Real Color Wheel

Real Color Wheel
Don Jusko


Hexadecimal Code Colors. (new window) Chap28
Real Color Wheel (new window)
Site Tree Index (new window)
Maui On Location Galleries, with painting tips (new window)
Computer Color-in pages (new window) Chap15
My last worked on page with back links. (new window)

Find the term Paint Wars find new media and pigments from the B.C. era to the present time.
Links to paintings, separated by media. (new window)
Getting started making the supports to paint on. (new window)

Recent Articles and Press Releases (new window)


Chapter 1

Chapter 2
MOHS Scale of Hardness, Sea Minerals & Rock, Lake Minerals, Ores of Color

Chapter 3
Ores Color Reactions to Each Other, Crystal Terms, Crystal Ore & Mineral Chemistry, Definitions, Color Wheel in Elements & Crystals, Crystals, Light & Color Terms, Crystal Chromate (Color) Elements,

Chapter 4
Interactive Color Chart, Links to the Crystals in Chapter 5

Chapter 4a
Crystal Primary Colors, Crystal Ores, Mineral Chemistry, Definitions, Terms & Glossary

Chapter 5
Real Color Wheel in Crystal, Centering Color Elements, Elements, Quantity List

Chapter 6

Chapter 7
Artists & Pigment History, 30,000 B.C. to 1200 A/D, A/D 79 Pompeii to A/D 1500, The Artists Tools of Technique, 1881, Methods of Making Paint, Varnish-and-Inks, 1886, The First & Last Public Standard of Pigment Colors for Artists, German.

Chapter 8

Chapter 8a
Persia, India
ART ADVANCES, 4000 B.C. to 1670 A/D

Chapter 8b
ART ADVANCES, 4000 B.C. to 1670 A/D

Chapter 8c
ART ADVANCES, 660 B.C. to 1704 A/D

Chapter 9

Cleanliness is #1, Painting Surfaces, Brushes - Sponges - Chalk - Wipes, Drawing, Horizon, Triangulation, 4 Point Perspective, Placing the Image, Line of Sight & Elevation, Drawing What You See, Using Lineal Triangulation, Perspective, Aerial Perspective on Concentric Rings, Terrestrial & Astral Vanishing Points, Reflections Seen By You, Light & Contrast are Effected by Edges, Sky, Earth & Sea Grids

Chapter 10
How and Why the RCW Works, Primary Pigment 3 Real Color Wheel, 6-12-36 RCWs, Conversion of Light to Pigment

Chapter 10a

Chapter 10b

Chapter 10c
Crystal Chromate (Color) Elements, Color Producing: Gasses, Elements, Elements Quantity on Earth Chart,

Chapter 11
Chapter 11a
Palettes, 3, 5, 6 & 12 Colors, Making PRIMARY Watercolors
Chapter 11b
Make Your Own Oil Media
Chapter 11c
Chapter 11d
Chapter 11e

Chapter 11f
SUN LIGHT, Painting Chapter - NIGHT COLORS, Painting Chapter
Water Grid, Water Diamonds, Draw Waves, Water Color Pigments, Watercolor Palettes, 3, 5, 6 & 12 Colors

Chapter 11g

Chapter 11h
Color Notes About Some Pigments.

Chapter 11i

Chapter 11j

Chapter 11k
Palette Layout to Paint Anything in Front of Me, Buying Order in Oil & Acrylic Paints, 21 Colors
Indian Yellow Brown/Side Makes General Color Mixing Easier

Chapter 11L

Chapter 11m
Order the Transparent 3 Color Palette

Chapter 12

Chapter 13
Head, Side View, Front View, Body, Drawing Order of a Stick Figure, to Catch the Action
My Life Drawing Sessions, Elizabeth Vigee-LeBrun (Sargent's teacher)

Chapter 14
Chapter #14 is About Light, not Pigment, Prisms, Rainbows

Chapter 15
One of thirty two. Change the Page Background Color to a Pigment Color.

Chapter 16
acrylic-on-location, w/c-on-location, fresco-on-location, pastel-on-location
304 brushes with their descriptions and usefulness, Watercolor Papers, A & A+ Only

Chapter 17
Pictura Translucita, Wax Paint, Cera Colla, Fresco link in Chap6

Chapter 18

Chapter 19

Chapter 19a

Chapter 20
1575 A/D to 1695 A/D

Chapter 20a

Chapter 21

Chapter 22
The First and Last Public Standard of Pigment Colors for Artists, 1886

Chapter 23

Chapter 24
THE FUTURE OF FINE ART, 1900 to 1935
This chapter contains the artists, colors, theories and art styles that happened in the early 1900's.

Chapter 24a

THE FUTURE OF FINE ART, 1936 to 1995
2013, Painting on Location is Making a Come Back!

Chapter 25
5x5, 8x8,11x11 RCW, Color-in Book of Maui, Course DVD

Chapter 26
Test Your Monitor

Chapter 27

Chapter 28


This page is toward color theory, about colors of light matching colors of pigment and colored crystals. In this course "All About Color" are crystals and their element composite make-up, plus the colors wavelength characteristics, because they influenced this pigment to light Real Color Wheel

My paintings show the full ranges of neutral-dark colors because the pigment colors are made with true complementary pigments, without the use of the opaque or translucent black pigment. This new artist color wheel works in both pigment and light, perfectly. I call it the Real Color Wheel because it is. Down load or buy this site on DVD for color history and my tips on drawing and painting from notes taken during 35 years of painting on location.
The Real Color Wheel is the color wheel you need to match natures colors to pigments.
The RGB-YMC Yellow-Magenta-Cyan secondary (computer) light color wheel doesn't work for pigment painters because it darkens by subtracting light which produces the same colors as adding black pigment to each color. Nature and crystals don't work that way.

Open this page and compare different color wheels. (new window)

This "All About Color" course includes:
*Some techniques of the old master painters, in different mediums, alcohol sandarac, wax cera colla, water gum, water glue, water egg, tempra, fresco, casein, mastic, copal and oil. Plus new techniques in acrylics and oil based alkyd alkaloids.

*Color and medium developments through-out history, by country and it's main artists.
*Two "lost painting techniques" from the dark ages you won't find anywhere else.
*Color theories from Newton to Church-Ostwald.
*This is my treatise combining colors, element crystal compounds and matching light to pigments.
*The Real Color Wheel color oppositions and analogous oppositions in percentages for both light and pigment.
*Rainbows and prisms match physical crystals of color. The computers RGB colorwheel represents the pure color correctly, shade colors of physical crystals are added to the Real Color Wheel.
*Instructions to help draw accurately, combine colors, draw and paint realistically in different mediums and techniques.
*Body proportion shortcuts, for easy management of stick figures in action. A base for muscles and skin.

I've been painting Maui on location in a VW van since 1976, the best years of my life. (today 2-12-13 it's been 35 years and I'm 71 now) I want to pass on some information and painting techniques I've learned. This page was started in September, 1998.

   (It's 11-09-03 today, five years after I started. The color course is finished but I'm cleaning it up and adding links (an endless task). All my new pages since 2003 have either been paintings on location with my notes or directly related to the contents herein. I'm glad I added the "end.htm" page early on. The end.htm page show the latest changes or newly added pages, it links from any page backwards or forwards.

    (1-25-11, here's an additional paragraph I'm adding, rather than my changing the page contents. I found myself in this section again making a Video DVD about color from this "Real Color Wheel, All About Color" information for this new venture. This page, "final.htm", is the trunk of this color tree and I've been adding more links-out to my new pages since 2003.)
end.htm = Latest painting with painting tips or page worked on. Forward and backward links are on each page. (new window)

(I never knew when I started that this site would be getting 36,000 hits per month. Today Indian yellow synthetic is a common pigment and the name cyan is recognized as a color. Opaque and transparent properties are a bigger public problem then I first thought.)
4-3-13, As of 3-1-8 this site is getting 2,935,392 hits per month. Google removed the ranking information for this site and it's climbing back up from not being found on the first 50 pages for "color wheel". The main page explaining why this color wheel is best still can't be found after 8 years of being on the first page. colorwheel.htm
As of 4-6-13 this site is getting 138,699 hits per month and climbing, without google recognition.

(It's 4-11-9, I made a water-based transparent yellow ink from Azo Tartrazine for my plotter (ink-jet printer) I use it now. (new window)

I think the most important single issue has to do with color and how we perceive it. The use of the RCW's three primaries and secondaries with their "Neutral Dark's" made from opposite colors is key information toward achieving accurate dark color shadows, split-complements and analogous mixes. Current official teaching guidelines and all State School Standards support the Red-Yellow-Blue color wheel and I want them changed because it doesn't work. 1963, 1995, 2000... We are gaining on it...

5-20-8, I just learned today that the San Francisco Academy of Art University is teaching my color wheel in it's Color Theory Program. It all started in 2002 with the International Middle School of Geneva, Switzerland. Western Kentucky University was the first U.S. university to support, recommend and subscribe to the Real Color Wheel.

2-24-08, In the past thirty days Northern Arizona University, BYU, Glenn Carleton College, Pittsford Sutherland High School (and many others), Imperial College London, University of New South Wales, Kennesaw State University, York College of The City University of New York, Lausanne Collegiate School, United Arab Emirates University, Metropolitan Institute of Design in Syosset, N.Y. and the University of Guelph, Canada, all have requested the Real Color Wheel, All About Color course, or color wheel.

8-1-10, A student from a university in Columbia had to make an RCW as a first year lesson, he sent me an email.

Your color wheel must be exact, and the properties of the Yellow, Magenta and Cyan pigments should be basic information for the natural life pigment painter.

The light color wheel and the pigment color wheel are one and the same. They both use the same six primary and secondary colors, in similar combinations of opposition to reach a neutral black or white. The Real Color Wheel makes these adjustments and matches light to pigment and crystals.

There is no absolute color black reflected in nature, and there should be no pigment black on the artist's palette, as it dulls any color and is unnatural looking. The artist painting from life needs opposite complementary colors to make the dark shade, not Black as Ostwald and others suggested. Tube colors should not be made with the CHURCH-OSTWALD theory of matching dried chips of color.

We have been taught the wrong complimentary colors: Yellow is not the opposite of Purple, and Green is not the opposite of Red. Ultramarine Blue is not the opposite of Orange. Cobalt Blue is the opposite of Orange.

We've been getting the wrong information since Newton's first color theory in 1666. He never had a magenta and green opposition because he had the wrong triad. I Included Mayer, Runge, Goethe, Chevreul, Hering, Rood, Hofler, Munsell and Church-Ostwald color theories.

This course will explein the "Real Color Wheel" for light and pigment mixing, along with a background on color in elements, crystals and pigments. It expleins all the painting mediums and follows the discovery of pigments up to today.

The artists and their techniques are reviewed chronologically to match pigments' progression.

Included is my colored light explanations on rainbows and polarized color in prisms that I have noticed.

Articles, Reviews and Press Releases 2013 (new window)
"Art has abandoned the sound principles of craftsmanship and is therefore lacking in a dependable foundation".
Max Doerner 1931, On Line at
Max Doerner, 'Materials of the Artist', 1933. (new window)
The price was $12.80, 6-7-13 the price is $26.36.

Max Doerner was the greatest art scholar ever. Every educated artist should have his book.

Today's chaotic art is representative of our times, the primitive nature of it, the result of two world wars. It's not the first time our craft has gone downhill, its happened after each war period throughout time.

What can we do to paint anything we see accurately? We can learn from nature, and express the world as it's expressed to us. We can use the sound principles of drawing and painting, as in dividing distances into concentric rings around yourself. Not letting the color values in each ring encroach on another rings value is important. We should base perspective on degrees, centered on a horizon line of degrees, and mix colors from an accurate color wheel.

When you appreciate what you see and can paint with that vision, art as a whole is advanced. Paint something real from life.

You can't learn to paint from a book, but you don't have to start from scratch either. Correct color and procedure make learning easier and faster.

Chapter 1
1 Million B.C. Pleistocene Period, Neolithic Developing Areas, B.C. Medium Developments, Painting Supports, Painting Supports, Priming Grounds, Adhesives for Grounds, Colored Grounds, Isolating Mediums, Thinners & Additives to Mediums, Natural Emulsions, Other Mixed Emulsions, Catalyst Agents, Glues, Egg Tempera, Oil Over Egg, Lacquer, Transparent Chemical Palette, Calcined Elements



"The Great Ice Age," is still continuing today. Pine trees developed, and weapons and tools were polished. There were one hundred twenty five thousand people on earth at this time, according to the Geochronometric Lab at Yale University.

100,000 B.C. MESOLITHIC PERIOD: Cro-Magnon Man until 10,000 B.C..

50,000 B.C. Jinmium, Australia: Monoliths were engraved with petroglyphs of dots, like found on Maui, and a kangaroo. Also on Maui is the mountain zoo, with a perfect elephant, alligator and ell in the Kahakaloa Head. I drew it in the Maui Coloring Book (new window) Page 06 of 35.

40,000 B.C. Flint was being mined in Egypt and France. Here is more information.

30,000 B.C. Paleolithic Culture: Thirty-six-billion people lived in Europe and Africa in the course of the Old Stone Age.

20,000 B.C. OLD STONE AGE: The earliest known artwork is located in the caves of Western Africa and Europe. India has fresco.

16,000 B.C. The first paint medium was animal fat. The first support was the rock and mud in secluded caves. Painting tools included their fingers, scribing sticks, blending and painting brushes, and the first airbrush, a hollow reed to blow paint on the wall.

AURIGNACIAN ART: In a cave in Northern Spain, the outline of an elephant was found. The most important caves were found in the Franco-Cantarbrian and Spanish Levantine area. Small carvings were always found deep in the floors of these caves. Paintings were done with mineral oxides, ochers of red, brown and yellow, plus charred-bone black and carbon from burnt fat..

Altamira, Font-de-Gaume and Lascaux represent the greatest achievements of Paleolithic Art, done by Cro-Magnon Man. Pine trees provided the next medium used, boiling the sap without pressure made distilled turpentine, while boiling the pine nuts made oil. A native tree of Africa made an alcohol-based paint, and a native tree of France made a turpentine based paint. The alcohol based paint of Morocco, sandracca, was harder. It used a distilled nearby shrub as a thinner, and it came first.

10,000 B.C. HOLOCENE PERIOD: Paleolithic man and Mesolithic man, were farmers and house builders.

