glue, gypsum or clay and lead white was the ground, another medium was egg with fig juice and water, a basic tempera.

The drawing was applied in Green Veronese Earth (iron), leaving white to be modeled both warm and cool. A darker green was made with burnt green earth, also Lamp Black and Yellow Ocher mixed. Sinopis and Cinabrese were the red earths.

Three graded tones to dark rounded and modeled everything. They also had boiled and sun dried linseed oil for glazing over the tempera. Sandarac (sandracca), was a final glaze. Giotto sometimes glazed in mastic over egg but he didn't mix them together. More mastic or oil than egg would make it turpentine based, a less advantageous mix.

If oil was used, sandracca (sandarac) couldn't be, they wouldn't mix or stick to each other. That's a major front in the battle of the "Paint Wars". Which medium was best? Oil of course won the battle, today I think acrylics won the war.

Egg or casein mediums were used to paint over dried plaster in the "a secco" technique, "a bueno" is fresco on wet lime, they were both used as wall murals.

1300, Duccio 1260-1318, Trecento in Siena. Byzantine style egg medium distemper painting with gold backgrounds, stained glass was a new medium.

1330, Simone Martini, 1284-1344, Siena, fresco reigns around the Mediterranean. Simone paints some buildings with a single center vanishing point, the second vanishing point had never been adequately explained, because the horizon line was never divided by unaligned buildings in an image.

1345-1400, Bohemia is the center for International Gothic and "courtly commissioned paintings". Tapestries, stained-glass, painted statues, and lots of illuminations, fresco was developed here, later. John the Good, a Valois King had 239 tapestries made for his castle. Prague Cathedral had over sixty altarpieces.

1350, The first easel painting were done in the Paris School, following the altarpiece wing panel. These included the first pure landscapes.

1400, Claus Sluter, 1375-1405, French sculptor, High Art in marble "Well of Moses".

1400, Theophanes, the last of a long line of Greeks, worked in Moscow while it was becoming the most important art center for the icon.

1400, Gentile De Fabriano, 1360-1427, Umbrian, International Gothic, his work was just too charming, I could almost hear birds in the background, but he was gaining on the realistic.

1400, Sassetta, 1392-1450, Quattrocento in Siena, his eye could see the second point of perspective, sometimes, but he never dreamed there could be a third and forth point.

1400, Fra Angelico 1387-1445, Quattrocento in Florence.
TECHNIQUE, He used the most expensive colors in the old style, his bright yellow halos were painted with the new tin-lead yellow oxide, maybe he was the best of the old school, the last best. He avoided gray or brown in colors, instead his shadows were of the same deeper color. His main medium was egg tempera.

1400, Tomaso Masaccio, 1401-1428, Florence. The brightest shooting star that ever was. The first artist to reach the "high art" of painting for over a thousand years, others would not be far behind but he would never see them, he died when he was twenty seven. Masaccio had a new conception of reality, life wasn't staged in his frescoes, it was happening!

1410, Andrei Rublev ?1360-1430? is the most famous of the Moscow artists. Icons persisted for the next eight centuries in Russia, never getting very realistic.

1450, Piero Della Francesca, 1416-1492, painted in fresco, studied and taught Geometry and perspective. He influenced Jacopo Bellini, 1400-1470, Mantegna's father-in- law. Gentile Bellini, 1429-1507.

1475, Giovanni Bellini, 1430-1516, Quattrocento in Viennese, he followed Mantegna's style of tonal atmosphere, art has reached the peak. Giovanni went from egg to oil medium in his lifetime.

*Filarete, 1400-1469, TECHNIQUE, of the German School.

*Filarete, 1400-1469, TECHNIQUE, of the German School.

1450, Hubert Van Eyck, 1390-1441, mixed up boiled linseed or nut oil and mastic medium, and glazed over an egg-oil-water tempera under paintings, done in white on a colored "imprimatura" ground. A similar technique as described by Theophilus two hundred years earlier.

1500, "Marciana Library" manuscript.

TECHNIQUE, Under painting white made from half oil white and half tempera white, became very hard, very opaque, and was very fast drying. It could be laid into wet or dry varnish mastic, balsam or oil. Corrections were made in white, glazes colored the picture.

1500, Flippino Lippi, 1457-1504, Quattrocento in Florence, son of Fra Filippo Lippi and a better painter by one generation.

1500, Signorelli, 1441-1506, Quattrocento in Umbrea, shaded with black, perfect figures with lots of action, fresco.

1500, Andrea Del Sarto, 1486-1531, High Renaissance Italy. Started in fresco in Florence, switched to oil from water based paint and became one of the greats.

1500, Giovanni Bellini, 1477-1576, Giorgione and Titian were fellow pupils of his in 1508.

1500, Georgione, 1478-1510, The High Renaissance in Italy, the classical era of Venetian painting began with Georgione.

1500, Bottichelli, 1444-1510, Florence.

1500, Hieronymus Bosch, 1444-1516, Netherlands, the first "comic book" painter, his world belongs to Satan, he painted in oil alla prima style.

1500, COLOR, Gamboge, a transparent yellow resin gum is being used in oil and water color.

1500, Da Vinci, 1452-1519, He tried everything in paint, liked nut oil, and suggested "rock oil" which was local crude oil. His one biggest mistake we all remember, the Milan wall painting in the German oil technique. The Atlas describes Germany as in a cold moist belt and Milan in a warm and rainy belt. I think the wall was moist when he painted it. He studied under Verrocchio. Leonardo as born in village of Anchiano near town of Vinci near Florence) to Caterina and Ser Piero as an illegitimate son. Died 67 years later in Cloux (France).

LIGHT. Up to this period, light was from the sky, it rarely produced shadows. The Germans were adding some in the 1480's but they were minor, most paintings were done in the "clear light" without shadows. You can always tell a portrait painted inside with an outside background, like the Mona Lisa, it doesn't fit. Light from a definite, logical source started happening about 1525. Da Vinci's unnatural light pointed out the obvious.

THEORY. Four colors, Red, Blue, Green, Yellow, plus white and black. The same as Hering in 1880,

1500, Correggio, 1489-1534, Parma. It seems he had no teachers but his work has a Da Vinci feeling. Don't confuse him with the better artist a hundred years later, Caravaggio, 1573-1610.

1500, Albrecht Durer, 1471-1528, German Renaissance. It's said that Titian visited him to see the brushes that painted such fine hair. He said they were made from hairs off the back of his hand, he painted in egg tempera.

TECHNIQUE, Durer drew in black egg tempera and just glazed over a clean ground with mastic and color, then used an egg and nut oil tempera for details and under painting, then more glazes. Tempera white doesn't sponificate as oil lead white does and nut oil doesn't yellow as badly as linseed.

1534, this is new information.
March 12, 2005
Science News, by Alexandra Goho

Louisa Matthew found a 1534 inventory of artists' materials from a sales color house in Venice.

Louisa Matthew, an art historian at Union College in Schenectady, NY, and Barbara Berrie, a conservation scientist at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., electron scanned more then 100 items from that list. Azurite (transparent cyan), vermillion (opaque red), orpiment (transparent yellow), red lakes (transparent magenta), antimony (opaque yellow lead). Manganese made opaque white, opaque black was native, raw and burnt brown, red, magenta, purple and violet. Blue, green and violet are good driers. Manganese was an important pigment.

Then re-analyzed previous paint samples of Titian, Lotto (who also kept a pigment list in 1522), Tintoretto, Perugino and Raphael.

Barbara found glass particles mixed with their oil medium fine transparent glazes.
That sheds light on how the Venetians of the Italian Renaissance got such depth and translucency into their paintings. They painted with transparent pigments.