8000 B.C. NEOLITHIC PERIOD: Man was raising stock, working metal and making clay pottery.


8000 B.C. SOUTH CENTRAL AFRICA: Includes the head of the Nile River. Where I believe the Garden of Eden was located.

8000 B.C. CHINA: Man had domesticated dogs, goats and pigs.

7000 B.C. AEGEAN and CRETE: The tides of the Mediterranean Sea circled the island of Crete. This brought travelers.

7000 B.C. THAILAND: Occupied by Hoabinhian hunters and gatherers.

6000 B.C. TURKEY: Catal Huyuk Culture

6000 B.C. ANATOLIA: an ancient Pre-Greek culture.

5000 B.C. EGYPT: The Upper Nile people had pottery, bas-relief murals on plaster and water based, tin based paint.

4000 B.C. MINOA: This culture was just starting on Crete.

4000 B.C. INDUS RIVER: Tribes were gathering here.

4000 B.C. TIGRIS EUPHRATES RIVERS: In Mesopotamia, cultures were forming in the Fertile Crescent.

3000 B.C. RUSSIA:

3000 B.C. IRELAND:

3000 B.C. ETRURIA: Their highest art period was in 500 B.C..



1300 B.C. MYCENAEN AGE: Knossos, Crete ruled the known world.

600 B.C. ETRURIA: Their highest art period was in 500 B.C..

500 B.C. ROME:


4000 B.C. - Boiled tree-sap, called pitch, was distilled into turpentine as a paint thinner for the resin paints. Also, alcohol was fermented as a drink and as a thinner for alcohol-based paints, made from another tree-sap or grapes.
There was a third type of fruit tree-sap that made a water based paint, all three were known and used throughout the Mediterranean Sea area.

Clay, with its high silica content was distinguished from mud and pottery when it was fired, melting the silica. The firing divisions of silica according to heat intensity are:
DRY = leather hard was not heated.
EARTHENWARE = heated red-hot, 500°.
STONEWARE = was heated over 1800°, copper cyan colored frit glaze was heated 1500° to 2600° in Egypt.
PORCELAIN = heated 3000°. China was first to do this.

Egypt's first Kingdom reigned. Their mastaba-shaped tombs were positioned as a compass, and like all later pyramids, the tombs-entrances faced north.

They used watercolors and lime paint with tin-based colors. They made plaster by heating limestone or gypsum to 25,000º to 30,000º, adding alum made a harder cement.

3000 B.C.: The Third and Forth Dynasties had their Capitol in Memphis. They had developed into the "high-art" stage, and were pouring perfectly life-like gold sculptures.

2700 B.C.: The Pyramids of Gizeh were limestone, cut with bronze metal saws, joined without mortar. This limestone powder is chalk or calcium carbonate. Gypsum is different, it's hydrated calcium sulfate, a light spar. Low heated gypsum or lime make plaster of Paris. The pure limestone crystal is the softer of the two. Calcine them and they both make dry cement. Gypsum makes a harder more waterproof cement because of the sulfur content that effects poorly some color elements such as tin and lead, also included were silicone clay and alumina.

The current history books say that everything was built with mud poured into forms with chopped fibers added. I think this mud they used made plaster and it was from the unheated dust of cut limestone used in the pyramids. Heat lime powder and it becomes caustic and ultra absorbent and is used for mural supports because it does not contain sulfur. Lime mortar has to be wet once, dried and crushed again as the first wetting is too caustic to work with. The best fresco mortar is slaked (kept wet) under running water for 2 months up to 20 years.
Calcined gypsum powder is stronger and with the included sulfur, alumina and silicone, it makes cement.

They expanded it with water, molded and let it dry and the lime crystals form a bond that keeps getting harder as the crystals slowly shrink until it finally turns to dust. If either of them were not heated and skim milk were added it would make chalk-plaster. Milk casein would make a stronger chalk. My opinion is they used both lime for murals and gypsum for buildings, both with hemp fibers added. The flooding of the Nile removed all traces of the cement or plaster or mud buildings.

Red Pozzuoli found around Naples is a natural cement and when used in murals as a paint imparts the red-oxide color.

The base-to-height ratio of the pyramids of Gizeh is eleven to seven. It took ten thousand men working twenty years to build one. It was finished with a covering of polished white limestone that the Romans later removed for their own buildings. (I can't find the proof, but I think the top quarter was sheathed in gold leaf or solid gold.) Copper, at that time was more valuable than gold, and they did have all the gold :)
Later Sumerian ziggurats would be banded with tiled color, the top tier was gold and could be seen for 20 miles on the flat dessert. I think they saw the golden tops of the great pyramids.

In the Temple of the Sphinx, a life-sized figure of Pharaoh Khafra was carved in diorite. It was carved with perfect realism in the "high-art" style. The nose was destroyed in WW1.

2500 B.C.: "The Seated Scribe" twenty-one inches high, was carved in limestone and painted, by a slightly lesser artist. There was trouble in the air, the Semitic Assyrians were rising in power.

In Morocco, Africa, resins continued to be developed based on turpentine and alcohol, sandarac (sandracca) resin, pine-seed oil, castor oil and oil of spike were developed.

Lead was mined here, to make the first protective seaworthy paint. Lead pigments containing sulfur would not mix with tin-based colors. Thus the Paint Wars began and the non-poisonous Tin King of Color crown was being passed on to the more colorful and dangerous lead and iron colors. Heating galena, the lead ore, leaves behind the sulfur-lead pigment white lead, which can be heated higher into yellow, orange, red and brown-purple lead colors. These all dry fast, red lead (actually orange lead) drying the fastest and used in Maroger's Oil Medium. The lead acts as the metal drier if the oil is heated to sponificate (make transparent) the lead. Tin was Egypt's choice of metal pigment colors and the two would not mix.

Mastic resins from pine trees in Spain and France made distilled turpentine and pitch-resin paints. Their pigments of the time were the native iron oxides deposited in clay, together with the lead colors. A very complete palette. Egypt and China had larger selections. It's hard to tell who had the first vermillion, France or China, probably China, since they were more into mining.

Stick-lac was cultivated in India from the lacquer-secreting insects, which deposited their lacquer on trees. Their nests were made of wax, which was also used for Indian textiles. Tree-saps and plants were also cultivated for use in alcohol-based colors on cotton, hemp, linen, felt and wool products.

Egg and casein mediums, from domestic farm animals were used in the Baltic Sea area. Eventually, linseed oil would be used here as a painting medium, before anyone else.

1800 B.C.- Minoa was a Pre-Greek Aegean Sea culture, that followed Egyptian art, and significantly advanced architecture. Homer said there were ninety cities on Crete. The Temple of Cnossus was three or four stories high, with drainage piping and flush toilets.

1500 B.C.: The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt founded the city of Ammonium, two-hundred miles east of Memphis. Here was the world's only supply of ammonia, from the remains of a long-extinct mollusk. A shrine was made there to their god Ammon. Ammonia made wax and oil, water-soluble. Wax soap paints were developed and called cara-colla, which dried insoluble to water. The Egyptian's loved paint; it must have been a colorful empire.

1400 B.C.: Babylonia had trees and not much rock for building. Their tile art decorated the mud and clay brick structures. One tile that was found that I know of was colored Naples Yellow.

1300 B.C.: Hypostyle Hall, the Temple of Amen Ra in Karnak, Egypt was completely decorated with wax-based paint, as was everything Egyptian. There were gold stars on the blue ceiling. The temple was of a simple and massive grand style, with beautiful columns.

1257 B.C.: The Temple of Rameses II at Abu Simbel, Egypt, (now drowned behind the Aswan High Dam) was also massive at 119'x65', stiff, and meant to impress. Their period of "high-art" had clearly passed.

1100 B.C.: The Greeks were entering the Peloponnesus, a large peninsula and region in southern Greece. This started the First Dark Age period which would last until 500 B.C., and ending with Doric architecture. The Doric Tribes were one of the three invading Peloponnesus at that time. Homer is alive and writing.

1000 B.C. During this Dark Age 40 cities were built underground down to 870",10 levels down. The largest city found is Derinkuyu Yeralti Sehri. The underground nation is in Kapidokia, Kapadokeya, Turkey.

800 B.C.: A Sumerian Palace of Sargon, in Khorsabad, had a ziggurat temple on top. The glazed-tile facade went from white at the base, through black, scarlet, blue, orange and silver, with gold at the top. It could be seen for twenty miles in any direction.

THESE MESOPOTAMIAN BUILDERS INVENTED THE TRUE DOME. Vaulted chambers were covered with great tapestries, and floors were covered with great rugs-- this was their art.

Painting was neglected, but they furthered the arts of astronomy and writing. They invented cuneiform, a wedge-shaped alphabet that is the basis of all Western writing.

700 B.C.: The Etruscans were using turpentine, mastic, egg, wax soap, wax encaustic, and sandarac (sandracca) as their painting mediums.

400 B.C.: The Greek Theophrastus, described refining clay oxide pigments by settling them in water.

200 B.C.: Roman sculpture had achieved "high-art" standards as in the sculpture Dying Gaul.

The chronological date list will continue later. Continue now to the full art history, Chap8.

Egypt, 5-4-13, video 3:30, a new view video about Egypt, it debunks all we claim to know about Egypt, by Dr. Carmen Boulter of the Graduate Division of Educational Research at the University of Calgary in Canada.

"A Different Story About Ancient Egypt and our Origins"

The named locations of Egypt's pyramids are; Abu Rowash, Giza, Abu Garab, Abusir, Saquara, Dashour and Maidum. There are proven red, white and black pyramids at Dashour. It doesn't say what the red coating is but there are red sandstone, limestone, granite and marble from Germany and India, . Research today is being restricted. Black basult and white quartz crystal floors that were once shiny are found. Crystal concave mirrors cut with lasers are found. The pyramid up in the mountains of Dashour is open to the sky, all pyramids can be seen from there. The area is deserted. It's location is kept quite.

The Bashar of Bagdad and shaped stone in Egypt proved they had successfully made electrical current, a fact that is not told to us. Egyptian Petroglyphs of humans are shown red and blue.

Electrical induction happens when the light of the sun is coming around the globe, this happens at Tularic points around the world, each powerful point has a large stone megalith built there, Stone hedge, Egypt, Easter Island etc. China calles it Chee, Hindu's call it Prada, it's part of the earths electrical Tularic grid. (sound like Tesla yet? His 1901 to 1917 tower worked providing wireless power, it was also built above an aquifer like the pyramids.)

Dolomite granite with magnesium is the highest transformer of electricity and it's the core of the great pyramid. The outer covering is limestone without magnesium was an effective insulator. Limestone aquifers are present under Egypt and sp?Sobury Hill in England, simular technologies and rocks make the ancient monuments. Aquifers of limestone produce their own electrical energy. sp?Teawonakau and Lake sp?Titykaka pyramid also have running water producing electricity. sp?Geecall megalithic pyramid near South America also has an electrical discharge.

There are manmade tunnels around the great pyramid to carry running water to produce more electrical energy. Open spaces above some of these tunnels allow the sun's rays in to make the energy.

The "Shift Disk" found at Shakara in a burial chamber is closed to the public, also the oldest text in the world was found in these four pyramids. It used quartz crystal technology as our AM/FM radios, CD's, oscillators, computers and processors do today. In the video can be seen large concave quartz sending or receiving disks that could not have been made by hand.

Episode#3, 1:25 in. Suffie language has no word for death. They belived in the after life. The cosmic design cycle. The Malie, central Africa, belived this also. Cycles of time were found in the writings at Shakara as well as flying disks in their hyroglyphs.
A new translation of the Rosetta Stone (196 B.C.) has been made by computer where symbols are acronyms not words instead of our current decyphering.

I have a copper lithograph of the Karnac Temple in Luxor, Egypt, that I got in Istambul in 1963, it was made when Napoleon sent a core of artists to Egypt to record the monuments. In Luxor hydroglyphs show that the placement of the temples were aligned with the stars. Nabeta Playa, seems to be the source of pre-pharaoh Egypt. 150 thousand years ago the area was a very rainy. 12 thousand years ago it again got rain and humans. Today it is desert again.

Ancient Egyption evidance is being distroyed by responsible Egyptian government.

Hydroglyphs in this area, Dogan, are more advanced than Egyption hyroglyphs, faces show expressions, they are more detailed bas reliefs. Near Nabeta again were found red human bas-reliefs. Obelisks lined up with the same stars. Blue sculptures of humans were found.

#4, 6,000 years ago Egypt was matriarchal. 3,000 years ago Egypt became patriarchal.

Akanotan and Neffrateti moved the capitol from Karnack to Amarna, their art was matriarchal, the highest art in Egypt's history, they rejected the Amon presthood for the Akamon. Akanotan (Amarna) was distroyed and all traces removed. Young Tutunkaman (was Tutunkatan) was the next pharaoh, he died mysteriously after 10 years, (19 years old) years and a patriartical law was back. Neffratiti, his mother was killed by a blow to the back of her head. Hatshepsut was another female pharaoh who was perhaps Egypt's greatest ruler, 22 years in the 18th dynasty, recollection of her was also distroyed by the coming patriarchal rule.

#5, Today it is taught the earliest human remains are 2.5 million years old, Today it is taught the pyramids were made in 2500 B.C., that civilation is 6,000 years old. But, the 6 stepped pyramid in Paru is carbon dated 4,500 years ago.

One axis cycle of the earth is 26,000 years, 36,000 B.C. is probably when the pyramids were built, possibly 7,000 B.C. not 2,500 B.C.

As of 2012 we are coming out of the dark age. 9-1-2015, there have been a lot of UFO sightings, the USA is 18 trillion dollars in debt today.

I don't know which date is correct, but I thought you should hear about another version of Egypt's history.


ROCK AND MUD: Walls were the first painting supports. These mural paintings still exist today after twenty thousand years of protection deep inside ancient caves in India and France.

PAPYRUS: Papyrus is soaked, pressed and dried as strips of pith. it's a member of the sedge family. Papyrus was once abundant in Egypt and used by the Greeks and Romans as paper.

PAPER: Paper is also made of wood, cotton and linen. Linen is best, but cotton will do. Cotton paper is called rag 100%. The paper is glued throughout with an animal size. This is called vat sizing, and it is to be preferred. The papers I've found best are; a new paper hand-made called Twinrocker, Whatman, Strathmore, Lanaquarelle, Fabriano, Winsor & Newton, D'Arches and Waterford. They are all pH-neutral, vat and surface sized.

WOOD: Wood is a classic support. Today a good grade of plywood or hard pressed masonite will do. Use 1/8 in. or 1/4 in. mahogany or birch for pictures up to 22 x 30 in. and 1/4 in. for pictures up to 3 x 4 foot. Larger panels should be braced from the rear.

FLAX LINEN: Linen makes the best and strongest canvas. Today we have no hemp canvas, but it is making a come back. It is the strongest and best. It was woven with a harring-bone weave at the time of Tintoretto.

COTTON: This canvas can be used as a support, up to 3 x 4 ft.

SAILCLOTH: Cotton sailcloth makes an excellent canvas.

HANDKERCHIEF OR AEROPLANE LINEN: This linen is good for small work and can be glued to wood for larger works

POLYESTER: This probably will outlast any other cloth, except for Kevlar and Tyvek :)



ANIMAL: The best animal glue is rabbit skin glue, but don't boil it. Casein is good if you use a stiff support, casein is skim-milk curd, it dissolves in ammonia.

ACRYLIC: Acrylic Gel is a good adhesive medium for grounds and acrylic painting.

VEGETABLE RYE: This paste is an adhesive. Add ten percent alum by weight to the glue, this makes it insoluble in water for tempera or, better still, add one percent of formaldehyde which is an anti-fungicide also. A layer of whole egg will improve a ground by isolating it from the paint.


CHALK- Chalk is calcium carbonate, marble dust, neutralized lime or neutralized gypsum plaster of Paris. Make it by adding water, drying it, adding more water and drying it again and again until it's neutral to the tongue. A small quantity of skim milk is good in chalk grounds.

GYPSUM- Hydrated calcium sulfate, is light spar. It is dense and can be applied with a wide putty knife, that's the best way to apply any ground, it pushes the ground into the fiber. Heated gypsum makes plaster of Paris.

KAOLIN CLAY- Kaolin is decomposed feldspar. As it retains moisture for too long, chalk is better.

BARYTA WHITE- This is a heavy spar with very little coloring power. Usually it's a pigment additive. Barite is crystal of barium sulfate, called heavy spar. Barite is a non-metallic mineral crystal mined in England, filling the cavities in limestone. Like barium it's an extender in lead-based and cadmium-based paints.

TESTING THE GROUND- A good priming ground will not crackle when pressed from behind, oil should not change its color, and the ground should have an even sheen to it. Acrylic ground is good but dissolves in alcohol.

BODY COLOR FOR GROUNDS- Titanium plus zinc white mixed are best but not as opaque as lead plus zinc. Apply the mixture to a dry, small to medium, lightly stretched canvas support without soaking through it. Pre-sizing will save time and money. Applying the ground with a spatula is always the best way to go. Larger size canvases should stretched flat and primed flat, off the stretcher bars. Dampening the back with a mist of water will tighten loose canvas.


GLAZING THE GROUND- This method is called imprimatura, it reduces the absorbing quality of the ground. The Renaissance used this method as the middle tones of the picture, using the colors red, yellow and green earth, green earth was especially good because it was so transparent.

SOLID COLOR GROUND- Bolus grounds were toned red, brown or gray, as Rubins, Van dyck and Rembrandt used. Egg tempera, lead or zinc white, was the first color down on the colored ground; it was like laying out a painting on a blackboard with chalk. Glazes colored the painting and egg tempera white highlights were put in last.


ISOLATING MEDIUMS - Mediums that don't mix or disturb the current painting medium, like damar and turpentine over tempera or egg over oil or shellac and alcohol lac over either. Theophilus Presbyter, in the 12th century, recommended cherry gum as a medium and at the same time as an intermediate layer for oil glazes. Collectively, fruit tree gums are called "cerasin".


WATER: Dilutes or thins; gum, glue, paste, egg, casein, lime, acrylics, wax-soap and water varnish.

TURPENTINE: Thins; oil, alkali, alkyd oil, resin, balsam and wax; I don't use petroleum thinner or paraffin wax for painting. Oil of turpentine absorbs oxygen while drying, mineral spirits only evaporate, and petroleum will not dissolve damar. Damar is our friend... we need it. The new alkyd paints don't use turpentine as a base, but it's still good.

ALCOHOL: Thins; shellac, stick-lac and sandarac (sandracca), "the spirit of wine" paints. Of the two types, de natured grain (ethyl), and wood (methyl), methyl is the more powerful solvent.

SPIKE: Thins; spirit paints. Spike is made from the ancient Mediterranean scrub plant found around Morocco, today it's called the Lavender Plant, "Lavendula Spica".

SPIKENARD: Thins; spirit paints. Spike-nerd or Oil of Cajuput, is the ancient East Indian "Nardostachys" plant.

CASTOR OIL: Dissolves; spirit paints and makes them flexible. It is nondrying in its mass state. Castor oil comes from the seeds of the "ricinus communes" plant. The seed is poisonous.

AMMONIA: Thins; wax-soap, casein and water-varnish. Ammonia water was called the "spirits of hartshorn".


EGG: Egg's emulsion balance can be changed by mixing it with either more water or oil, water is better.

CASEIN: Casein will emulsify with balsams, mastics or any water-based paint or emulsion, oil will emulsify with casein but turns it yellow in time.


GUM: Gum will emulsify with balsam, mastic, wax-soap, and oil.

PASTE: Paste will emulsify with balsam, mastic, wax-soap, and oil.

GLUE: Animal glues emulsify with balsam, mastic, wax-soap, and emulsify very well with oil.

WAX-SOAP: Wax-soap (cera colla) emulsifies with all of the above... the Byzantines added gum... and Reynolds liked to add Venetian turpentine. I think it's great by itself. I did a test on glass with a palette knife -- the paint was 3/8" thick and dried insoluble to water in one week. Try that with oil paint. The only problem I saw was that it could be scratched with my finger nail. Wax is pliable, but balsam or resin makes it harder. I added poppy oil to a batch in a humid area, (Nahiku, Maui) and it stayed wet for two weeks. Gum didn't do any better.

There is a medium I couldn't find any reference to, and it seems a natural. India's artists would have used it in their paintings, because they had all the raw materials -- the cultivated stick-lac insect with the wax nest, and an alkali, borax from Tibet. The two will mix together and form a water-based emulsion, as adding ammonia to shellac, it will make a water-based varnish.


Synthetic paints were born in 1900. Germany made the first acrylic paints and we got them in 1930. Plexiglas is solid acrylic. Water based acrylics are made by polymerizing the acrylic monomer by emulsification. These are great paints that dry insoluble to water. Smooth blends are easily made with thin washes over dried paint. Mistakes are corrected by over painting with white, twice, before repainting. This must be done because the new acrylic colors are not very opaque and show under colors. Pencil lines will also show through. It is better to draw with a non-waxy chalk and brush off the residue with a feather duster. Then, paint in the outlines with a light ultramarine blue, or yellow where appropriate. Remember, the outline belongs to the object behind. Contrast of color and value separate the objects, not their outlines.

Alkyd resins are polyhydric alcohol with polybasic acid. These alkyd modified resins dry faster than natural oils. Turpentine based "Liquin" is an alkyd resin. They mix well with normal oil paints and speed drying. When mixed with oil paint, dried, and covered with damar, the damar can be removed with turpentine leaving the liquin with oil paint untouched.


These catalyst agents cause a chemical change within, when added to a different substance.


Alum is a double sulfate of aluminum and potassium. It's used to temper paints and grounds, making them insoluble to water, but not impervious. It will act as a mordant to set dyes and harden plaster like cement. Brown beeswax can be whitened by boiling it in alum water.


Ammonia is a suffocating pungent gas, compounding nitrogen and hydrogen, soluble in water. Ammonia is an alkaloid compound that transforms shellac and wax, making them water-soluble. When the gas escapes, the dried cara-colla then again becomes insoluble as in cera colla (new window) painting.


Borax, like alum, is an alkali. In ancient day's it was called "tin-cal", a Chinese word. Borax is found in landlocked lakes in Tibet and in the Dead Sea. It was gathered to be used in India as a textile mordant, and in Egypt as a flux ingredient to make frit, an isolated copper pigment in glass. It was also used to make a water varnish from stick-lac. The alcohol-based tree-sap pigments could also be made water soluble in a borax solution.
There is more data in "LAKE MINERALS"


Formaldehyde is a gas, usually sold in a forty percent solution of water, called formalin. It hardens proteins like rabbit-skin glue and stops mold and fungus. It's also used as a preservative.



Gums are hygroscopic, they will always absorb water unless it's tempered with alum or a 4% solution of formalin; formalin is a 37% to 40% solution of formaldehyde available at your drugstore, sometimes ;)

Gums will emulsify with oil, balsams and resins. They are more painterly than egg emulsions alone. Here's a good recipe for a gum emulsion; 5 parts gum, 1 part stand oil or sun thickened linseed oil, 1 part damar resin and 1 part glycerin. The glycerin will improve the brush quality and act as the preservative.

ARABIC Gum acacia - the best is from Africa.

SENEGAL French, it's the hardest gum and best for water colors.

KORDOFAN An ancient gum from Sudan.

CHERRY One of the many fruit tree gums, almond, fig, peach, apricot, plum, they are all similar and mix well with egg and casein.

TRAGACANTH Comes from the astragalus scrub in Asia-Minor, it's used as the binder for pastels.

SARCOLLA An ancient gum made from the astragalus sarcolla plant of Iran, it's similar to gum arabic and best for gum tempera.

Vegetable glues are starch pastes, rice starch makes the best glues. Others are; potato starch, wheat starch and rye starch, They all can be emulsified with oil, balsams and resin.

Vegetable glues give very bright gouache-like tones and have no effect on pigments. Starches set free by the addition of an alkali like ammonia become insoluble in water when dry.

Vasari and Plenderleith talk of bookbinders' boiled paste.


Glues are used either hot or cold; hide glues are protein, chandrin, which is the adhesive, and gluten, which is the gelatin. Hide glues are used hot; most modern polyvinyl acetate glues are used cold. Glue paintings should be sprayed with a 4 percent solution of formalin to harden it or given a glaze with mastic varnish or better (harder).

GELATIN: Gelatin is an edible glue, made from delicate animal tissues. It contains more gluten, preferably it's used with egg, gum or wax soap.

PARCHMENT: Cooked lamb and goat skin was the support used for miniature paintings.

COLOGNE: Animal leather glues emulsify with fatty oils by adding it to egg or wax-soap; it works better than gums. Cologne glue with kaolin clay covers best.

RABBIT: Rabbit skin glue is the best fabric isolation for gesso.

BONE: Bone glue is inferior to hide glue.

FISH: Used cold, hide glue is more durable.

GLYCERIN: Has oily properties, is water or alcohol soluble, and will absorb moisture from the air.


Egg yolk contains albumen (water), egg oil (nondrying) and lecithin (emulsifier). Egg yolk itself is a painting medium, it bleaches white in sunlight. Mix egg yolk and water 1:1 to dry pigment = 1:1:1. Egg, unvarnished looks like gouache, it's a flat finish. Egg and egg emulsions dry hard, elastic and more resistant than oil color mediums by themselves. Oil of cloves, one drop per egg, will preserve a sealed wet egg, kept cool for one year. The icon, painted on wood was the next medium after fresco. In Byzantium, after a ninth-century council had confirmed the defeat of the Iconoclasts and made it safe to paint in the less durable egg, the style spread over Northern Europe and stayed in Russia for eight centuries.

Egg without the addition of oil is called distempera, this was a preferred style from Giotto (1266-1337) to Botticelli (1444-1510), The addition of alum to the egg made it waterproof. Giotto also added cherry gum to make it more fluid, acting as a preservative as it was slightly alkaline. The support was wood or linen primed with gypsum or chalk. The ground had to be kept very clean because the thin medium shows through colors. A poor ground could be improved by a coat of egg and lime white before painting. Sandarac (sandracca) is a good hard, final varnish.

When egg white is used, it's called glair medium and was used like ink on illuminated manuscripts in the 5th century, and as a size for gold leaf. Egg white and alum make a good bodied paint medium, capable of making very opaque strokes.

See egg tempera paintings with tips. (new window)

TEMPERA'S ARE EMULSIONS, water and oil plus the stabilizer. The first tempera was made about 1000 A/D, first with mastic, then linseed oil. The ratio's went like this; one part egg, one part mastic or oil, OR, two parts egg, one part oil, one part mastic. More egg made it water based, more oil made it oil based. Later sun thickened oils or stand oil were used. Most liked to use Strasbourg turpentine (balsam), today we use Venetian or Canadian (very good) turpentine because no one imports Strasbourg to the U.S. except The USA has the raw material to make an excellent balsam.


Van Eyck (1390-1441) became very skilled at this technique, painting in water based egg tempera, then glazing with oil and balsam, going back to water tempera for details and glazing again, Giovanni Bellini (1430-1516), in his life time went from egg tempera paint to oil paint.

Phoenicia at that time was the third largest land holding state in the Mediterranean. It was really part of the second largest, the Assyrian Empire, that included Egypt and the whole Tigris-Euphrates Valley down to the Persian gulf. This was a nation of sea travelers that covered the known world. They brought tin down from England because Egypt was mined out, fine indigo cyan from India was a world seller. China showed England what could be done with porcelain, and how black a textile dye could be with their pigments.

Eric The Red not only had red hair, he had a red boat to boot.

Castor oil was another great battle won by sandracca (sandarac). Here's the story as Homer told it back in 1000 B.C.. The mighty Zeus had taken the shape of a swan and had a blue egg with his daughter Leda, a very beautiful goddess. Out of this blue egg were born Pollux and Helen, the most beautiful goddess in the world, she had a mighty fighter for a brother. Leda had another egg with another man, King Tyndereus, and had another set of twins, Castor and Clytemnestra, who were both mortals. Well Castor and Pollux had great times together fighting this war and that, till they both got killed one day. Zeus allowed Pollux to share his immortal being with his brother, spending half their time on Olympus and half the time in Hade's realm. Now there are two bright stars in the heavens to remind us that Sandracca (sandarac) was once "King of Paint".


Stick-lac, shellac or lac as it is sometimes called, is another alcohol based paint that got shot out of the saddle and lost in the Paint Wars. It was India's favorite son. Gathered with care from the branches of a tree that housed their lacquer secreting insect, the Laccifer Lacca.

They traded their wool and dyes in Tibet for borax and mixed it with water and stick-lac to make what we call today, water varnish. Yesterday I mixed it with ammonia and made this water paint that dried insoluble to water.

India had some great lacquer colors also, ruby red "dragon's blood" was the sap of a tree from Singapore, damar varnish comes from there also. Damar means "torch" in Malaysian. Another sap, alcohol based paint was "Gamboge" from Thailand which is a transparent yellow quality and Scarlet "Karmes".


Japan has a lacquer tree called the Rhus Verniciflua, it was used to produced the famous Chinese "Ning-Po Lacquered Boxes" that the French loved so well, they traded their lavender perfumes and called the boxes "cloisonne".


Indian Stick-lac could also be made from the secretion of the "coccus laccae" insect that lives in the bark of the Ficus tree, it's often called shellac, it can be made water soluble by adding an alkali, then its called water-shellac.

Red shellac is from East India, the red is the dye, removed by boiling in water. White shellac is made by adding potash lye or borax, as a red pigment the dye is precipitated on a clay base. It will work on dry lime secco paintings, not wet buon fresco, and in all other mediums.

The mordant fixes the coloring matter, alum is the most common. Tin oxides lighten the red color toward yellow, as on the English Army coats of the 16th century. Cochineal and tin made a vermilion hue, alum would have made a more crimson color. Iron is a mordant used for dark brown and black, zinc works for yellow.


YELLOW, Imperial yellow is from the flowers of the "sophora japonica", it contains flavonal quercetin, similar to the famous Indian Yellow (new window), both were a golden-yellow-orange color when used full strength and tinted to a bright yellow.

Yellow wood sap from the sumac tree, "rhus cotinus" works, flavone also occurs in vines of weld, from Northern India. Four other sources of transparent yellow are; safflower and saffron, the root of the "curcuma tinclora" and the husks of pomegranate with carbonate of zinc.

ORANGE, henna "lawsona alba".

RED, Cochineal, ground female "coccus cacti" insect, originally from Central America, imported to Morocco. Soluble in ammonia. The coloring matter is carminic acid, an anthraquinone derivative. Today this hue is rare, transparent.