Venice was the glass making capitol of the world. Crystal (cristallo) was the finest colorless glass made from quartzite silica which was obtained from along the Tinico River in Northern Italy.

I have never tested glass as a drier, but I do know that the lesser oil amount will yellow least. Adding bulk to the oil glaze means the original amount of oil used is less. This can cut your oil down 50% in volume and add light and depth to the paint while reducing future yellowing.

Glass Frits covered the opaque color spectrum, opaque lead-tin yellow, opaque cobalt blue smalt, opaque copper cyan (Egyptian) with the full range of greens as iron was added to cobalt blue. Antimony was calcined to make yellow and orange hues in frit, probably red also. I don't think the lakes could take the heat of molten glass so ground glass was added to the medium instead of making a frit out of magenta. This is Lauisa Matthew's great contribution to lost knowledge.

NOTICE: Ground glass, 4 to 8 microns wide, hastens the drying time of oil as well as adding transparency and solidity to magenta transparent dye, that was Rose Madder Lake at the time.

The High Rennaissance had a full set of transparent colors and we never knew how they got it until now.

By adding finely crushed clear glass to linseed, stand oil and balsams, the medium itself will then redirect light back to you. You will see deeper into the thickness of the oil media.

These are the best transparent primary colors in history.
PY153 Nickel Dioxine Yellow Complex and Isoindolinone Yellow R are the brown/side Indian Yellows.
Phthalocyanine Blue, PB15 transparent (Cyan)
Quinacridone Magenta Y form PR122

1550, Bruegel the Elder, 1525-1569, Netherlands. Painted in resin-oil paint.

1550, Michelangelo, 1475-1564, High Renaissance Italy. He was in a class by himself, He didn't like Da Vinci, fought with Raphael, and took no students. He was a sculptor until 1503 when he first picked up a brush, already the most famous artist alive. He made his own gilded frames and always did prefer sculpting.

THEORY. Although he never professed it, his first painting "The Holy Family" when he was 28 years old divided into three colors, Yellow, Cyan, and Magenta. The cyan could have been Azurite, Blue Vitriol or Pompeian Blue Lake, a Ferris-cyan, Indigo, or Bremen Blue or a native Cobalt Blue that had a cyan color. It wasn't Ultramarine Blue. Whatever pigment he used had the right color in it

*Goethe, 1749-1832,

TECHNIQUE, "Italian Journeys", Speaks on Tintoretto, "He painted directly alla prima with full color on a red bolus ground, sometimes only the highlights survived". It was a very fast technique called "fa presto!". He was really good and really fast.

1550, Tintoretto, 1518-1594, Italian High Renaissance.
LIGHT. An artist finally showing the outside sun with shadows playing on the figures. A technical victory in the Paint Wars.

1550, Titian, 1477-1576, Venice, High Renaissance. Resin oil over tempera.

LIGHT. Titian paints "Bacchus and Ariadne" at dusk. TECHNIQUE,

*Armenini, Italy

*Vasari, said egg and oil started in Germany, and that Titian started working tight, he loosened up in old age because of his eyesight. He let his fingers do the blending, usually. Titian and the Venetian School, painted on a bolus ground of dark gray, brown or dark red. The drawing was done with white chalk, layout and modeling was done in the mixed-white impasto under paintings, the "blackboard effect". El Greco, Titian's student painted with the same techniques. No extra color was used in the white under painting, so middle areas were scumbled on into half-tones, and shadows received enough white to except and show color with glazes.

1575, El Greco, 1541-1614, A Cretan living in Toledo, Spain. He studied under Titian.

LIGHT. El Greco paints a city in a storm, "View of Toledo". He laid a blue-green final glaze over the dried painting for the night effect.


Gauze, stretched on a frame and drawn on, shows fore shortening and accurate layouts.

Retical, a string grid on a movable frame held in one spot to relate size proportions. Van Gogh used one.

Mirror, to see in reverse, placed to see the model and picture simultaneously.

Black mirror, to check faults in tonality.

The so called Claude Glass, was named to honor the landscape artist, Claude Lorraine. He did not invent it though. Gainsborough also was associated with this device.
"It was a compact-looking fold up mirror, that was slightly convex. Either hand tinted or with a black backing. The overall effect for the artist's purpose was to allow the subtlety of the middle greys to emerge, while suppressing the overwhelming highlights. The darks were still preserved with detail. The convexity of the glass compacted the overall scene and aided in the area of perspective. The Science of Art, Martin Kemp, Yale University Press.

Reducing glass, sees the whole picture without standing back.

Colored glass, cyan will show the strength of warm colors, yellow will expose contrasts.

Plummet, a weighted string to check against vertical.

Pantograph, enlarges 2D images mechanically.

Measuring stick, size relationships measured from an arm's length.

Real color wheel, to show oppositions for mixing neutral dark in colored pigment, instead of using black pigment.


1/1575, 2/1630, 3/1630, 4/1650, 5/1659, 6/1665, 7/1680, 8/1710, 9/1750, 10/1780, 11/1795, 12/1800, 13/1810, 14/1827, 15/1841, 16/1060, 17/1867, 18/1870, 19/1881, 20/1890, 20/1897

1575, Veronese, 1526-1588, Italy.

TECHNIQUE, Marco Boschini said, Veronese covered his whole canvas with a green middle tone, than laid the picture out in blue egg tempera before adding white tempera highlights. Over this he painted in oils.

1600, Rome, The Art Jubilee, 3 million visitors, artists from every nation came to visit, Some stayed for thirty years, what a party!

1600, Caravaggio, 1573-1610, Florence.

LIGHT, Light would come in from a window, an obvious external light. He and Masaccio are two of the most important painters that ever lived, one mastered form the other mastered light. Caravaggio's light was called "luminism", an internal picture painted with real external entering light. He was only thirty-eight when he died of malaria, they both died young.

1630, Van Dyck, 1599-1641, Antwerp, Rubens considered him to be his best student, by age 19 he was a master. His best work was done in England.

TECHNIQUE, De Mayerne said, Van Dyck used a very thin painting medium of linseed oil and mastic, new colors were made daily except for white, which was ground in nut oil and preserved under water. It was thicker back then. His ground was gray, beginning with a brown painting which included the shadows, he under painted the highlights with white, the painting was finished alla prima. Venetian balsam was used as a retouching medium and applied warm and thin.

1630, COLOR,

Bitumen, or Asphaltum was introduced in 1630 and it was to become a very well liked color. They called it the "soup" because of its easy mixing and painting qualities. With so much oil in it, it was a very poor drier and could only be used as a final glaze or it would crack. This was the color that took yellow to brown. The Roman's used this color for awhile, it was re-discovered by the Dutch but recent test show Rembrandt didn't use it. Doerner said his studies say that he did.

1630, Adriaen Brouwer, 1605-1638, Flemish, The "bad boy" of artists, live fast and die young. He painted bar scenes like his friend Frans Hals,

LIGHT, He painted landscapes by the dim light of the moon. LIGHT, 1730, One hundred years later one man put it all together, Chardin, 1699-1779, he conquered natural light, In 1830, another hundred years later, Corot, 1796-1875, would conquer natural color, painting outdoors where the natural light and color lives.

1630, Rubens, 1577-1640, Flemish, what an inspiration, a great painter. He studied with Titian when he was twenty three, went to mass everyday and at fifty three married a girl sixteen.

TECHNIQUE, Doerner said, Rubins preferred oil of turpentine to oil of spike. Oil of spike has solvent action on lower layers, which he didn't like.