Karmes Scarlet is the oldest Magenta color, made from an insect found on the oak tree, it secrets an alcohol based lac and is found all over Europe.

Madder root from the "rubia tinctoria" red to brown found from Anatolia to Persia. India and China use the "rubia cordifolia", which is a cooler magenta color. India exported madder, indigo, weld and Indian Yellow.

Brazilwood, named the country, it's clear in wood and boiling it makes a magenta dye. To change the dye to red, you use a tin mordant, Brazilwood dye comes from the local "caesalpinia" tree. Logwood, from the "haematoxylon" tree makes hematin, boiled, it turns violet to blue-black.

CYAN to BLUE, Grown in India, the "Indiagofera tinctoria" thrives in the tropical climate, the active ingredient is found in the leaves, an indol derivative is fermented from a sugar, this precipitation is insoluble in water. Alkalis dissolve it and form the sodium salt indigo white, which oxidizes into many shades of blue. Aniline blue has the same chemical composition and replaced it in 1870. This cyan blue was the most important color in Chinese rugs.


PY150 dioxine nickel complex = Indian Yellow Brn/s. BEST
PY153 dioxine nickel complex = Indian Yellow. BEST
PY153 dioxine nickel complex + PR 260 isoindolin = Indian Yellow Golden. BEST
PY108 anthrapyrimidine = Indian Yellow Brown side.
PY153 dioxine nickel complex + PY3 stable di-arylide = Gamboge PV19 quinacridone = Rose
PR122 quinacridone = Magenta
PV23:1r carbazole dioxazine = Purple
PV23 dioxine nickel complex = Permanent Violet Bluish transparent secondary blue, tints to Ult. Blue.
PB60 anthraquinone = Blue Deep to Turquoise
PB15 copper phthalocyanine = Cyan (Thalo Blue) to Green Y/S, Manganese also makes Cyan.
PB7 chlorinated copper phthalocyanine = Turquoise to Green
PY83 stable di-arylide + PG7 chlorinated copper phthalocyanine = Sap Green Y/S
PY83 stable di-arylide HR + PG7 chlorinated copper phthalocyanine + PO43 perinone orange = Sap Green O/S
PY129 methin copper complex = Green Gold
PY129 azomethine = Genuine Green Gold
PY129 irgazine yellow light, greenish-gold


Jute is the cheapest and most used vegetable fiber used in carpets. Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from the Corchorus plant, which was was once classified with the family Tiliaceaehemp.

Hemp is next most popular thread for carpets.

Flax linen was an Egyptian crop, it was not used much in carpets but made excellent cloth.

Wool and fur were Tibetan, the best from Kansu.

Cotton was grown in India, China and Egypt.

Silk started in China about 2640 B.C., then Japan and India. Silk has an affinity toward metallic salts as mordants, tin phosphate and tin silicate are the most common. Black silk uses an iron mordant. The thread is too fine for carpets.


1.    Antimony = Naples Yellow
1a.   Lead+Tin = Light bright Yellow
2.    Cadmium = Yellow, Orange, Red
3.    Chrome Green = Green
       Chrome + Alumina = Translucent Corumdum Red
       Chrome + Cobalt = Blue/Green
       Chrome + Tin = Pink (light Magenta)
       Chrome + Tin + Silica = Red
       Chrome + Tin + Calcium = Red, Magenta, Violet
       Chrome = Tin + Cobalt = Ultramarine Blue, Purple, Violet
4.    Chromium = Green Opaque
       Chromium + Iron + Manganese = Black
       Chromium Trivalent = Green
       Chromium Hexavalent = Yellow
5.    Cobalt = Azure Blue
       Cobalt = Uranium = Green
       Cobalt + Zinc = Ultramarine Blue
       Cobalt + Chromium + Manganese = Black
6.    Copper = Green, Turquoise, Red, Ruby Red Violet
       Copper Oxide = Green
       Copper Oxide + Zinc = Brilliant Green
7.    Ferris Oxide Lead Silicate = Yellow
       Iron = Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, Brown, Black, Cyan, Ultramarine Blue
       Iron Oxide = Opaque Brown to Red
8.    Gold = Magenta
9.    Lead = Yellow
       Lead + Chromate = Red
       Litharge = Red Minium (Roman)
10.   Divalent Manganese = Yellow to Brown
       Manganese = Brown, Red, Magenta, Purple, violet
11.   Magnetite = Black
12.   Molybdenum = Smokey Gray to Blue
13.   Nickle = Gray, Blue, Purple, Green, Yellow, Brown
       Nickle Oxide = Slate Blue Gray
14.   Potassium Oxide = Yellow Green
15.   Platinum = Silver
16.   Silver = Dull Silver
       Silver Chloride = Yellow Side Silver
17.   Selenium + Cadmium + Sulphur = Red
       Selenium + Cadmium = Orange
       Selenium + Sulphur = Yellow
18.   Salt fires clear Glossie
19.   Tin = White
       Tin + Chrome = Crimson
       Tin + Vanadium = Yellow
20.   Titanium = Opaques
21.   Uranium = Red, Black
22.   Vanadium = Emerald Green, Yellow Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, Brown
23.    Zirconia = Pink, Magenta
       Zirconium + Vanadium = Cyan, Turquoise
24.   Clay = Glossie Red Oxide (Terra Sigillata, Roman)
25.   Clay = Black (Terra Nigra, Roman)

Chapter 2
Rocks, Minerals & Ores of Color, Sea Minerals & Rock, Lake Minerals, Ores of Color, Color Chemical, Chemistry Glossary

1-Talc, 2-Gypsum, 3-Calcite, 4-Fluorite, 5-Apatite,
6-Feldspar, 7-quartz, 8-Topaz, 9-Corundum, 10-Diamond

INTARSIA, Paintings made of precious colored rock and stone. (new window)



Basalt is the most common of the earth's volcanic rocks, its crystals are continuous and elongated. Basalt magma is sometimes as hard as glass, but rarely.


Syenite forms in silicate-less magma, consisting typically of feldspar and hornblende.


Quartz is the most common crystal mineral, oxygen and silicon, it has the hardness of H7. Quartz is found in ore mineral veins and needs a hollow space to form, As rocks and veins weather, quartz is freed of it's matrix and breaks loose to form sand. Cemented sand is sandstone, intruding magma going through sandstone will again form ore and quartz.


Granite is also igneous or fire intrusive. It's composed of quartz and feldspar, Granite magma intrudes limestone or dolomite and forms marble. Marble is heat and calcium of limestone, plus calcium magnesium of dolomite, plus silica. Veins or lodes of ore in marble include, tin, copper, uranium, iron, zinc and lead. Marble is metamorphic limestone.

Granite, intrudes with its hottest leading edge forming cassiterite, tin. The copper sulfides form second, chalcopyrite is the primary copper ore formed in quartz. Third would be cobalt, nickel and arsenic. Then the zinc-lead zone, with zinc sulfide as sphalerite ore, lead sulfide is galena ore, than silver. Finally, the iron rich zone with iron carbonate as siderite ore, the dominate mineral of the world.


Feldspar is common in granite magma intruding on sandstone sedimentary rock, it hardens into a crystal softer than quartz. Feldspar can be morphasized with pressure to a harder crystal like tourmaline or topaz.

Feldspar is the second most common mixed mineral silicate crystal, made from potassium, sodium and calcium, an alumino-silicate. It contains aluminum in the ore, bauxite, clay and rock. Clay is hydrated silicates of aluminum.

Potash feldspar is microdine, add iron and it's red to green, green amazonite was mined and used as a pigment on murals in 1300 B.C., in Egypt.

Plageoclase feldspar is sodium and calcium.


Kaolinite, is clay and chalk after feldspar. Carbonic acid, is present in rainwater or vapors, this pheudomorphs the kaolinite from feldspar.

Porcelain is made from kaolinite clay and is mined in Cornwall, England.



Sandstone is a sedimentary rock, an intact mineral of quartz sand. It's cemented together by the commonest cement, calcium carbonate.


Quartzite is metamorphic sandstone, an intact mineral or solution of suspended silica growing on quartz crystal, sand is broken quartz crystal.


Limestone is a sedimentary mineral cemented by calcium carbonate and is made of once living organisms, the dissolved mineral is calcite. In this same category of sedimented rock is salt and gypsum. Powered and heated, "calcined" limestone makes both plaster of Paris and mural mortar, we'll get to slaking lime in the mural chapter.


Marble is metamorphic or recrystallized limestone, being metamorphic is being made with pressure.


Gypsum is crystals of hydrous calcium sulfate, crystal deposits formed as precipitates from sea water or in limestone, These circulating waters contain sulfuric acid generated by oxidation of sulfur ore minerals.

Gypsum crystals are called selenite when there clear, alabaster, when there translucent and fibrous, satin-spar, when there opaque and bendable,

Gypsum heated forms sulfur dioxide gas and sulfuric acid. Heated in the presence of lead, either with fumes or in a natural combinations, will form basic lead carbonate, called lead white. Gypsum, after being heated loses most of its sulfur and becomes plaster of Paris also, lime plaster is better to paint on if you want to prolong the absorption time.


Hornfels are a combination of clay and fine quartz sand, forming silt which makes shale. Pressure forms hard rock hornfels.


Diatomite is diatomaceous earth, a porous chalk like material, a sedimentary rock that forms on a sea floor or lake bottoms. It's a form of opaline silica, microscopic plants secrete silica to form hard shells of opal. Diatomite is a common filler in paint and paper.


Fluorite is crystal of calcium fluoride, found in veins with the metallic ores of lead and silver, or with barite, gypsum, calestite and dolomite, or by itself.

Fluorite forms a full color wheel, it's the only non-metallic element that has this capability. There's also a luminescence fluorite which emits a visible light when crushed, heated or radiated. England mines "Blue John" which was carved into bowls, cups and vases. The Chinese mined a green variety and carved statues.


Barite is crystal of barium sulfate, called heavy spar, it has no coloring power by itself. Barite is a non-metallic mineral crystal mined in England, filling the cavities in limestone. As barium it's an extender in lead based and cadmium paints.


Celestite is strontium sulfate, the ore of strontium. This strontium element supplies "the rockets red glare".


Halite is sodium chloride, rock salt.



Borax is found in dry lakes as in Tibet, it was called "tin-cal", a Chinese word. Boron is also found in boric acid and in the mineral sassolite, mined in Tuscany, Italy. It can be found in a mineral called tincalconite and ten others. Borax and shellac form the paint called "water shellac". Boron hardens metals, and makes soaps and medicine. Molten borax will dissolve insoluble metal oxides and is the flux for soldering, brazing and welding metals. Borax powder will kill cockroaches.


Trona is soda ash in its hydrous state as sodium carbonate. In its anhydrous state, it's soda ash. 1/5 soda ash and 4/5 sand quartz, make glass, with enough heat.


Sodalite is sodium aluminum silicate with sodium chloride, it forms in massive crystals, like over an acre.


SULFUR is abundant in gypsum and as an anhydrite from sea water, it is also found in limestone to some extent. Sulfur was used as an insecticide in 1000 B.C., ancient Greece gathered it in Delphi, from a deep crevice exuding sulfurous gases from Mount Parnassus. Sulfur burns a blue flame and emits sulfur dioxide gas.

SULFURIC ACID is sodium carbonate and is used in making glass. It was once called "oil of vitriol", a di-basic acid of sulfur made from sulfur tri-oxide. To "vitriolize", means to treat with sulfuric acid, it gives a glassy appearance to metallic sulfates; white vitriol is made from the lead or zinc ore, blue vitriol is made from copper, green vitriol is made from copperas, a ferrous sulfate, iron.

SULFIDE contains the free radical or more electropositive element, it effects changes with other ores.

SULFATE, to treat with a salt of sulfuric acid will make a sulfate. Lead sulfate compounds form on lead, you "sulfatize" when you roast galena, the lead ore that contains sulfur.

SULFUROUS ACID is dissolved sulfur di-oxide gas in water, to form salts called sulfites.

SULFITE is the salt of sulfurous acid which makes the cadmium sulfides from yellow to red. Arsenic sulfides are yellow-green, yellow, orange and red. Copper sulfides are green to blue. Lead sulfides range from white to red. Oil coal-tar colors go from hansa yellow to ultramarine blue moving around the magenta side.


CEMENT, like in Portland Cement, is made from heated gypsum, sand and alumina, the oxide of aluminum present in clay. That makes cement hydraulic, it absorbs water and the gypsum cement sets quickly, even under water. The addition of Alumina, present in clay, is the reason cement dries underwater. Rome discovered cement, so I heard.
I tested white cement that I got from a cement pool supplier with lime and sulfur safe colors from Sinopia and had as much open painting time as I have had with lime mortar.
It is just as easy to use dry pigments and a liquid acrylic polymer as the medium on a dry white cement support. Use water based cera colla wax (new window) for the gloss finish on top of the dry fresco.

I tested white cement I got from a pool supplier with lime and sulfur safe colors from Sinopia and had as much open painting time as I have had with lime.
Heated gypsum burns off sulfur as it becomes lime, any traces left behind would be bad for some older mural pigments. So don't use gypsum lime for murals, use limestone lime.
Soak, or slake the lime from three months to twenty years, the longer the better. Start slaking with a very loose mixture of 'powered only once', hydrated dry lime and water. Only the first and second drying of limestone lime will hold together strong enough for mural work. By the fifth drying out period the lime will have no holding power. It will be used as a white pigment when glue is added.
The first Scratch Coat or Rough Coat is 2-3 rough sand to 1 lime.
The second 'Brown Coat' uses medium sand at 2:1 lime. These first two coats need to be floated rough with a wooden trowel or today's new float trowels, metal will not do.
The third coat is the top coat or Intonaco Coat. Use 1:1 lime and a fine white sand or 'lime marble meal' which is larger then 'lime powder' for the last 'intonaco' coat. Three coats are better than one and six coats are better than three, for containing water to keep the top, 1/8 inch or less, 1:1, intonaco coat wet longer.
All the lime coats must be cleaned of their calcium carbonate, the clear shiny crust that forms when the lime is dry and for a long time afterwards. This dry crust will stop all rising calcium. It must be allowed to pass right up to the top where it will add to the intonaco's calcium carbonate crust. That becomes the lime murals shining jewel, a hard finish to follow. Gypsum doesn't do that.
This makes me think Michaelangleo used gypsum in his lime because the ceiling is not shiny.

CEMENT FONDU is a cement with a high aluminum content,

KEENE CEMENT has alum salts added and makes a very hard mass.

CASEIN CEMENT, casein added to cement makes it harder and set faster. Not good for fresco, paint chips off.

HIDE GLUE CEMENT Add less then one percent hide glue into the cement to slow setting from ten minutes to two hours.

OXYCHLORIDE CEMENT is also called, PLASTIC MAGNESIA. It's calcined magnesite, it's calcined just short of becoming magnesia (as limestone becomes lime), and made into cement with a strong solution of magnesium chloride. This is cast stone.



ANTIMONY native is Naples yellow, a very early pigment replenished in the Vesuvius eruption of 79 A/D. Antimony oxide was made artificially since the early eleventh century. Antimony sulfides are found in the mineral galance stibnite, in Italy and Human, China.


ARSENIC, Arsenopyrite is arsenic's main ore. Arsenic disulfides are red realgar and yellow orpiment, both were used in the early Egyptian days.


COPPER ORE native, is brittle unless it's heated or annealed, as the ancient Anatolias did in 6000 B.C.. The ancient Eskimos ground fish hooks out of this native copper. Copper pitch ore was used all through the Neolithic Period.

CUPRITE is a cubic transparent ruby-red crystal, formed as a secondary mineral from exposed copper ore. TENORITE is black copper oxide.

CHALCOCITE is another secondary mineral of copper, found in metallic sulfides, precipitating in still waters as a soluble sediment.

CHALCANTHITE is retrieved from the chalcocite sediment, this is the basis of the ancient blue vitriol, and it made blue and green frit. Notice, it's the complementary color of cuprite. I'll point this out while proving my color theory and color wheel oppositions.

ANTLERITE is copper's chief ore mineral, it's a copper sulfate.

CHALCOPYRITE is the primary ore formed in quartz.

CHRYSOCOLLA has a hardness of 2.5, it's a light cyan colored ore that the Egyptians wore as jewelry, they matched this color with copper and tin glass frit. Small scarabs were found glazed and considered as good luck pieces, it was a sample of the color pigment they sold on the ancient world market.

MALACHITE is a secondary mineral ore of copper carbonate, a native green pigment when crushed.

AZURITE is another hydrated salt of copper carbonate, this one's a deep cyan color, it was also used as a pigment all throughout the ancient years. Soak azurite long enough and it will turn green, ammonia turns copper blue.

ACETATE is a salt by acetic acid or vinegar. A hydrated copper acetate was said to be the first artificial color. It was made by the Romans in 1000 B.C. and was called vertigris. They would have had to suspend Egypt's chalcocite sediment in vinegar to precipitate a salt. Egypt had murals of wine harvests 2500 years earlier. I suspect Egypt made it first, before Rome, since they did so much with copper.

PHTHALOCYANINE is copper with one of its atoms removed to make a non-metallic pigment. This pigment doesn't react to sulfur as metallic copper does, it's transparent and covers from yellow-green to cyan. This is perhaps the most important color ever discovered. PB60 anthraquinone is transparent muddy ultramarine blue.


GOETHITE is iron hydroxide crystals found yellow to brown in earthy masses, it's an ore of iron that contains the natural yellow ferric oxide pigments.

IRON OXIDE ranges from white calcite, yellow ocher, sienna, red oxide, brown and green umber to black. Adding heat (calcined), brings out the red side and adds a transparent quality if silicates are involved, as in sienna. Magnesium is the purple side of caput mortuum, present in iron.

HEMATITE is iron ore, heat it to 1830 degrees and get iron. Hematite naturally crushed and oxidized leaves a red streak powder that was the stone-age red and Egyptian rouge.

PYRITE is iron sulfide and sulfuric acid, dissolved in water to leave behind limonite. Fifty four percent of pyrite is sulfur, decomposed pyrite is hydrated iron oxide.

LIMONITE is a secondary ore of iron that forms yellow to brown oxides. This is the second bit of proof for my color theory and color wheel, colors that center to brown.

SIDERITE is iron carbonate, going from yellow to brown.

CALCITE is a native iron pigment mineral that is white. Iron will make all colors.

CALADONITE is a green earth iron silicate mineral.


GALENITE or GALENA. Galena is lead sulfide mineral, native, and it contains sulfur. Roasting the galena ore produces a basic lead carbonate, white lead sulfate. Also formed is a water soluble salt compound of lead arsenate.

CERUSSITE is a native lead carbonate mineral, white lead.

VANADINITE washes to lead vanadate, a red-orange crystal.

WULFENITE is a transparent orange crystal.

LEAD ACETATE is a colorless crystal formed by acetic acid touching lead, it is water soluble and called sugar of lead. Lead acetate can be used as a siccative.

LEAD IS CORRODED with fumes of acetate and carbonic acid in steam. It forms a white lead sulfide or oxidized white lead and contains the free-radical that effects so many pigments. This is artificial basic lead carbonate, our white pigment. Hydrogen peroxide will stabilize and remove the free-radical, turning lead sulfide to lead sulfate, a stable white lead.

LEAD CARBONATE is formed by mixing in solution, lye and carbonic acid with lead acetate. It's the whitest lead but not as opaque as white lead oxide.


CINNABAR is the ore of mercury, mercuric sulfide, the red crushed ore is the color vermilion. Cinnabar is found in crystal and masses in South Central Spain and in China. China did more carving in it than painting with it. The rest of the world found it a very useful pigment. The Carthaginians and the Romans both worked the Spanish mines.


TIN ORE is found in Cassiterite, a tin dioxide, the principle ore of tin, along with wood tin. The symbol for tin is Sn, for stannum.

Tin ore is found in rock forming minerals like feldspar, quartz and mica. First, tin was exposed on cliff faces, where the rocks eroded exposing the veins. Eventually it entered streams and rivers to be stream mined. Tin was mined in Eastern Greece, ancient Anatolia, Upper Syria, the Tigris Euphrates Valley, Afghanistan, the Mekong River and England.

TIN OXIDE is black and fires white, mix tin oxide and cobalt oxide with heat and you get cerulean blue. You can get a similar blue by mixing and firing tin and copper chalcanthite with quartz sand like the Egyptians did, this made their highly prized frit colors, which they traded through the Phoenician's, ancient world wide. Smelt tin ore and copper ore and you'll get bronze. Bronze is the metal the Egyptians made their saws out of to cut the limestone for their great pyramids.


ZINC: The zinc primary sulfide mineral is water soluble, and is often found with galena.

ZINC SILICATE: Zinc SILICATE comes in a variety of colors, transparent yellow and green, opaque white, yellow, green, red, brown and black. All these colors were found in the Franklin Mines of New Jersey.

ZINC OXIDE: Zinc oxide is called zincite and is colored white, yellow, orange and red.


ACID- Boric acid is a very mild acid, as is acetic acid. Carbonates and sulfides of metals are sensitive to mineral acids. Acid vapors and weak acids bleach lapis lazuli and syn. ultramarine blue, a colloidal sulfur.
Acid liberates hydrogen ions, an electrically unbalanced or charged atom, Hydrochloric acid is violently caustic on metals.

Sulfuric acid is weaker than hydrochloric acid.

ALKALI- Alkali or base: is caustic and reactive, sodium hydroxide is caustic soda or lye, both lye and ammonia are strong alkalis. Alkali yields to hydroxyl [OH] ions, an acid. Sal soda is a sodium carbonate or washing soda or soda ash, it's weaker but it will still dissolve wool and react with oils, fats and wax.
Sodium bicarbonate or sodium acid carbonate is baking soda, the dry mix of alkali and acid neutralize each other, when they are hydrated, carbon dioxide is set free. Borax is sodium tetraborate, a mild alkaline salt that's used as a flux with glass and lime setting and hardener for casting molds with hydrated lime.

ALUM- A double sulfate of aluminum and potassium crystal, a 5% solution will harden hide glue, gelatin and all proteins. It makes cement hard, and is a mortar for dyeing textiles. It's an astringent, alkali.

ANHYDROUS- To lose all water, including crystallizing waters.

ANHYDRITE- A mineral, calcium sulfate.

ATOM- The smallest unit constituent of an molecule containing protons, neutrons and electrons, the number and arrangement of which determine the element.

AZO- Unsulfonated dyestuffs, diazonium salt with a phenol, Hansa Yellow.

CADMIUM- A metallic element that looks like tin. Chromite cadmium forms lemon yellow through, yellow light, yellow medium, yellow deep, yellow extra deep, yellow orange, orange, red scarlet, red light, red medium, red deep to red purple. All analogous colors and no others.

CALCINATE- Calcination means to heat, burn or cook, Calcinating a salt of iron makes an iron oxide, slow oxidation is rust.

CROMA- Color saturation of a hue.

CHROMITE- The principle ore of chromium containing iron and magnesium.

CHROMITE- A salt of chromous acid, a coloring agent. Chromite white lead, from yellow through orange to red lead.

CHROMATE- A salt of chromic acid with a radical atom that will easily leave its host molecule. To make a chromate, you change a chromogen from colorless to colored. A chromate of lead is red lead. Chrome red, or red lead is the basic chromite of lead treated with chromium salts of chromic acid.

CHROMOGEN- A substance that colors when oxidized, forming colored compounds, like Azo.

CHROMIUM- Element, metallic, occurring in compounds to make pigments, a hardening element as with chromium steel. Chromium compounds are chromic acid and its salts, called chromates. First the metallic and acid name, followed by [ATE], sodium sulfate. This is the salt of sulfuric acid and a sodium compound. The salt of acid with fewer atoms to the molecule, ends in [ITE], sodium sulfite, the sodium salt of sulfurous acid. [IC] and [OUS] designate numerical variations in an acid or oxide, [OUS] being smaller and more unstable, these that don't contain their maximum complement of atoms are called unstable. [THIO] means sulfur-bearing, [AZO] means nitrogen-bearing,

CHROME- The adverb for chromium, chrome yellow is composed of chromates of lead, barium, or zinc, Chrome green is made from chromic oxide, chrome red is a basic chromate of lead.

CHROME- A word element meaning color.

CHROMOPHORE- Any chemical group which produces color in a compound as the azo group -N=N-, the structural layout of atoms which is found in many colored compounds.

COMPLIMENTARY COLORS- A color and its opposite on the "real color wheel" will combine to a neutral dark on the pigment color wheel and white on the light color wheel. To find the complimentary by eye use your color reversing image retention. Look at the color swatch in a bright light for 5 seconds, then switch to a blank white paper. The reversed color will appear.
I made a page to prove and show how this works. (new window)

COMPOUNDS- Composed of two or more elements or ingredients. Binary compounds consist of two elements, first named is the metallic or electrically positive, followed by the negative, which ends in [IDE], sodium sulfide is a binary compound of sodium and sulfur, zinc oxide is zinc and oxygen.

CRYSTALLIZATION- with water, as the blue transparent crystals of copper sulfate contain seven molecules of water to each molecule of salt. Without the water it's an anhydrous white powder.

CYANOGEN- A gas with a univalent radical, added to iron gives ferricyanide salt or Prussian blue.

DICHROMIC- A color exhibiting two color phases, usually a transparent color that looks different when white is added as opposed to adding water. This is called, Dual-Toned

DICHROMIC- Chemical, of a compound containing two atoms of chromium.

EFFERVESCENCE- to give off bubbles of gas, as when mixing ammonia and beeswax while making wax soap.

EFFLORESCENCE- means losing water to air.

ESTER- Ester or salt, containing glycerin is a glyceride. Oil is a glyceride of fatty acid from plants, glycerides in drying oils are unsaturated and combine with oxygen forming insoluble linoxyn.

ESTER- A product formed by the reaction of an acid with alcohol, silicon esters are ethyl silicate (alcohol and silica), volatile. Adding water has a chemical reaction called hydrolysis, producing hydrated silica, a stone preservative that is inorganic and imperishable. This is a complete painting medium, great for outdoor murals. It has an alcohol cleanup until it's dry. Ethyl Silicate is made by Union Carbide Company.

FATTY OILS- Drying, vegetable oils, linseed, poppy and walnut oils dry by absorbing oxygen, siccatives speed up the drying process. All oils turn yellow. Stand oil is thickened without oxygen appears clear but it does yellow. In fact it yellowed more than my cold pressed linseed oil.

FORMALDEHYDE- the best hardener for egg, casein, rabbit hide glue or any protein. A 37 % solution of formaldehyde is called formalin, a 10% solution of formalin is sprayed on the dried protein to harden it. Formalin is a fungicide and prevents mold.

HYDRATION- To lose water as hydrated oxides do when exposed to heat.

HYDROUS- Containing water as in hydrates or hydroxides.

HYGROSCOPIC- means to absorb water from the air, like calcium chloride, alcohol, clay and lye.

INERT- Inert has no action to effect changes to itself.

INORGANIC- Minerals and ores are inorganic and inert.

MASS-TONE- The color perceived by laying down a thick coat of pigment.

ORGANIC- Plants and animals are organic. An organic salt is called an ester.

MOLECULES- The smallest physical unit of an element or compound consisting of one or more like atoms in the first case, and two or more different atoms in the second case. Molecules of red iron oxide are; Fe2,O3, Fe = iron, O = Oxygen, 2 equals two iron atoms, 3 equals three oxygen atoms. Synthetic resins rearrange the molecules.

RADICALS- Two or more elements hook valences together and act as a single element in a reaction, as [HO] is hydroxyl.

SALTS- Salts are neither acid or base, but they could have those reactions. Salts are produced by action on metal or another salt, or by the neutralizing reaction of an acid or base.

Sodium chloride is table salt, it's soluble, inert and neutral, some salts are active. Barium salt is insoluble. Some pigment salts are made by mixing two solution salts together, forming two new products (called double decomposition), one will remain soluble, the other precipitates as a powder, as some pigments do.

Salts of metals categorize themselves in color, nickel is green,copper is blue, cobalt is rose and anhydrous blue, chromium is yellow to dark red and iron is from yellow to brown. This note is taken in my color theory of rim and centering colors in elements.

Normal salt of acid is named for the metal than the acid, ending in [ATE]. Sodium sulfate Na2SO4 is sodium salt of sulfuric acid, combined. The salt of acid with fewer atoms to the molecule ends with [ITE], sodium sulfite NA2SO3. Unstable or unsaturated acids and salts have open hooks and end in [OUS]. Ferrous [iron] oxides are exceptions, these are called "loose linkages".

SICCATIVE- Salts of metal oxides soluble in oil, they speed the absorption of oxygen by oils and dry them faster, 2% maximum is recommended.

SOAP- Made by treating a fat with an alkali, any metallic salt of an acid contained in fat.

SODIUM- A soft metallic element that oxidizes rapidly in moist air, occurring only in combined states.

PHENOL- Carbolic acid, a hydroxyl derivative of benzene, used in organic synthesis. Phenolate, a salt of phenol.

POTASH- Potassium carbonate, obtained from wood ashes. Caustic potash (pot-ashes).

POTASSIUM- Similar to sodium element, used in hard glasses.

POLYMERIZATION- means internal changes.

POTASSIUM BICHROMATE- hardens proteins, it's a fungicide.

REACTION- An irreversible chemical change, as when oil dries.

UNDER-TONE- The thin wash color of a pigment, as opposed to

the MASS-TONE (from the tube) or TOP TONE (adding opaque white).

VAT PIGMENTS include, perylenes, Isoindolines, indanthrones, phthalocyanines, and quinacridones.

VALENCE- Valence is a hook on an atom that links two atoms together, the amount of hooks is the valence number. Oxygen has two, carbon has four, the benzene radical has six.

Chapter 3
40,000 B.C, B.C. Pigment Palette, Ores Color Reactions to Each Other


40,000 B.C.  Tribes mined flint in Egypt and France.