TECHNIQUE, De Mayerne, Rubens physician, wrote "Pictoria, Sculpturia et quae Subalternarum Artium" and said this about Rubins. He used a white gypsum and glue ground and a light gray egg tempera imprimatura, he mixed Venetian turpentine, sun-thickened walnut oil and mastic as a medium, 3:2:1, and enough siccative to dry in a day. These are the same proportions I use, but with Linseed Oil. He begin by painting the shadows lightly without a hint of added white. Lights have body, lay each tone in its place one after the other before lightly mixing them with the brush. Paint the highlights white, place next to them yellow, then red, and use a darker red to carry them over to the shadows.

Use a cool brush load of gray to go over and soften them into the desired tone. Develop the contours slowly, without forcing the development of the picture, this is a new idea of his. Clean brushes are important. Don't paint over places that have sunk in before bringing them out. His shadow tones were glazes of Cassel Brown and Gold Ocher, reflections in the shadows were painted with a highly calcined Burnt Sienna that looked like Vermilion. Alternate warm and cool glazes with transparent colors only.

1630, Zurbaran, Spain, his paintings date from 1629 to 1642. His art contains elements of both Caravaggism and chiaroscuro.

LIGHT, Hidden internal directed light, this is chiaroscuro, an area radiating light to other areas.

1612, Georges Dumesnil De La Tour, 1593-1652, France.

LIGHT. His light came from an exposed or hidden candle, both he and Gerard Dou painted this light called chiaroscuro, a pinpoint of radiating light.

1646, Jan Van Goyen, 1596-1656, Netherlands. He did with light outside as Rembrandt did inside, new changes on the horizon line, literally, he lowered it to show more sky.

1652, Rebera, 1591-1652, Spain, Born in Milan, a Spanish possession, he worked in Naples with a Spanish spirit in the Valencian school.

1655, Poussin, 1594-1665, French, classical remnant. Rubens had just died, so classical scenes were still popular.

1650, Velasquez, 1599-1660, Spain. Some say he was the most painterly of painters, others think his contemporary Frans Hals was.

TECHNIQUE, 1650. Palomino said, grounds were made of gypsum and glue, or a half-chalk ground of glue, linseed oil, and pipe clay, the panels were then primed with oil paint. Velasquez used a dark ground and gray under painting, then painted alla prima with heavy liquid resin glazes. Verdigris and black made the shadows. Verdigris was a blue-green copper based color that had to be isolated with either egg, gum, or shellac, where it wouldn't effect the lead colors. Glue painting was practiced in Seville as a preparatory training for oil painting.

1656, Frans Hals, 1580-1666, Dutch. Talk about huge, some of his "official" group portraits measured 25' x 25'. Hals had fun painting, can you imagine being in a bar drinking with your friends and painting them having a good time.

TECHNIQUE, He painted on a gray ground like Rubins and used the same medium. The picture was laid out in white and brown egg tempera and painted alla prima in oil. This is a very fast technique.

1656, Carman, a transparent magenta lake replaced Dragon's Blood and Madder Lake, actually any and all were used according to availability, non were really permanent.

1659, Rembrandt, 1606-1669, Dutch.

LIGHT, The next light was hidden but not as obviously. He directed external lights into interiors. Natural sunlight is not chiaroscuro, Rembrandt's light seems to come from a spotlight of sorts, that's the boundary of chiaroscuro. A pin point of light.

TECHNIQUE, Sandrart said, Rembrandt said, "It is all-important to hold only to nature and no other rules", I like that, that's the way you learn, and that's what it's all about.

Rembrandt, painted on a light umber brown ground and under modeled with white, his medium was mastic resin, Venetian turpentine and thick oils. Naples yellow with its high density covering power was an important color with Rembrandt as with Rubins, mixed with Smalt he made his greens. De Wild said, it was another lead color, Massicot. Rembrandt had a flair for form definition, sharpening it or losing it to the background.The National Gallery of Art Washington, DC said Rembrandt didn't use Naples Yellow, using instead, Lead-tin Yellow. They also said he didn't use resins or balsams, perhaps stand oil, as they only found linseed oil on his canvases.

The northern Dutch school of art had left the southern Venetian school behind. Stand oil was king at the time of Rembrandt's death in 1669. While the Flemish Rubens in 1640 used balsams, mastics and sun thickened oil. Rembrandt was a changing figure just as Giovanni Bellini went from egg to oil. These are the latest findings

Pages 224 to 225 in Artists Pigments show very well how; names considered synonymous with Naples yellow included the composition of lead-tin yellow and would have been called the same color, in this case Giallolino. Kuhn in 1968 first called two types of related lead stannate yellows lead-tin yellow 1 and lead-tin yellow 2, plus they were given names lead tin oxide and cubic lead-tin oxide. In effect calling the same basic color Naples yellow, lead-tin yellow.

Lead-tin yellow replaced antimony yellow in 1300. That which was sometimes called Naples yellow in 1550, is now called lead-tin yellow since 1968. Antimony yellow replaced lead-tin yellow in 1750"

TECHNIQUE, Doerner says, Rembrandt premixed a warm and cool white which he laid on in layers, one over the other. Doerner said Rembrandt's glazes would sometimes be asphaltum mixed with 150% linseed oil, a yellow-brown transparent oil tar color that took a long time to dry. Rembrandt understood the color theory that yellow darkened to brown and red was half yellow, so it too darkened to brown. A painting problem arises when the brown is darkened with black instead of its opposite color Ultramarine Blue. Ruisdael figured this out. The National Gallery of Art, mediums and pigments. 1999 reported Rembrandt did not use Asphaltum. I still think he did, he was the master of brown.

1660, Ruisdael, 1600-1670, Netherlands. He did the best Dutch job on clouds, Smalt and Umber were mixed together to a neutral dark that matched the underside of clouds. He still went from yellow to red to brown to black for everything else though, that was the Dutch way.

1665, Gerard Dou, 1613-1675, Dutch. He pre-made an unbelievable amount of flesh colors and like many of his day, didn't really need a model.

1665, Jan Vermeer, 1632-1675, Dutch, The next generation after Rembrandt went for more natural colors and natural light.

LIGHT, Light wasn't a mystery, it was there. Coming in from the window, it has direction and shadows. With that idea and thirty five paintings he was recognized.

1665, Murillo, 1665-1675, Spain, Naturalism, similar in greatness to Caravaggio, 1573-1610, He was a serious painter, not like the frivolous, popular, overpaid, color banging Mannerist, Lorrain.

Art was going to pieces up there in France.

1666, Newton, 1642-1727, England.

THEORY, He devised the first color wheel. His theory "Optics" had the right idea, dividing the prism and bringing it back together again. However he chose the wrong primary colors, magenta and cyan were missing. Magenta doesn't show up in a crystal rainbow spectrum, but it does when you rotate the prism.

1670, Willem Claesz, 1594-1680, Dutch Haarlem school. "Monochrome feasts" is what the Dutch called these low keyed paintings.

1672, Claude Lorrain, 1600-1682, French Mannerist. Give them an idealized beautiful picture and they will buy it, and we can hire our friends to paint in some people. This school of images extends into Turner, 1775-1851, who liked his likable light and bright colors. The public was increasing, more people had money and less taste was required, soon sex would enter the equation, men would be idealized, going after a market.

1672, Murello, 1618-1682, Spain. These were great times with great artists. Murello painted a simple moment in his real subjects life, it's like they didn't have to pose, the moment wouldn't last that long anyway.

FROM HERE IN 1670 to 1870. Here in time, the High Art painters are all alive and in their prime.

1673, Pieter De Hooch, 1629-1683, Dutch. He and Velasquez both mastered one point perspective, one painting very small, the other painting huge.

1680, David Teniers the Younger, 1610-1690, Flemish. Followed the style of Brouwer, started the Antwerp Academy, and was a friend of Rubins.

1680, Charles Le Brun, 1619-1690, French. In "The Train of Queen Maria Theresa at Her Entry into Paris", he painted the Chancellor Seguier on a horse under an umbrella with six male attendants taking care. Le Brun was the designer of Versailles.

Elizabeth Lebrun, a hundred years later was a great female painter, better than Le Brun. Don't get them confused with each other. Le Brun's reign was ended by Mignard, the painter of woman of status.

1685, Pierre Mignard, 1612-1695, French straight arrow. Imagine the perfect little girl portrait, "The Duchess of Maine as a Child", sitting on piles of beautiful pillows blowing soap bubbles. He's up in Murillo's class as a painter and with more money and a more varied palette. This school would lead to Lebrun, 1755-1842, Gainsborough, 1727-1788, and Reynolds, 1723-1792.

1700, COLOR,

English Vermilion Dark, syn., the best of the bunch, except for the cool dark Chinese Vermilion. Others are Antimony Vermilion, Mercuric Sulfide Vermilion which will blacken some colors, Mercuric Iodide Vermilion which is impermanent, and Eosine Vermilion with the fugitive coal-tar dye eosine. Since their all opaque, today, Cadmium Red's will do the job better, at least cheaper. The color is almost the same.

1705, COLOR,

Bister was a transparent yellow to brown, duel-tone color. It was made from charred beechwood and was mainly a water-color pigment. The yellows were not very bright.

1710, Watteau, 1684-1721, French, was a painter of fashion and show, good teachers passed down knowledge of techniques and it didn't take long to make good artists, all you needed to do was practice. There were enough wealthy clients who appreciated an artist that appreciated their tastes.

1724, Germany discovered it in 1704, England said it was theirs. The "Paint War" fuse was lit, England, France and Germany were stealing from each other.

COLOR, Prussian Blue, a dual-tone transparent color that was getting close to cyan in its transparent undertone. It's deep mass color has a black-green quality that makes a dirty purple, nice green's though. Iron and the gas cyanogen.

COLOR, Heated Prussian Blue made a permanent Prussian Brown.

1750, TECHNIQUE, (Shegers misspelled) Daniel Seghers the flower painter used Strasbourg turpentine from the white pine, which is perhaps even better then Venetian balsam turpentine, it could be made in this country [USA], but isn't. Canadian Balsam is perhaps the best today, it is made from the white pine. To this he added sun-thickened nut oil, a very good combination. The support was oak board covered with a fine thin canvas, over this, eight thin layers of gesso. Eight thin layers of rabbit skin glue, chalk and lead white would dry as fast as water, the last layers are the thinnest of course.

On top of the white gesso he darkened with caput mortuum, he lightened some areas with yellow ocher. Both with egg yolk medium. Modeling was done with lead white egg tempera. Colored glazes of resin-oil divided the flowers into three tones, high, middle and shadow. He didn't hesitate to work into his darker glazes with tempera white and antimony lead Naples yellow. That means his glazes colored his completed grazelle, the darkest shadows were added glazes.

The pre-drawing was pounced on and announced with thin India ink. Caput Mortuum and egg yolk laid in his shadows, then light ocher for the middle tones. Egg tempera white painted the highlights. Now he was finished with his base painting, and ready for oil. His medium was Venetian balsam and sun-thickened linseed oil, 2:1, thinned with turpentine. Colored glazes on each flower and further heightening with white egg tempera in the wet oil glaze for details. The mixed technique. Reflections were painted in egg tempera white and oil glazed, backgrounds were strengthened, Naples yellow was used with white in the highest highlights.

The shadows were deep resin-oil accents, again three distinct tones molded the form. Cool green earth oil glazing neutralized the heat when it was necessary, Vermeer painted in a similar technique.

1755, Tobios Mayer,

THEORY, Color theory by math, but he picked the wrong triad colors, red, blue and yellow.

1756, Nattier, 1685-1766, made his fortune painting ladies of the court as Diana and such.

1758, Hogarth, 1697-1768, English portraits, engraving and genre paintings.

1758, Canoletto, 1697-1768, Venetian buildings, cooling his shadows down with the new Prussian blue and brown. His perspective is still slightly off.

1760, Tiepolo, 1666-1770, Neo-classic Venetian.

1760, Boucher, 1703-1770, Watteau's style was carried on.

1769, Chardin, 1699-1779, He used the new Prussian blue in "Boy Drawing" in 1737. Still using black to darken his brown shadows. Realist.

1778, Gainsborough, 1727-1788, A fashionable painter, well paid, great artist, His "Blue Boy" was painted with the new Prussian blue.

1780, COLOR, Cobalt Blue Imitation. Cobalt aluminate blue spinel, replaced natural cobalt calcined oxide by 1802, it will never be the right color again. Natural cobalt must be used for murals,

1781, COLOR, Turner's Yellow, became very popular, an opaque lead oxychloride.

1782, Reynolds, 1723-1792, England's best.

TECHNIQUE, Doerner said, Reynolds praised a wax soap emulsion combined with Venice turpentine as the best of painting media. I say, try it, you'll like it. It has the consistently of oil paint with a water base, it dries insoluble and permanent. Reynolds, before a portrait setting would under paint the head area in white, so a thin vale of color applied early could be used as a final stroke. No problem for us today, those using acrylic primed supports that don't yellow.

1788. COLOR, Emerald green, a copper arsinate that can't be matched by any other element, warning, it turns lead and cadmium, black and is the most poisonous color.

1788, Mosas Harris, English.

THEORY, He and Gainsborough made an eighteen color wheel with no Cyan or Magenta in sight. He also placed Ult. Blue opposite Orange, the mistake that matched Tobios Mayer in 1755 was going to continue for awhile.

1790, England. COLOR,

A new color wheel, the first made for light instead of pigments, and it had the colors right. Red, green and blue, credit Movwell of Great Britain for it.

1795, Greuz, 1725-1805, English. An excellent straight forward painter.

1796, Fragonard, 1732-1806, English. Well paid color exhibitionist, poor drawing as giants go.

1797, COLOR, Chrome Yellow and Orange, neutral lead salts colored by chromous acid, Van Gogh would use it in his "Sunflowers" painting one hundred years later. Today chrome yellow is an encapsulated pigment so it's safe to use.
Chrome yellows offer several advantages as an artist oil paint. Compared to cadmium yellow and azo yellow, chrome yellows make dense, opaque paints that brush out long and flowing, yet the brush marks hold their shape.
Owing to its high refractive index of 2.3 to 2.7, lead chromate possesses good hiding power (opacity). The pigment's high tinting strength allows pure lead chromate to be diluted with extender pigments. The medium chrome yellows, which usually contain a minimum amount of lead sulfate, tend to have the greatest opacity and tinting strength.
Lead chromates dry moderately well, although chrome yellow primrose dries slower than the light and medium varieties. It is known that they enhance the film-forming qualities of oil paints. Interestingly, lead chromate pigments do not form lead soaps in the process.
Lead chromates disperse well in oil and have very low oil absorption, ranging from 16% to 27%. When ground in oil chrome pigments do not readily separate if the pigment is well dispersed. This is an advantage because pigment stabilizers are not necessary to make a paint that stores well, and provides a paint with the maximum pigment load possible.
Rublev Colours first introduced Chrome Yellow Primrose as an artist oil paint in August 2010, and today introduce Chrome Yellow Light and Chrome Yellow Medium. All chrome yellows in Rublev Colours Artists Oils use the encapsulated pigment type that is lightfast and resistant to acids and alkalis. The three chrome yellows offered by Rublev Colours in linseed oil are: Primrose, Light and Medium.

1800, COLOR, Zinc Oxide White, zinc is a very slow drier, it can be calcined to yellow only temporarily. It is a very brittle pigment and needs a strong support beneath it.