6,000 B.C.- Neolithic communities like Anatolia hammered copper, Copper works were found in Catal Huyuk, a culture in Turkey.

6,000 B.C.- Eskimo's N W of Hudson Bay had copper fish hooks made from glacial copper.

5,000 B.C.- Pre-dynastic Egypt mined gold, silver, chalcedony, (a milk colored quartz), chrysoprase,[a nickel stained apple-green chalcedony, green feldspar, (light-green amazonite), green fluorite, malachite, (crushed malachite was their green eye shadow paint). Hematite was red rouge. Lapis lazuli was jewelry.

4,700 B.C.- Egypt's IV Dynasty smelted bronze.

4,000 B.C.- Egypt's casting gold, copper and bronze, bronze saws cut the blocks of lime stone for the pyramids of Giza. They burnt gypsum and limestone for plaster to cover walls, make columns, and as supports for murals. An Iron and nickel alloy knife was made and found, probably from a meteorite.

3,400 B.C.- Afghanistan and Mesopotamia were mining lapis lazuli.

3,000 B.C.- Galena was found in every country from Morocco to Greece, from Russia to China. Neolithic miners dug for flint in England, a small figurine of a pregnant woman was found at the back of a limestone cave. Old Kingdom Egypt was painting murals of miners, smelters, farmers and "the good life".

2,700 B.C.- Gold found in the Royal Caves of Ur, sprinkled on the dead.

2,000 B.C.- The Nubia people mined 1,000 tons of gold for Egypt. The Phoenician's smelted galena and silver, bronze was all over the Mediterranean and China.

1,500 B.C. The Hittites of Anatolia smelted iron, Zinc was smelted from lead.

1,350 B.C. King Tutankhamen, of the XVIII Dynasty had smelted tools of iron, a Lifelike gold casting of him was in his tomb.

1,100 B.C. The Phoenician city of Gadez, became a tin market. 1,000 B.C. Greece was smelting bronze.

1,350 B.C. King Tutankhamen, of the XVIII Dynasty had smelted tools of iron, a Lifelike gold casting of him was in his tomb.

1,100 B.C. The Phoenician city of Gadez, became a tin market. 1,000 B.C. Greece was smelting bronze.

600 B.C. Clay plate painting of "miners" at Corinth, Greece.


Here's the  mineral palette back when Sandarac was King of Paint and Zeus had a son named Castor. Castor is also the brightest star in Gemini. Castor oil was added to Sandracca (sandarac) about 2000 B.C., to soften, extend and make it pliable. Sandarac was a major medium into the A/D's, when mastic, wax, egg, and oil started replacing it.


ANTIMONY GALANCE, stibnite ore was roasted or found native.

GYPSUM, native calcium sulfate, calcined 250 degrees.

IRON, native ore calcite, oxide.

LEAD, Lead white, "ceruse", basic sulfate of lead, native or burnt galena ore.

LEAD, "White vitriol", made with sulfuric acid fumes.

LEAD, Lead white carbonate oxide, made by acetic acid fumes and carbonic acid fumes on lead in a closed container.

MAGNESIUM, carbonate found native, the whitest ore pigment.

MICA. Silicate laminated natural, native. Japanese pigment.

SHELL, powered.

TIN. Calcined tin oxide.

ZINC oxide found native.

ZINC "White Vitriol", made with sulfuric acid fumes.


BONE and HORN. Roman "atramentum", charred deep black.

CARBON. Oil soot, lamp black.

IRON. Iron oxide, native.

MANGANESE. Black manganese dioxide native, ancient "pyrolusite".

ROCK, Slate gray, crushed.

SULFUR. Ultramarine ash, the first washing contains some matrix rock, this leaves a cool opaque gray.


ARSENIC. Orpiment, arsenic sulfide, native, Egypt early, 3000 B.C..

ANTIMONY. Naples yellow, native, 500 B.C., replenished 79 A/D in the Vesuvius eruption.

IRON. Yellow ocher natural, "minette", "sil", "chamois", heated to gold ocher, flesh ocher and red.

IRON. Raw sienna, heated to burnt sienna and translucent vermilion hue. Rubens used this glaze

IRON. Amberg yellow, a very bright fresco yellow ocher no longer available, except at Kramer in Germany, native.

LEAD. Lead oxide white heated to a cool yellow, "Massicot", "King's Yellow", "Cassel Yellow", lead also heated to orange, red and brown.

LEAD-TIN. Lead-tin Yellow. AD 700, Constantinople, Pictura Translucida. It's a light cool yellow often mistaken for Naples Yellow.

ORGANIC-ANIMAL. 2000 B.C., India cultivated a sap eating insect that secreted an alcohol soluble stick-lac or lac, or shellac paint. By adding borax from Tibet it became a water-soluble permanent red paint, Boiling removed the crimson to magenta color, adding alum made it a dye. Madder root made a similar color without the shellac. Colored resins from the sap of trees and boiled roots from as far away as Singapore made red, crimson and yellow dyes. Insects and insect secretions made the brightest and dearest magenta dyes. I think "Imperial Yellow" and "Mandarin Yellow" were made from Monghyr puree, named after a city in Bengal. (That would be the first use of Indian yellow, it's only a presumption but the color and permanence matches.) Other yellows were made from weld family vines and rhubarb leaves, tea leaves made nice tans.

ORGANIC-PLANT. "Sandarac" (Sandracca) 1000 B.C.. This medium and paint, was used to impart the finished color of gold to tin. The under-tone of sandarac is a warm yellow simular to Indian yellow.

ORGANIC-PLANT. Tree sap, Stick-lac, "gamboge" translucent yellow, alcohol base, Thailand.

ORGANIC-PLANT. "Turmeric" root, "curcuma" root, transparent yellow to brown, India, Asia.

ORGANIC-PLANT. "Saffron", flower power, bright yellow, India.

TIN. calcined from white to pale yellow.

Painting on Location's Magdalene c/o Tan Swee Ming wrote: Ni Hao! (means: How do u do.) Where did the word Yellow come from? Ellie Clemans from the Painting on Location listserver sent us this information. The Latin word "hellus", which came from the Greek word "khloos", which came from the Sanskrit words "hari" for yellow and "hiranya" for gold.


ARSENIC. Realgar, arsenic di-sulphide, native, Egypt 3000 B.C.. "Risalgallo", Roman, red-orange clear crystal.

IRON. In clay, burnt sienna, high in silicic acid until calcined from raw sienna, than it's high in silica and is transparent.

TIN, calcined from pale yellow to pale orange.

ZINC. Zincite, native zinc oxide, ore of zinc, a brittle mineral ranging in color from yellow, orange to deep-red, opaque.

The word "orange" comes from the Sanskrit "naranga" which was related to the Tamil word "naru" meaning fragrant.


COPPER. Cupric crystals native, transparent red. That is the opposite of the copper pigment color, cyan.

HEMATITE IRON, ore, native red streaks of iron oxide, where abrasion has ground off hematite ore in place.

IRON, in clay, "cinabrese", Cennini described a native light vermilion red hue good for flesh colors

IRON, in clay, "Armenian bole", red ocher.

IRON, in clay, "sinopia", native red oxide, Roman 100 B.C.

IRON, in clay, "sinopis", a very light red ocher from Asia Minor, exhausted.

LEAD. "Minium", red lead oxide is made by heating white lead in the presence of air, turns dark in fresco as all leads do, this was a mastic, oil and wax pigment that is unaffected by alkalis. Phoenician, 1000 B.C., Greek, Roman, 500 B.C..

MERCURY. "Cinnabar" native, is the ore of mercury. "Vermilion" natural was one of the two most prized and expensive pigments of the ancients, not counting gold. Mercuric Sulfide.

ORGANIC-PLANT SAP, Brazilwood lake, blood red transparent. "Dragon's Blood", ruby red lac, Singapore, as ancient as Scarlet Karmes.

ORGANIC-PLANT FLOWER. Safflower red, "Carthame".

ZINC. Zincite red, native red oxide zinc ore.

The word "red" came from the Sanskrit word "rudhiras".


COBALT, native is a pale violet-magenta color. Cobaltite is a native mineral ore, cobalt arsenic sulfide, it's a cool magenta color.

IRON, in clay, "Pozzuoli Red". A rosy opaque magenta, Roman.

ORGANIC-ANIMAL. "Carmine", cochineal insect, a transparent dyestuff precipitated on clay, also roasted darker. "Karmes" another insect, similar color, 2000 B.C. or earlier. "Nacarat carmine" is the highest quality color.

ORGANIC-PLANT ROOT. "Madder lake", boiled Rubia Tinctoriun root on clay or transparent water based in wax soap, Egypt, Greece. Light rose to dark magenta, not for fresco.

TIN. Highly heated tin oxide makes a pale magenta. 


IRON. Burnt green earth, ferrous hydroxide and silicic acid, transparent like sienna.

IRON, "Caput mortuum" is red ocher or oxide calcined, or native.

IRON MANGANESE. Raw umber, "umbra", "terre d'ombre", Manganese dioxide and iron hydroxide. Calcined raw umber makes burnt umber.


MANGANESE. Manganese violet oxide, native.

ORGANIC-ANIMAL. "Tyrian" is Greek, "Ostrum" is Roman, "Byzantium", are all names for purple, from the Murex shellfish family. The color ranged from pink to blue transparent. According to Pliny it was the celebrated "Imperial Purple" (new window)of the Romans.


COBALT. Black oxide of cobalt fires cobalt blue. China 2500 B.C. on pottery, 500 B.C. Roman, maybe earlier, they made a smalt after the Egyptian frit of copper.

COBALT-TIN. Cobaltous stannate, cobalt and tin oxide in potash glass, light cobalt blue colored smalt, Egyptian or Greek or Roman.

COPPER. "Azurite" natural, blue to cyan, Egypt 3000 B.C., "chessylite", hydrous copper carbonate.

COPPER. Copper hydroxide plus copper carbonate, "blue verditer", "mountain blue", "Bremen blue".

COPPER. chalcanthite, "Blue vitriol", copper salts and sulfuric acid fumes make a copper sulfate.

IRON. Pompiian blue lake, a ferris-cyan, Roman 100 B.C..

SULFUR. Lapis lazuli native, 3000 B.C., sodium sulfosilicate ore.


COPPER. Chrysocolla, a native copper silicate, first a pigment in Egypt, then a jewel, glass-frit then became an Old World pigment of the same color.

COPPER. "Egyptian blue" 3000 B.C., copper silicate transparent, "Pozzuoli blue".

COPPER. Frit, copper salts fused in potassium silica glass, Egypt 3000 B.C..

COPPER. Verdigris, hydrated copper acetate crystals, water or resin soluble. This color is usually listed under green, (vert) means green. Since this was the first artificial color made by the Romans, I made some. Using materials I knew they had I put copper in ammonia, this turned the ammonia blue, a few drops of acetate acid (vinegar) and the color changed, it precipitated a light cyan-green salt. Mixing the salt with damar, I painted with it, and, well it does go a little farther, I mixed the salts in sulfuric acid and it turned clear. I was stirring the mix with my steel palette knife and it put a copper plating on it! I wonder if the Romans ever rust proofed any of their iron. I remember reading once, that at an Egyptian excavation they found some clay pots with holes in them for wires, the archaeologists thought they were using them as storage batteries for plating, I believe it.

ORGANIC-PLANT. Indigo, India. Woad, England. Both transparent cyan dyes, Indigo was the better.

ORGANIC-PLANT. Check out an interesting article in Scientific American's Archeology Magazine August 2000 about Mayan fresco and the cyan pigment they were using. It was Indigo (a plant based dye) bonded to clay through a process of baking the indigo and clay at a specific temperature. The indigo was then permanently bonded to the clay and the indigo-clay powder was used as a permanent blue color for fresco. This magazine is currently at Barnes and Noble, if you want to check out the article.


COPPER, Malachite, ore of copper, copper carbonate. Crushed into pigment.

IRON-COPPERAS. ferrous sulfate, "green vitriol", transparent.

IRON. Ferrous hydroxide plus silicic acid, native, "Veronese green earth", "tirolean", "bohemian", translucent.

Brittle crystals make the best pigments.
Hard oxides of metal are inert pigments.
Idiochromatic is an internal element coloring the crystal.
Allochromatic is an external element coloring the crystal.



Naples Yellow, orange and vermilion react as lead does and it's just as painterly. Antimony oxide white is Timonox, a British trademark, 1920. It reacts less than lead white with sulfur, has none of the drawbacks of zinc and would give titanium the best run for the money, plus, if we had it, we would still have Naples yellow, a very dense light skin color the portraitist used as the base instead of white. They also used Lead-tin yellow.
There is a new pigment in town (2011) called Rembrandt Nickel Titan, Yellow. It matches the light Naples Yellow of old. Great color!


ARSENIC native yellow is orpiment, a sulphide of arsenic. Native red arsenic is realgar, an arsenic di-sulphide. These are ancient colors not available today, the best crystals looked clear and transparent to me. Arsenic tri-sulfide is made today if you can find it.


COBALT turns black with sulfur.

COBALT Oxide is black, cobalt blue, fired in potash glass it becomes smalt, a popular early Roman color.

COBALT blue today is a mixture of cobalt oxide, aluminum oxide and titanium white, not the same color and not really necessary to the palette. When a color can be mixed using two pigments, you don't need it, but it could be handy.

COBALT violet is a very important transparent cool magenta, (cobaltous phosphate) by Bocour (closed now), New York, is the best I've ever seen, there's a German cobalt violet dark, (cobaltous oxide arsenate) if they still make it. I wrote this in 1996, now in 2003 Gamblin may have made this paint, I haven't tried it yet.

COBALT salts with potassium nitrite make the color aureolin yellow.


COPPER turns lead, zinc lithopone (zinc sulfide on barite) and mercury, black.

COPPER is turned blue by alkalis like ammonia, the color is precipitated from the ammonia with acetic acid, vinegar. This makes the ancient Roman color, verdigris.

COPPER turns black with sulfur.

COPPER ARSENATE is emerald green, the most poisonous of all colors.

COPPER CARBONATE BASIC is malachite green native and azurite blue native. Native colors are usually unaffected by anything at all, they are inert.

COPPER non-metallic phthalocyanine cyan to green should replace all other copper colors, there inert and safe to use.



IRON is ferric oxide, iron and the gas cyanogen make ferrocyanide, a salt of ammonium ferrocyanide makes Prussian blue.

IRON hydroxides are the yellow to brown ocher, based in clay.

IRON oxide's are the calcined yellow to brown ocher's, turned into red ocher's or red earth's, even higher heat would bring up the violets, until finally, caput mortuum, a purple brown. Raw sienna is an iron hydroxide, burnt sienna has been calcined, higher heat would make a vermilion transparent hue because of the high silicic acid content in the clay.



LEAD sponificates or turns clear in oil, apply lead thickly in the last coats or with age you will see through it to a lower color. Today's lead white is ground much smaller and is slower drying.