1800, England, COLOR, Indian Yellow, the best and very permanent transparent yellow was brought to England from India, where it had been used as a pigment for as long as India had cows. The raw product is called Monghyr, magnesium euxanthate natural organic, after a city in Bangal. England made this in oil and kept its ingredients a secret for eighty years. It was in brown to yellow and orange to yellow, two duel-toned colors.

The artist's had it made, a transparent triad palette in tubes for the first time. 1.Transparent duel-toned Indian Yellow. 2.Transparent duel-toned Madder Lake, which was close to Magenta. Treating Madder Lake in a sulfur acid bath made it "New and Improved" Alizarin in 1826, and 3.Prussian blue, an iron based transparent color close to Cyan. The three mixed into a neutral dark that could be pushed warm or cool.

These artist's painting from 1800 to 1909 made use of this Indian Yellow pigment until it was abruptly removed from access by the maker Winsor Newton; Vigee-LeBrun, David, Friedrich, Ingres, Carot, Delacroix, Rousseau, Millet, Courbet, Whistler, Manet, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley, Renoir, Eakins, Dagas, Cezanne, Seurat, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Sargent, Ostroukhov, Ripin, Serov, Matisse, Vlaminck, Derain, Bellows, Savrasov, Pukirev, Perov, Shishkin, Vasilievich, and Polenove.

The Russians had access to Indian Yellow long after the rest of Europe. Thirteen opaque colors are needed to replace this one transparent color, from Permanent Green Light to Cadmium Red Dark. No one has ever brought these colors back or made a comparable replacement. Synthetic Gamboge, 1950, by Old Holland is the best I've found, it will make a dark triad but a dirty Orange.

Blocks makes the best neutral Translucent Yellow oil color, it's very expensive, made from cobalt, and not really transparent even though they call it so.

Old Holland Transparent Indian Lake, Yellow, Orange and Brown, Extra, Syn., made from synthetic iron oxide and a dioxine nickel complex are transparent. The Yellow-Brown Lake Extra makes a good best dark, mixed with Ult. Blue Deep, its opposite color. This Indian Yellow isn't really a dark enough brown to do the whole job.

1804, Colodion, 1738-1814, French Rococo, high art sculpture.

1805, Copley, 1738-1815, American portraits, low-keyed color. Moved to England to study and stayed.

1809, THEORY, Otto Runge, His color wheel has White at the top and Black on bottom, the colors wrap around the middle of the sphere, He also chose the wrong primary colors. Red, Yellow, and Blue opaque plus the pigment Black for shades, a bad habit still made today.

1810, THEORY, Goethe made a double intersecting triangle color wheel. A six color wheel without Magenta or Cyan. Blood red was opposite Emerald Green instead of Cyan. Van Gogh was influenced and Matisse used his oppositions.

1814, Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson, 1767-1824, French NeoClassicism, taught Giricult, and lead the way for Elisabeth Vige'e-Lebrun, both great female artists,

1815, Henry Fuseli, 1741-1825, Zurich, England, taught at the Royal Academy, his dreamlike paintings were of nightmares.

1815, David, 1748-1825, Paris, Rome, Paris, history paintings and portraits, France loved him. He glazed his finished monotone painting with color.

1818, Stuart, 1755-1828, American portraits, studied in England and returned home to paint Washington, he and Copley were the greats of this era in America.

1818, Goya, 1746-1828, Spain. I saw his picture "Y Luceintes", it was huge in the Valesquez style, the iris eye of the prisoner was as big as a quarter.

TECHNIQUE, Goya used warm light bolus grounds, white under painting and varnish mastic glazes as well as solid colors.

1825, Gros, 1771-1835, French, battle paintings. Student of David.

1826, COLOR, Permanent Alizarin was discovered in natural root Madder Lake, the purpurin was subtracted with sulfuric acid.

1827, Constable, 1776-1837, England. Turner's friend, heavy on landscapes.

1828 COLOR, Cadmium Zinc Yellow Sulfide.

COLOR, Synthetic Ult, Blue, made from clay, soda, sulfur, coal and heat.

1830, Gasper Friedric, 1744-1840, German Romanticism. Great moments of light and color, W/C and oils. A great "starving artist".

1832, Elizabeth Vigee-LeBrun, 1775-1842, France. She improved art over 17th century France, with her colors and gestures. She showed the new colors the best in my opinion, excellent drawing, the "high-artist" of the time.

1835, Discovered in 1780, produced in 1835.

COLOR, Cobalt Green.

1838. Discovered in 1807, produced in 1838.

COLOR, Transparent Viridian, or Oxide of Chromium Brilliant, hydrous, duel-toned, black in mass. Viridian made the copper colors and intermediate glazing unnecessary.

COLOR, Green Oxide of Chromium, or Chrome Green, opaque anhydrous, Viridian heated removes the transparent water content.

1839, THEORY,

Chevreul made a twelve color wheel, Yellow, Red, and Blue again, wrong complements, wrong after images, Yellow is not opposite purple, Ult.Blue is not opposite orange and Red is not the complement of Green. His complements in "Simultaneous Contrast of Color" made mud, he never completed his solid model.

1841, Turner, 1775-1851, England. Romantic and lyrical, light without much form. It was 1841 when the tubes of paint became available for artists to use, making it easier for them to work outside!

1846, Chasseriau, 1819-1856, France. Student of Ingres at age twelve, very good.

1850, Discovered in 1830, produced in 1850.

COLOR, Cobalt Yellow or Aureolin Yellow, cobalt salt and potassium nitrite. This is a nonstaining yellow, loved by water colorists.

COLOR, Manganese Blue, Barium Manganate, Opaque, a Green-side Cyan.

COLOR, Gamboge, a yellow gum resin is popular again in water-color and as a synthetic oil color in 1950. Transparent, cool Yellow top-tone (adding white to the pigment is top-tone).

1853, Delacroix, 1798-1863, French. He developed a looser style that showed the brush-strokes. He visited Morocco for painting influence. Delacroix Journal, 1857.

1856, Perkins discovered aniline colors, from coal tar. Because coal-tar colors have no body, they must be lakes or precipitated on clay, or mineral colors.

COLOR, Perkins Mauve, later called Alizarin Madder Lake or Alizarin Crimson.

1857, Ingres, 1780-1867, French. He preferred painting woman and glazed his monochrome under painting like David.

1859, COLOR, Magenta, the year the named color Magenta was born. It got its name from the location of a battle in Italy even though Magenta is not blood red. It was transparent, that was good, but fugitive, too bad. It was also called Solferino.

1860, Ge, ?1860?, Russian, a founding member of the Circle of Itinerants. They really liked Indian Yellow from the paintings I saw, they were ahead in the world of painting, European artist's were influenced by them, but we never got to see their work. You had to be there.

1660, V. Makovskii, ?1860?, Russian genre painter. Excellent.

1860, I. Levitan, ?1860?, Russian, Moscow, Italy, France. "Circle of Itinerants", realist, landscapes.

1860, V.Pukirev, ?1860?, Russian portrait and genre painter, considered one the best.

1860, COLOR, Cobalt Violet, Cobaltous Crystalline Phosphate, calcined cobalt oxide and phosphorus oxide, German, a great discovery, a cool Magenta color, necessary to make colors between Magenta and Cyan including Ult. Blue and Azure, no other element can make this color. It sometimes contains arsenic and darkens, Cobaltous Oxide Arsenate, French.

1862, THEORY,

The Japanese color wheel was recognized, five colors, White, Yellow, Red, Ult.Blue and Black. Yellow came from White, Blue from Black, no Magenta or Cyan. The internal prism spectrum is similar.

1865, Millet, 1814-1875, French, Formed the Barbizon School, painting nature and working people with Rousseau, combining nature with figures.

1865, Corot, 1796-1875, French. Painting in "plein air" was in its infancy with Desportes, Carot and Courbet. I like Corot and what he said, "I don't give a damn about Poussin, broad outlines, or the classical, I'm in the woods". It's sort of like living here on Maui. He liked Indian Yellow as a glaze.

1867, V. Perov, ?1867?, Moscow. A founding member of the Circle of Itinerant, Heavy Indian Yellow, genre scenes, and portraits.

1867, Courbet, 1819-1877, France, Switzerland, top painter in France. An accurate realist. Because of all the coming wars starting in 1870, Courbet would be the last good realist, except in Russia and America. With the start of World War I, all art started to crumble.

1868, German.

COLOR, Manganese Violet, Manganese Chloride, Phosphoric Acid, and Ammonium Carbonate, permanent cool Magenta.

1869, Daumier, 1808-1879, French. Master of monochrome. He began as a lithographer and carried the technique into painting. Corot was his friend.

1869, I. Kramskoi, ?1869?, Russian, a founding member of the "Circle of Itinerants", a realist.

1869, I. Shiskkin, ?1869? Russian, co-founder of the "Circle of Itinerants", realist, landscapes, master of intensity reversal of objects and background, no one was ever better.

1870, COLOR,

Cerulean Blue, opaque, permanent, Cobaltous Stannate, cobalt oxide and tin oxide.

1870, A. Kuinczhi, ?1870?, Russian, landscapes, realist, loved Indian Yellow.

1870, Baksheev, ?1870?, Moscow, realist, Circle of Itinerants. You had to be good to be a member.

1870, Franco-Prussian War. When war's begin, art starts going downhill, as all time has shown.

1873, Manet, 1832-1883, French, Impressionist, Black and White, with other colors, not much on modeling the form, but he proportioned the figure well.

1875, V. Vasilievich, ?1875?, Russian, world traveler, visited India, used Indian Yellow, realist.

1876, Asher Brown Durand, 1796-1886, American Naturalist, Hudson River Valley School.

1877, V. Polenov, ?1877?, Russian, Circle of Itinerants, realist, landscapes, Master portrait painter, his was the most perfect perspective I've ever seen.

1879, THEORY, Ogden Rood made a double cone color model with White on top and Black at the bottom, Red, Green and Blue was his triad. There still was no Magenta or Cyan, but this was major.

1880, I. Ostrovkhov, ?1880?, Russian, Circle of Itinerants, realist, landscapes, he used Indian Yellow as a glaze.

1880, THEORY,

Ewald Hering came up with three opposing sets of colors, Yellow and Ult. Blue, Red and Green, and Black and White. A little different from the rest.

1880, Van Gogh, 1853-1890, Netherlands, France, massive line, stroke and texture. He didn't use glazes, his medium was turpentine. He liked wine and I think he drank some turpentine, that and the heavy metals in it, made him insane. The book Lust for Life by Irving Stone indicated he may have gotten epileptic while in Auvers. He used egg white as a glaze on at least one painting while in Arles. He shot himself on the 27th of July, 1890. Today history is trying to be changed, a school boy did it.

1881, Seurat, 1859-1891, French, pointalism, the new scientific way. Till this day people will tell you Red is the opposite of green, although they do vibrate there is no harmony.

1881, George Inness, 1825-1894, American, Hudson River School, realist, landscapes.

1881, PAINTS AND COLORS from the Household Cylopedia(making artists paint, house paint, varnishes and inks in 1881)305 Kb, opens a separate page,

1885, Berthe Morisot, 1841-1895, French, impressionist, low keyed color, in the Manet color range.



A. W. Keim, German. "Deutche Gesellschatf zur Forderung rationeller Malverfahren", The German Society for the Promotion of Rational Methods in Painting, 1886.
They set up control for the pigments in colors found best by the artists, to guarantee the color's characteristics and ingredients. These are the colors deemed necessary by the artists in 1886;

1. White Lead, 2. Zinc White, 3. Cadmium Yellow Light, Medium and Orange. Cadmium Red wasn't discovered until 1909, 4. Indian Yellow, 5. Naples Yellow Light and Dark, 6. Yellow to Brown, Natural and Burnt Ochers and Sienna, 7. Red Ocher, 8. Iron Oxide colors, 9. Graphite, 10. Alizarin Crimson Madder Lake (a Magenta colored fugitive pigment) 11. Vermilion, 12. Umbers, 13. Cobalt Blue, Native and Synthetic, 14. Ultramarine Blue, Natural and Synthetic, 15. Paris-Prussian Blue, 16. Oxide of Chromium, Opaque and Transparent Viridian, 17. Green Earth, 18. Ivory Black, 19. Vine Black.


1889, Sisley, 1839-1899, French Impressionist, landscapes, studied under Carot, drawing and color were sharing the theater.

1890, Winsor Newton stopped making Indian Yellow. Twenty-one years later they made it illegal. Political, bringing India to it's knees.

1895, Bouguereau, 1825-1905. (A separate window web page.) His greatest works start from 1865 when he was 40 up until 1900 when he was 75. There is a modest but perceptible drop in quality from that time forward until he passed away at 80 in 1905. The upper class of France was taking a beating, reactions were against them and all they had accomplished. Bouguereau was not given the respect he deserved, art was being dismantled by savages that were growing in number.
War was in the air and inferiority was getting the upper hand.

1890, I. Repin, Moscow, Studied in Paris for four years, leading portrait painter of Russia, his genre paintings were packed with drama,he was the best realist in the world at this time, maybe all time.

1891, Toulouse-Lautrec, 1864-1901, Paris, genre painter, lithograph posters of Montmartre life.

1893, Pissarro, 1830-1903, disciple of Corot before becoming an Impressionist, the weakest of the bunch in lineal perspective, although it wasn't the strong suit of any of them. They never understood the 90 degree principal, or the upper and lower vanishing points. Impressionism is Realism, speeded up for outside work.

1893, Gauguin, 1848-1903, France, Tahiti. He was a Primitive painter, leading the way of art in general.

Don't expect me to say this is good like the rest of the non-artist critics, it wasn't. Judging has been in the hands of outspoken critics for too long, today's post war self proclaimed art critics just don't know what's good. The unskilled must not lead the skilled, they like giving their opinion, loudly.

1895, Bouguereau, 1825-1905, France. The upper class of France was taking a beating, reactions were against them and all they had accomplished. Bouguereau was not given the respect he deserved, art was being dismantled by savages that were growing in number. War was in the air and inferiority was getting the upper hand.

1900, COLOR, Mapico (brand) Colors, Permanent Mars Colors, Synthetic Iron Oxides, Yellow, Orange, Red, Brown.

1900, K. Ivon, Leningrad, Impressionist.

1900, Cezanne, 1839-1906, French Impressionist, shorthand painting. The least talented of the group, beware of those that say otherwise, they have loud voices and can't paint realistically either.

1900, Rousseau, 1844-1910, French Primitive. He painted outdoor scenes, in his studio.

1900, Homer, 1836-1910, American. He began in illustration covering the Civil War for Harper's Weekly. His later works portrayed contemporary life, nature, and finally the sea. He could paint what he saw without using photo-mechanical aids, the best watercolorist ever, from a classical opinion. Naturally the wars caused a slide in art, as rigid correctness gave way to experimentation and new values, as the works of Marin, 1870-1953, show. Changes at this time were more important than correctness, "taste" is a relative term, "refined taste" is more precise, but not as loud by definition.

1903, Arkhipov, Moscow realist, they had realism, we had Cezanne. The only reason Realism was getting a bad name was political. It's 1998, the "Cold War" is over, let's get good again.
Note: Today, March 18th 2003. My Real Color Wheel and Color Course is getting 35,000 hits per month and growing.

1903, Grabar, Moscow, Impressionist, landscapes.