LEAD has a free radical atom that will leave the lead and turn some colors black, this is white lead sulfide. Hydrogen peroxide will stabilize and remove the free radical, turning white lead sulfide into white lead sulfate, a stable white. Roasting lead ore, glance, will also produce basic lead sulfate, like the ancients did.

LEAD will turn black with hydrogen sulfide, and permanently yellow with heat. Like the ancient massicot yellow, and King's yellow. It will also heat to orange and red. The red lead is the fastest drier.

LEAD can not be used in fresco, the lye turns white lead brown, permanently. Nor can it be used in water colors or pastel, the sulfur in the air will turn it dark.

LEAD is very poisonous, Titanium white is the all around better color, with zinc white a close second, but it is too brittle, Combine lead and zinc and you get the best of both.

LEAD turns these colors (metals) black; tin, copper, cadmiums (they are sulfur colors), ocher's and earth's if poorly washed will also contain iron sulfates. Nickel yellow and nickel Naples yellow. They don't seem to make much antimony Naples yellow any more. Arsenic will also turn black.


MANGANESE  native black oxide, manganese carbonate white, manganese green, blue and violet are all good dryers.


MERCURY and sulfur make vermilion, the natural pigment cinnabar is no longer available, today's synthetic vermilions don't contain either element, so there safe to use in any combination.

MERCURY, basic sulfate of mercury is bright yellow and turns black with copper.


SULFUR will turn all  lead-colors-black, also tin, copper, cobalt, cadmiums, manganese, arsenic and antimony.


TIN oxides turn lead black, it works with all other metals.

TIN oxides are black, by calcination they become white, tin oxide (stannous chloride) plus cobalt oxide [cobalt sulfate] fired together become cerulean blue, tin and copper fired together become an even cleaner cyan tint, like the Egyptian frit.

TIN chromate [stannic] is yellow mineral lake.


ZINC oxide white covers less well than lead white, but does not yellow as lead does. It works well in water color. Hydrogen sulfide reacts to make a different white, zinc sulfide from zinc oxide, there both good, Zinc can be made yellow, orange or red.

ZINC does not work with fresco or tempera emulsions, lyes and acetic acid effect it.

ZINC white and sulfuric acid make white vitriol transparent.

ZINC fades Prussian blue, cadmium yellow, cobalt yellow and coal-tar pigments when used in water colors and gouache.

40 Common Minerals & Their Uses - outside link, it's not about color (new window)

Chapter 4
Crystal Color Charts #1, #2, #3, #4





Ag       +10                
Al +13 +47         +53          
Al +59 +49                    
Al +60 +50         +60          
Al +63 +55 +63 +61
Al +54 +56
Al +64 +52
Al +59 +59 +59 +59 +59 +59 +59
As +07 +07 +06 +10
As +67 +70 +11
Ba +74 +74 +74 +74
Be +39 +39 +39
Be +50 +50
Be +51 +51 +51 +51 +51
C +00 +00 +00 +00 +00 +00 +00 +00 +00 +00 +00 +00
Ca +28 -52 +28
Co +28 -14
Cr -14 -03





Cr -16 +52
Cr -55 -41
Cr +75 -47
Cr -50
Cr +57
Cu +12
Cu +25 +25
Cu +26
Cu +27
Cu -60 -60
Cu +33
Cu +37
Cu +38
Cu +62
F +24 +24 +24 +24 +24 +24 +24 +24 +24 +24 +24
F +68 +68 +68 +68 +68 +68 +68 +68 +68
Fe +03 +03 +03
Fe -16 -16 -16 -16 -16 -16 -16 -16 -16 -16
Fe +36





Fe -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50 -50
Fe +45
Fe -17 -17. +78 -17
Fe -28 +55
Fe -47
Fe +56
Fe +66 +66 +66
Hg +04 +04
Li +47 +47 +47 +47 +47 +47 +47 +47
Li +60 +60
Mg +41 +41 +41 +41
Mn +14 -17 -17
Mn +35
Mn +44 +45 +41
Mn -51
Mn +54
Mn +78
Mn -60 -60
Mo +76 +76 +76





Na -23
Ni -17
Pb +69 +25
Pb +70 +71
S +72 +74 +73 +74 +72
Sb +11
Sn +21 +21 +21
Sr +73 +73
Ti +42 +19 +19 +19
Ti +20 +20 +20 +20 +20
U +65
V +71
W +77 +77
Zr +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43 +43
Zn +03 +03 +03
Zn +15 +15 +15 +15 +15
Zn +67 +32 +32 +32
Zn +33


Chapter 4a
Elements & Crystal, Crystal Primary Colors, Ores & Mineral Glossary Terms, Chemistry, Crystal to Pigment


Any reflected color has the energy of reflected light radiating off the colored element or composition making that color.
Light is a painters element, it has shape when it is confined and its intensity and mass can be measured. Full sunlight weight is equal to the weight of a single grape, spread out over an entire football field, and that is constant weight! This light reflects off the primary and compounded elements we see around us. Permanent pigments are made of these elements, either organic, inorganic or synthetic. Each element, in it's natural and calcined state is capable of making and reflecting only a select portion of the color wheel. Some elements as crystals can make the whole spectrum. Elements as pigments have painting characteristics unlike any other element, so if you like a color for its characteristics, it cannot be replaced.

Three examples are; 1, Lead, no other element dries as fast or is as opaque. 2, Cobalt natural, (cobalt aluminate blue spinel is similar), and 3, antimony Naples yellow, probably the artist's most favored and useful color before Church-Ostwald, it's the most opaque pigment.
Ostwald matched the dried color chips with new cheaper elements without regard to its native natural characteristics. Rubins would have had them flogged if they tried that while he was alive. This trend that hasn't stopped but we are getting better transparent colors! Cyan (Thalo Blue) is the best thing that ever happened to color and PR122 is the best transparent magenta ever.

So, simplifying your choices is the name of the game here, what colors and what characteristics are most needed to complete a full color painting. Use the transparent pigments (new window) that are available and be selective in choosing the opaque ones and transparent ones. Here is my whole palette, (new window). Adding white to any transparent color will make it opaque.


Calcite crystal, [CaCo3], makes the perfect Cyan color with Copper in the Iceland Spar Crystal (new window) it polarizes to the color Ultramarine Blue. Yellow is made with Iron, and Magenta is the Sphaerocobaltite Pink Calcite Crystal made with allochromatic Cobalt. The Calcite Crystal is also a natural polarizing filter.

Quartz, [Si02], Iron Rose Quartz and Manganese Amethyst both touch on the Magenta color. Copper makes Green to Cyan Chalcedonie and the opposite color Red Carnelian. Allochromatic Nickel makes a cool Yellow Chrysoprase Crystal, added Iron makes a warm yellow to orange Citrine Quartz Crystal.

Iron makes all three primary colors in the crystal Corundum, [A1203], plus making the secondary colors Red, Ult. Blue and Green. The Red and Green have added Chromium.


ALLOCHROMATIC, is an element coloring term meaning an outside element is included in the compound.

ANISOTROPIC, Crystals in which light travels at different velocities in different directions.

AMORPHOUS, without crystalline structure, like the opal or glass.

CLEAVAGE, a breaking point along a face, variable.

CUBIC SYSTEM, four pyramids or tetrahedrites block together and make a cube, this system has the highest symmetry, the triclinic has the lowest. The other systems are Tetragonal, Orthohombic, Trigonal, Hexagonal, and Monoclinic.

HABIT, is the shape of a crystal. There are seven systems, and thirty two classes within the systems.

PARTING, similar to cleavage but along the twinning axis.

PSEUDOMORPHS, A crystal inside a rock may change its chemical composition and still keep its original shape, common to quartz.

FRACTURE, broken.


AGGREGATE, A mineral without an obvious crystal shape, crystals forming masses as gold and silver (dendritic), tree or plant like, or the kidney-shaped hematite (reniform).

COMPOUNDS, Two or more elements form compounds. Oxide compounds are combined with oxygen and a metal element, hydroxides, carbonates, silicates, sulfides, sulfates, arsenides, antimonides, Tungstates, and chromates are all compounds.

CARBONATES, carbon compounds.

GANGUE, other minerals found with the mined ore.

GOSSAN, The "iron hat" of gangue minerals with iron and manganese oxides, the soluble minerals sink lower to form azurite, malachite, and cuprite. Sulfur sinks still lower and forms sulfides like chalcocite.

HALIDES, contain halogens, negative elements, fluorine, chlorine, iodine and astatine.

NATIVE, Uncombined with other elements, natural.

OXIDES, a mineral combined with oxygen as the sole anion. These are usually hard because of close packing.

HYDROXIDES, have the complex anion [OH].

PSEUDOMORPHS, A crystal inside a rock may change its chemical composition and still keep its original shape, common to quartz.

SILICATES, Silicon combined with oxygen, [SiO4].

STREAK, The color left behind from an abraded mineral.

SULFIDES or SULPHIDES, Metallic ores formed in the presence of sulfur and the absence of oxygen, [C03]2-.

TENOR, The metal content of an ore.


ATOM, smallest particle of an element with all its properties.

ATOMS, are measured in Nanometers, [1nm = 10m[-]9th].

ATOM CENTER, the nucleus is occupied by protons and neutrons of similar mass. This is the mass of the atom, the volume is made by the cloud of electrons.

PROTONS, have a positive charge, the number of protons equal the atomic number, hydrogen has one proton.

NEUTRONS, have no charge.

ELECTRONS, have a negative charge orbiting the nucleus, electrons and protons are equal in quantity, so there equal in [+-] charges.

ATOMIC NUMBER, the quantity of protons in the nucleus.

ATOMIC WEIGHT, is comparing the atoms of each element to the hydrogen atom.

ISOTOPES, the neutron quantity changes the atomic weight of atoms with similar atomic numbers, so each element has isotopes and different atomic weights, all based on the weight of one carbon isotope.

SHELLS, electrons orbit on seven tracts or shells, lettered K to Q outward from the nucleus. Each shell has a limit to the number of electrons in it, 2 for K, 32 for Q. Hydrogen has one nuclear proton and one electron in K shell, Lithium, with three protons, has a full K shell and one electron in the L shell.

INERT GASES, will not combine with other elements, they have 8 electrons in Q shell, other elements are considered stable if they can attain a similar outer shell content. Atoms trade electrons with other atoms so their electron cloud can become identical with inert gases, the nearest inert gas,

IONS, This trading leads to atoms becoming electrically charged and known as ions, gain an electron, gain a negative charge. Lose an electron and gain a positive charge, remember, electrons are negative.

ANIONS, are negatively charged ions, they have gained one [-] electron.

CATIONS, are positively charged ions, they have lost one [-] electron.

Two atoms are walking down the street and they run into each other. One says to the other, "Are you all right?" "No, I lost an electron!" "Are you sure?" "Yeah, I'm positive!" :-)

VALENCE, the "hook" to hold another "hook", hydrogen has a valence of one, it can hook up with another atom with one valence. Valence is the chemical binding power +/-.

VALENCY, the process of gaining or losing electrons. [Na] sodium, has one more electron than the nearest inert gas, neon [Ne], it's written Na+ to show it's a cation. Fluorine [F] has one less and is written F, meaning it's anion. Valency is the number of electrons an atom will gain or lose to attain the configuration of the most similar inert gas.

MONO VALENT, ions Na+ and F- are both charged by one electron off being stable and inert.

DIVALENT, magnesium has two more electrons than neon, the closest inert gas. By losing both it becomes a divalent cation, written Mg 2+.

ATOMIC STRUCTURE, [C] carbon and [Si] silicon have atomic structures midway between two inert gases. Carbon can either gain four electrons to become C4- and resemble neon or lose four electrons to become C4+ resembling helium.

REPULSION, The electrical charge of protons keeps other protons away by mutual repulsion, they have similar spinning directions. When two atoms link, the interaction is by the outermost electrons. There's three ways to do this.

IONIC BONDING, is two elements forming ions of equal and opposite valency, the spare electron of one atom separate to fill a vacancy in the outer shell of another atom. The pair of ions are held together electrically. Groups of ions can be linked this way, a divalent cation can link with two univalent anions.

COVALENT BONDING, shares electrons, two or more atoms coming close together share, and both or all, have eight in their outer shell. Solids containing ionic or covalent bonds are rigid.

METALLIC BOND, metals pack the ions closely together and leave the outermost electrons free to move independently. This lets them be hammered thin, form wire and conduct electricity.

COMPOUNDS. When the linked atoms are of different elements, the result is a chemical compound.

COMPLEX, more than one compound.

COMPLEX IONS. In many minerals, subgroups of atoms are bonded in a covalent way forming complex either ions or radicals, A common example is the tetrahedral arrangement of four oxygen atoms around a single silicon atom, to give a complex anion, written [SiO4]4-.

ELECTRICALLY BALANCED COMPOUND, the complex anion [SiO4]4-must be bonded to a cation or cations with a total valency of four, to get an electrically balanced compound. Two atoms of the divalent metal Mg would fit and the mineral forsterite has the composition [Mg2]4+[SiO4]4-, or it could be written Mg2[Si04]4-.

MOLECULES. Heating a mineral causes the atoms to vibrate faster,breaking the bonds between them. In this way the independent groups in steam, called molecules, move freely. Share electrons, be a molecule.

AMORPHOUS, Substances that do not have the atomic order of crystals are amorphous, they don't have the directional properties of crystal. Opal, natural glass, and flint are amorphous aggregates.

ION SHAPE. Crystals are made up of ions having the shape of spheres, these fit together leaving a space in the center. Three oranges and a pea. The carbonate ion has this shape, a pyramid with three sides and a bottom. The common complex ion [CO3]2- is carbonate.

TETRAHEDRON. Four oranges and a grape would make a Tetrahedron, the shape of the silicate anion [SiO4]4-.

OCTAHEDRON, is two pyramids joined base to base.

CUBES, have all equal sized ions, four polyhedra pyramids equal a cube, as in coordination polyhedra and close packing.

POLYMORPHS, are the structures possible by a compound, Si02 makes five different structures. Diamond and graphite are polymorphs of carbon, graphite is two dimensional, flat and weak. The diamond is a three dimensional latrahedrally-oriented covalent bond, strong and possibly twinned.

TWINNED, two crystals joined inside, interpenetrating each other.

ISOMORPHOUS minerals with identical crystal structure.

SOLID SOLUTION. Olivine groups of minerals, magnesium [Mg2SiO4] and iron [Fe2SiO4] are forsterite and fayolite, melted together. If the olivine contains 75% forsterite it's written like this, [Mg0.75Fe0.25]2SiO4.


The RCW Real Color Wheel is the physical crystal color wheel, it has the properties of each colors crystal as it gets darker. This matches the elements color in its natural progression to dark. Like crystal oxides containing iron, they go from yellow to brown or red to brown.

Since this is so, it makes the RGB/CMYK colorwheel inaccurate for plotting pigments for the artist to use as a color wheel in the field. Ult blue must be opposite yellow and plot opposite yellow, like on my wheel which can be just as accurate for positioning pigments in relationship to each other as simple RGB positioning, only better.