1903, Whistler, 1834-1903, U.S.A., England, Paris. Symbolism School, a crossover between Realism and Impressionism. The influx of Japanese prints influenced some of his work, as the "Old Battersea Bridge", 1872.


THEORY, Albert Munsell, 1905. He made a five color wheel with no triad. The principle colors he did have were, red, yellow, green, blue, and purple. No Magenta or cyan unless you conceder purple as the magenta and put cyan between green and blue. In a 5, 8 or 10 color wheel there is no triad possible. Next he darkened the colors with Black, mixed them with Gray, and tinted them with White, and numbered them all. This is still taught today. An eight or five or ten color wheel will not work. It has to be a 3, 6, 12, 24 or 36 color wheel to have a triad and correct opposite secondaries. In the element color wheel, colors do not darken with black like the RGB color wheel and the Munsell color wheel. This is wrong but still taught today.

1906, Redon, 1840-1916, French, Symbolism and Nabis, Art Nouveau.

1906, Eakins, 1844-1916, American. A realist like Courbet, America and Russia had some great High Art artists up to about 1930.

1906, Franz Marc, 1880-1916, Germany, died in WWI. He was one of the "Der Blaue Reiter" group, basically Fauve. An animal painter, he did more with pure color then the rest, he could draw well.

1907, Dagas, 1834-1917, Paris, Impressionist, pastel, oil, horses and woman, he was good.

1907, Ryder, 1847-1917, American, not realistic, "All an artist needs is a roof, a crust of bread and an easel, God will provide the rest".

1908, "The Eight", New York, American Ashcan School, Davies, Glackens, Henri, Luks, and Sloan. Bellows early works can be included.

1909, German,

COLOR, Cadmium Red, is made of three parts cadmium sulfide and two parts cadmium selenide. Selenium is an element resembling sulfur.

1909, V. Serov, Russian, realist, portraits, the greatest artist after Ripin, his teacher. Similar or better brush-strokes than Sargent.

1910, Renior, 1841-1919, solid Impressionism, solid forms, loved the human figure, not as good as Dagas in drawing but very good in color and light.

1910, Modigliani, 1884-1920, Italian, Crude outlined drawings painted in flat colors.

1911, COLOR, Azo Yellow, the second coal tar dye was a failure, it turned brown, but not before the big ban. England, under a puritan guise, banned the best transparent duel-tone Indian Yellow. Kicking the pins out from under the Realist and disgracing the name. So much for the worst year in color history.

1912, Utrillo, 1883-1955, France, A realist that painted what he saw in Montmartre, not particularly good, but unique for this time period. A breath of fresh air in European painting at this time. He was painting for the pleasure of painting, not to make a political statement. He was a recovering alcoholic.

1915, Sargent, 1856-1925, America, London. He studied in Paris in the 1870's when France was in top classical shape. America and Russia have the best realists at this time,

1915, Bellows, 1882-1925, America. Realist.


THEORY, The last color wheel (square) of college record was by Church-Ostwald. It has Yellow, Red, Sea Green and Ult. Blue at the corners. It made way for the new coal-tar colors, all pigments were replaced by there top-tone matching colors. Naples Yellow, Rubins favorite, artist's favorite for two thousand years, was replaced by a mixture of Zinc and Ocher. Pigments were moving from the Iron Age to the Oil Age. Ostwald had no regard for opacity vs. transparency, or raw pigment content. Only the final dried color. This is how pigment manufactures made colors. Clearly, the artists interests were not known or considered. Today things have changed, a similar color is now called a hue, 2000, and it's transparency is labeled, but not on a 1 to 10 scale. I think translucent colors are worthless.

1916, Monet, 1840-1926, French. An early leader of the Impressionist movement, he really could see color, the time of day mattered to his painting.

1917, Mary Cassatt, 1845-1927, French, American, Impressionist. Woman painting woman and kids, she was great, vibrant colors, superb composition, fast efficient brush strokes. She was an Impressionistic Delacroix.

1914-1918, The First World War. Britain, France, and Russia against Germany and Austria-Hungary. They were stealing each other's color patents.


These artistic labels meant they were different, things were changing.

1865, French Impressionism, Manet, Sisley, Pissarro, Jongkind, Monet, Morisot, Cassatt, Renoir, Degas, Cezanne,

1875, French Realism moved to Switzerland to survive. Courbet.

1885, Dutch, Norwegian, Van Gogh, Munch, Early "Bridge" painters.

1886, France Neo-Impressionism, Pointillism, Seurat, Signac, Cross.

1890, France Symbolism, Primitivism, Gauguin, decorative.

1890, 1900, Belgian, German Nabas.

1904, 1913. German Expressionism or Die Brucke, The Bridge Group, Kirchner, Heckel, Nolde, etc.

1905, 1910, French Fauvism or Wild Beasts, Valaminck, Rouault, Durain, Dufy, Matisse,

1906, French, Analytical Cubism, Picasso, Braque.

1907, French Impressionist Show, Cezanne.

1908, 1914, French Cubism. Chagall, Chirico, Duchamp, Leger.

1910, Italy Futurism, Balla.

1910, Munich Abstract and Neo-Impressionism.

1911, Italy Metaphysical.

1911, American Abstract, Dove, Hartley, Weber, Marin.

1912, 1914, German Blaue Reiter or Blue Rider Group, Kandinsky, Marc, Klee.

1912, Synthetic Cubism, Picasso, Gris.

1912, Synchromism, Russell.

1912, Paris, Orphism, Delaunay.

1913, Moscow Suprematism. Malevich

1914, 1918 WWI, changes went into second gear and stripped it.

1916, French Dada or Hobby-horse, Zurich, Switzerland, Dadaism, Pacabia, Ernst, De Champ.

1917, Holland Neo-Plasticism or De Stijl. Mondrain.

1918, Belgium Expressionism.

1919, German Neue Sacnlichkeit or New Objectivity, Grosz, Dix.

1920, American Immaculates, Demuth, Sheeler, O'Keeffe, Mac, Donald-Wright, Hartley and Weber.

1924, French Surrealism, psychiatric dreams. Breton, Dali.

1924, French Neo-Romantics, Leonid.

1929, Stock-market Crash.

1929, American Regionalists, Hopper, Miller, Marsh, Burchfield, Benton.

1930, American Gothic, Grant Wood.

1932, Paris Surrealism, Russian Suprematism.

1933, Paris Naive Painting.


1945, American, Expressionist Biomorphic, Pollack.

When I went to collage in 1959, "Realism" was still a battered term. Believe me when I say, we are in a period that will be called the Third Dark Age of Art". 2013 we have grown a lot.

Mass communication via the "Internet" may be able to teach the advanced basics of art. Practice and appreciation can shorten the normal postwar advancing time from two hundred years, as with Egypt, Greece and Rome, after their wars, to a lot less, I hope. Learn from the light of nature as it changes and moves, copying from photographs may fool some buyer's but it won't make great artists. Being good and accomplished by age twenty or twenty-five was no big deal just a hundred years ago. 1860

FIFTY YEARS OF PAINTING HAD GONE FROM REALISM TO NAIVE, BECAUSE OF THE WAR'S. 1870, Franco-Prussian War. When war's begin, art starts going downhill, as all time has shown. 1914-1918, The First World War. Britain, France, and Russia against Germany and Austria-Hungary. 1939-1945, WWII

In 1931 an undeclared war began between Japan and China started, while Italy and Germany were also threatening peace. In 1939 Germany attacked Poland and France and Great Britain declared war. Italy joined in 1940, the United States and the Soviet Union in 1941. The United Nations defeated Italy in 1943 and Germany and Japan in 1945. Art was at ground zero. Today's art is "A flag on the Floor with a Crucifix in the Toilet". Chicago, 1996.

1917, Gris, 1887-1927, Spain, Cubism.

1919, America.

COLOR, Titanium White Dioxide, ferrous illmenite by sulfate process or chloridenated rutile ore. Opaque, non-poisonous, slow drying in oil.

1928, Kirchner, 1880-1938, German Expressionist.

1930, Klee, 1879-1940, German Colorist, no forms.

1930, The Depression in the USA gives Expressionism a foothold.

1930, Discovered in Germany in 1901, produced in the USA in the thirties.

MEDIUM, Synthetic Resins, water and oil based.

1932, Sickerd, 1860-1942, English Royal Academy, Impressionist.

1933, Soutine, 1894-1943, France. A nightmare approach to Expressionism.

1933, K, Malevich, 1878-1935, Russian, Impressionist, Fauvism, Cubo-Futurism, founder of Suprematism, Abstract.

1934, Kandinsky, 1866-1943, Munich, influenced by Matisse, wrote the "History of Absolute Painting", the basis for Abstract art.

1934, Munch, 1863-1944, German Expressionist.

1934, COLOR, Zinc White Oxide, England. First a W/C pigment, added to titanium white for a very good oil paint in 1950. Permalba.

1934, Mondrain, 1872-1944, French Abstract, straight compartments for color, Red, Yellow, Blue, Black, White and Gray. At this time Red, Yellow and Blue are called the primaries.

1935, England,

COLOR, Cyan Blue, Copper Phthalocyanine, alpha crystal or metal free Phthalocyanine, with a metallic atom removed from copper. THIS WAS A MOST IMPORTANT COLOR DISCOVERY IN HISTORY, THE INERT PRIMARY BLUE, CYAN TRANSPARENT PIGMENT.

Missing of course are the Transparent Indian Yellow color's, duel-toned Brown/Yellow and Orange/Yellow. A good Brown/Yellow is still missing. Acrylic painters have no transparent yellows.

NEW. 2006, Golden Acrylic is the first acrylic manufacture to include all three transparent primary colors, Two transparent yellows, the golden side called Indian Yellow Hue, Arylide Yellow PY7, Nickel Complex Azo PY150 and Quinacridone PR206, and the brown side called Nickel Yellow Azo PY150 same hue as PY150. A Phathlo blue PB15 (cyan) and a quinacridone magenta PR122. Nice going Golden Paints!

The third triad color is a really tough one, the one nature itself splits in two, Warm and Cool Magenta.



Calcite crystal, [CaCo3], makes the perfect Cyan color with Copper in the Iceland Spar Crystal. Yellow is made with Iron, and Magenta is the Sphaerocobaltite Pink Calcite Crystal made with allochromatic Cobalt. The Calcite Crystal is also a natural polarizing filter.

Quartz, [Si02], Iron Rose Quartz and Manganese Amethyst both touch on the Magenta color. Copper makes Green to Cyan Chalcedonie and the opposite color Red Carnelian. Allochromatic Nickel makes a cool Yellow Chrysoprase Crystal, added Iron makes a warm yellow to orange Citrine Quartz Crystal.

Iron makes all three primary colors in the crystal Corundum, [A1203], plus making the secondary colors Red, Ult. Blue and Green. The Red and Green have added Chromium.

crystal palette
Suzanne Szy - Crystal Palette Earrings

1936 COLOR, Phthalo Green, chlorinated and brominated Copper Phthalocyane, from Green to Yellow Green transparent.

1936, Nash, 1889-1946, English, Impressionist, water-color.

1937, Bonnard, 1867-1947, French, Symbolist.

1938, Orozco, 1883-1948, Mexico, Impressionist, murals.

1943, Dufy, 1877-1953, France. Fauve.

1943, Marin, 1870-1953, American. Water color, Impressionist.

1944, Derain, 1880-1954, French, a Fauve that returned to Realism because he could.

1945, Leger, 1881-1955, French, Cubist with curves.

1946, Nolde, 1867-1956, German Expressionism,

1948, Rouault, 1871-1958, French, Fauve, Expressionist, black outline, religious themes, solid color.

1948, Vlaminck, 1873-1958, French, Fauve.

1949, Smith, 1879-1959, France, England, returning to realism with loud color.

1950, These artists were alive in 1960, the wars are over and art will move on, after these people do.

Braque, 1882, French, Fauve, Cubist.

Picasso, "Enough of Art. It's Art that kills us. People no longer want to do painting: they make art. People want Art. And they are given it. But the less Art there is in painting the more painting there is." (Parmelin, Picasso Plain, 1964, p. 30) 1881, Italy, Cubist.

Balla, 1871, Italy, Futurism, painting movement.

De Chirico, 1888, Italy, Metaphysical, leading to Surrealism.

de Kooning, born in 1904 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. By the late 1940s, de Kooning, along with Arshile Gorky and Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko began to be recognized as a major painter in a movement christened Abstract Expressionism, the advent of which shifted the center of twentieth-century art from Paris to New York.

Kokoschka, 1925, Austrian, Expressionism.

Chagall, 1887,Russia, Paris, a dream painter with a story.

Duchamp, 1887, France, New York, "The Fountaine", 1917 New York Independents' Exhibit, was a signed urinal, Dadaism.

Dali, 1904, Spain, Surrealism, the abnormalities of realism.

Miro, 1893, France, Abstract.

Hopper. 1882, American Realist.


THEORY, ROYGBIV, was the new answer for the masses in 1950, from the old source Newton. These seven colors, out of order no less, dispel the unity of opposition. The color wheel has been misunderstood by every generation since, in and out of college.


THEORY, Daniel Smith printed a nice color square using the "LAB" color chart. This has the opposition colors, Yellow and Blue, on the top and bottom. Magenta and Green are at the sides. A plus and minus number system relates the square with these colors as the primaries, since White and Black are at the poles, this system is for the photo and printing industries, not the artists who need to work with true opposition's.



The problems have always been with pigment color transparencies, the scaling down of yellow and cyan, and the fact that the color Magenta could not be distinguished in the projected prism light spectrum.

Colored crystals in minerals and elements prove this theory that the triadic pigment and light spectrum are the same, both darkening to a neutral center color. That Yellow goes to Brown, a combination possible in pigment and light. However warm brown and cool brown must be distinguished for the pigment artist. Yellow darkens to either red's dark or green's dark for the artist. In the light color wheel there is no distinction and the color goes to black by decreasing the intensity. In pigment, warm Brown and Ultramarine Blue mix to a neutral dark black. In light, Yellow and Ultramarine Blue mix to white. This should prove that the two color wheels are the same. Another change is necessary to bring the color Cyan into line for the artist, cyan darkens to Ultramarine blue and uses ultramarine's path to a neutral black center color, this keeps it cool like the sky.

The lost Indian Yellow pigment of 1890 would mix to Black with Ultramarine Blue. We still don't have that color of transparent Yellow in acrylics. The brand Old Holland has the best transparent yellows in oil paints to date, but still no true Indian Yellow is available. Both Brown Indian Yellow and Golden Indian Yellow would mix to a neutral dark. The Golden Indian Yellow would make reds.

HERE IN TIME, We are again entering a High Art period of time, 2003.

My Real Color Wheel compensates the color change for the artist. Pure Yellow darkens through Brown Burnt Umber for the warm side and Raw Green Umber for the green side. Yellow darkens with either Phthalo Green's center dark color or Cadmium Red's dark color. Twelve colors of a thirty six color wheel have yellow in them, all of them have been compensated for in the Real Color Wheel, in pigment and light. Cyan has also been corrected to match pigments, it darkens to Ultramarine Blue, like the sky.

Here is my Real Color Wheel chart for artists.
rcw chart

Order this complete color course on DVD, $35.00.
Order a 5"X5" Laminated Real Color Wheel $10.00.

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