The new opaque Irgazine yellow is a perfect warm darker yellow, 36RCW#1.6 while the new Bismuth yellow is the bright full chroma RCW#1.0 The Irgazine yellow has a very slight dual-tonality and will mix with its complement ultramarine blue to a dark.

Look at RCW#36.0, Yellow-green and compare it to the primary path to dark for yellow on the RGB they look the same. There is no warm yellow path to dark in the RGB, only a cool path. On the RCW matrix I put them side by side and use the warm path of yellow as the pure primary yellow and the cool path as Yellow-green's path. Duel-toned Irgazine Green is a transparent yellow-green and it mixes a neutral with dioxzine purple.

Here are some color examples of crystals that the artist would be interested in since crystals are pigment and chemicals are made with the same elements.

Calcite crystal, [CaCo3], makes the perfect Cyan color with Copper in the Iceland Spar Crystal, it polarizes to the color Ultramarine Blue. Yellow is made with Iron, and Magenta is the Sphaerocobaltite Pink Calcite Crystal made with allochromatic Cobalt. The Calcite Crystal is also a natural polarizing filter.
Quartz, [Si02], Iron Rose Quartz and Manganese Amethyst both touch on the Magenta color.
Copper makes Green to Cyan Chalcedony and the opposite color Red Carnelian. Allochromatic Nickel makes a cool Yellow Chrysoprase Crystal, added Iron makes a warm yellow to orange Citrine Quartz Crystal.
Iron will make all three primary colors in the crystal Corundum, [A1203], plus making the secondary colors Red, Ult. Blue and Green. The Red and Green have added Chromium.

Chemical colors and their color paths. (new window)

Chapter 5
Minerals & Elements, Standard Colors on the 12 Real Color Wheel



Read about that colored crystal.

(1) Yellow,
Yellow to Brown,
#13, CHRYSOBERYL    #19, RUTILE   
Yellow, Brown, Neutral Dark, Blue

(2) Orange,
#07, ORPIMENT    #52, GROSSULAR   

(3) Red,
#04, CINNABAR    #06, REALGAR    #16, CORUNDUM    #35, RHODOCHROSITE    #50, BERYL    #71, VANADINITE   

(4) Crimson,
#04, CINNABAR    #12, CUPRITE   

(5) Magenta,
#16, CORUNDUM    #28, CALCITE   

(6) Purple,
#16, CORUNDUM    #17, QUARTZ   

(7) Ultramarine Blue,

(8) Azure,
#27, AZURITE   

(9) Cyan,
#25, CUMENGEITE    #50, BERYL    #51, EUCLASE    #66, VIVIANITE   

(10) Turquoise,

(11) Green,
#26, MALACHITE    #50, BERYL   

(12) Yellow-Green,
#03, SPHALERITE    #17, QUARTZ   

Fe= IRON, -17
Fe= IRON, +03

Ba= BARIUM, +31
Fe= IRON, +36

Fe= IRON, -18
Titanium can cross over the neutral center to become the
opposite color in the same compound, blue to yellow.

Zn= ZINC, +15



C, [Hardness] H10, Diamonds can receive the full range of colors from other elements, they are allochromatic. This section describes the color and properties each element adds.

, a six sided continuous crystal, clear and colored by iron. The colors of magenta and green are separated in sections and graduated from one end to the other in each crystal, a natural color opposition. All mineral oppositions match my pigment and light color wheel.

, CuFeS2, [Hardness], H3.5, [specific gravity] SG-4.2. Ore of copper, tetragonal crystal system. It occurs on crystals of galena and has a brassy yellow opaque, metallic color. Idiochromatic colors of iron.

Zn,S, H3.5, SG-3.9, zinc blend, ore of zinc, cubic system, idiochromatic colors.

ZINC, yellow-green, Standard Color 12RCW#11, [CYYY], transparent.

IRON, Idiochromatic colors from, yellow, tan, brown, black, orange and red. High dispersion showing the spectrum like a diamond.

CHROMIUM, crimson and dark green. Transparent to opaque. 

, HgS, H2,  SG-8.09, sulphide of mercury ore.

MERCURY, red, Standard Color 12RCW#3, [YYMM], opaque, vermilion-red to brown is the color scale for the mass crystal, and transparent scarlet is the color for the transparent crystals. Cinnabar has internal coloring, idiochromatic coloring, because the color comes from the element that's crystallizing, in this case mercury, the liquid metal. The amorphous mass is crushed and used as the pigment vermilion, it's a heavy and a fast drier. Precious and rare. 

PbS, H2, SG-7.6, ore of lead, sulfide, cubic crystals often twinning. Oxides are white lead pigment. 

AsS, H1.5, SG-3.56, monoclinic crystal system.

ARSENIC sulphide, Red Standard color, 12RCW#3, [YYMM], transparent to opaque. Realgar was crushed as a pigment by the ancients as the first red. It's an idiochromatic crystal pigment.

, As23, H1.5, SG-3.4, monoclinic, transparent to opaque.

ARSENIC di-sulphide, Orange Standard color, 12RCW#2, [YYYM], yellow to orange pigments, duel-toned, crushed, water soluble, the first yellow pigment was a transparent crystal, smelled of sulfur, an idiochromatic pigment.

, Sb23, H2, SG-4.6, ore of antimony, orthorhombic crystal system, lead-gray metallic. Antimony lead oxide native, is Original Naples Yellow pigment. It is the most dense lead.

, FeS2, H6, SG-5, cubic, metallic brass-yellow.

Ag3AsS3, H2, SG-5.6, trigonal, transparent. SILVER and ARSENIC, crimson color at it's best. It tarnishes because of the silver content, idiochromatic, silver added the deep magenta to the red of arsenic. 

, Ag3 SbS3, H2.5, SG-5.85, ore of silver, trigonal.

SILVER AND ANTIMONY, a deep warmer crimson than proustite. Idiochromatic, deep crimson, transparent, dark in mass. 

, Cu20, H3.5, SG-6.14, cubic, crystals found on copper.

COPPER, Crimson Standard Color 12RCW#4, [YMMM], transparent. Crimson cuprite crystals are opposite in color to the turquoise colored copper sediment, chalcocite. Idiochromatic.

BeAl2O4, H8+, SG-3.74, orthorhombic crystal.

BERYLLIUM, Standard Yellow centering to Brown crystal.

ALUMINUM, yellow is aluminum's home base, but color isn't really it's strong suite, it's the light tricks that make it a special crystal element. The "cat's eye" gem, it has an opposite color line of light inside, a pale ultramarine blue. Instead of just giving color, aluminum has an array of light tricks to perform with.

, Mg A1204, H8+, SG-3.6, cubic octahedra, idiochromatic.

MANGANESE, deep transparent red pigment color that lightens to Cadmium Red opaque. The Ruby is Cadmium Red transparent. Idiochromatic.

ALUMINUM, adds yellow sometimes, enhances other elements. CHROMIUM, allochromatic chromium, which gave the red to rubies gives spinel a real kick in the red mass dark, and it never leaves the red spectrum color.

COBALT, bright blue, with allochromatic cobalt, it does well here in aluminum's opposite second home.

, [Zn,Mn]O, H4, SG-5.6, Native zinc oxide, ore of zinc,

MANGANESE, yellow-orange to deep red, idiochromatic, it could be a pigment, rare, brittle, and opaque.

, is found in New Jersey, at the Franklin Mine, 10 miles from where I grew up.

ZINC, yellow, yellow-green and green transparent, and opaque white, opaque yellow, orange, red, brown and black. Idiochromatic zinc makes all the colors except those in the cyan spectrum. 

, Al2O3, H9 STANDARD MOHS, SG-3.99, trigonal system, transparent.

CHROMIUM added for red and green, allochromatic.

IRON, makes crystals in blue, cyan, dark-green, yellow, orange, red and magenta. All transparent, all brittle, and all expensive as crushed pigments.

Ruby is the Standard Transparent Red, 12RCW#3, [YYMM]. It's opposition color mixing to dark neutral is Thalo Blue,(Cyan) PB15:3. In pigments, Thalo Blue Transparent mixes dark with Cadmium Red Opaque also. The other oppositions in paint are acrylic Thalo Green and Acra Violet PR122 by Liquitex. Burnt Umber (for dark yellow) or an orange side transparent Indian dual-toned yellow mixed with an Opaque or Transparent Ultramarine Blue will make a dark neutral. All these pigment oppositions are in the painting section and as individual colors. Example: Oil White, all colors have their own page. (new window)

Sapphire yellow is the Standard Transparent Yellow, 12RCW#1, [YYYY].

Sapphire blue is the Standard Transparent Blue, 12RCW#7, [MMCC].

Sapphire pink deep is the Standard Magenta, 12RCW#5, [MMMM].

ALUMINUM is just one surprise after another, here it is, the softest metal element making the hardest hydroxide, only the softer carbon element makes a harder crystal, the diamond is H10 STANDARD MOHS. 

SiO2, H7 STANDARD MOHS', SG-2.65 trigonal, clear crystal with allochromatic colors.

MANGANESE, Standard Purple, 12RCW#6, [MMMC], transparent, amethyst crystals are from magenta to purple.

IRON, rose quartz is a light magenta. Citrine is from yellow to orange, centering dark, through brown. Iron also gives black (deep-red) to onyx, and red and orange in fire agate.

A second verity of quartz is mass and opaque, the aggregate crystals are too small to see.

COPPER, green to cyan, chalcedonies, jasper, and red carnelian, two opposing colors.

NICKEL, Yellow-Green Standard color, 12RCW#12, [CYYY], chrysoprase. Quartz has a complete range of colors except for ultramarine blue. All allochromatic with foreign elements, giving color to the crystal. Brittle, easy to crush into pigments. 

OPAL, Si02+NH2O, H6.5, SG-2.1, amorphous crystal, diffraction from spheroids give color. Transparent, translucent and opaque in different crystals. 

, TiO2, H6.5, SG-4,23, tetragonal.

TITANIUM, red to brown and yellow to brown, colors centering to neutral dark. Just on the other side of the darkest center in the coloring wheel, brown is mixing with ultramarine blue and getting cooler, some of that blue color shows up. Titanium is the only element that can cross over the dark center. Idiochromatic. Transparent, translucent and opaque in the same crystal. Purple rutile is also found in the Alps, idiochromatic.

TITANIUM, yellow to yellow-brown or red to red-brown, brown changes to a neutral dark by continued mixing with the opposite spectrum colors, ultramarine, azure and cyan. All idiochromatic within titanium.

Tio2 H5.5, SG-3.9, tetragonal, metallic luster.

, Sn02, H6, SG-6.9, ore of tin, tetragonal, metallic. The crystals are clear, yellow-brown, red-brown or black. A one trick RCW pony. This is the yellow and red pigments natural trip to neutral dark.

, Fe2O3 r H5r SG-5.26, ore of iron, trigonal reniform masses, Cadmium Red streak, metallic.


, NaC1, H2.5, SG-2.2, salt is a cubic crystal that may show orange, spectrum purple #6 [MMMC] or blue coloration. It is brittle, soluble, and transparent. Don't eat the blue or purple salt, it's poisonious.

CaF2, H4, SG-3.18, cubic system. Fluorite is allochromatic, it accepts a range of eleven colors, there is no cyan color. Fluorite is also a fluorescent, green to violet, Translucent. 

Pb21Cu2OC142[OH]40, H2.5, SG=4.6, cubic or tetragonal, two different colored crystals, depending on the majority mineral element.

LEAD, Standard Ultramarine blue color, 12RCW#7, [MMCC], opaque, idiochromatic. Cumengeite.

COPPER, Standard Cyan color, 12RCW#9, [CCCC], opaque, idiochromatic. Boleite crystals. 

Cu2[C03][0H]2, H4, SG-3.6, mass or monoclinic systems.

COPPER, Green Standard color, 12RCW#11, [CCYY], opaque, crushed pigment, idiochromatic. Used as eye makeup in ancient Egypt

Cu3[CO3]2[0H]2, H3.5, SG-3.7, monoclinic.

COPPER, Standard Azure (cobalt) color, 12RCW#8, [MCCC]. Cyan-blue transparent to opaque, shows blue in mass. This was a popular ancient pigment color, crushed, rare. Copper Blue and lead white or vermilion and lead white mixed or touching unmixed will turn black, so there must be a painting isolation layer. It was usually applied with egg and varnished over and never mixed with other colors. The many hues and opacities of azurite ranging from an opaque ultramarine blue, cobalt blue to a opaque or transparent cyan, all effected by oil, in a bad yellowing way. 


MOHS, SG-2.7, trigonal crystals, also aggregate and mass, colorless transparent to translucent.

IRON, Yellow allochromatic.

COPPER, "Iceland Spar", Cyan, allochromatic, polarizing filter. In this crystal light cyan turns into dark ultramarine blue, like in the the Real Color Wheel.

COBALT, "Sphaeroc Cobaltite", Standard Magenta Cool, #5, [MMMM], allochromatic.

, CaCo3, H3, SC-2.94, ortharhombic system, phosphorescent, clear.

, CaMg[Cu3]2, H3.5, SG-2.85, trigonal, translucent clear, double refraction like the diamond.

, BaCO3, H3.5, SG-4.3, orthorhombic crystal system with twinned hexagonal pyramids, that's like the four sided pyramid the Egyptian's were so fond of. Light-translucent, colorless or centering yellow-green to brown, allochromatic. Ore source of barium, found with lead. Pigment extender. 

, ZnCO3, H4, SG-4.4, trigonal crystal system.

ZINC, translucent green, Idiochromatic, pale. 

, [Zn,Cu]5[Cu3]2[0H]6, H1, SG-3.64, orthorhombic. White opaque.

ZINC AND COPPER, turquoise-green outside, white inside, opaque, crystal forming fragile hollow balls, idiochromatic.

 PbC03, H3.5, SG-6.5, orthorhombic of many forms, clear transparent, brittle lead and carbon.

, MnCO3, H3.5, SG-3.7, scalenohedral crystals in the trigonal system, opaque and transparent.

MANGANESE, Red Standard color, #3, [YYMM], idiochromatic. 

, FeCO3, H4.0,SG-3.9, trigonal, rare gemstones.

IRON, yellow-green to brown, centering colors in different crystals, transparent or translucent. This crystal is the cool side of the Yellow scale to neutral dark. 

CuSiO2[OH]2, H5, SG-3.3, trigonal, opaque.

COPPER, Dark-turquoise Standard Color, 12RCW#10, [CCCY], idiochromatic, brittle. An ideal native pigment.

[Cu,Al]2H2Si2O5[OH]4.nH2O, H2, [with quartz H7], SG-2,6, monoclinic aggregate, idiochromatic copper.

COPPER, Turquoise Standard color, #10, [CCCY], pale opaque.

Rare crushed opaque cyan colored pigment, replaced by man, made Egyptian frit for a huge market made by the Phoenicians.

Be2SiO4, H7.5, SG-3,  trigonal rhombohedral crystals, clear, allochromatic, triadic. NOTICE: CLEAR IS OPPOSITE OPAQUE. WHITE IS A TRANSLUCENT TO OPAQUE NOT CLEAR. CLEAR HAS NO WHITE IN IT.


, CaSiO3, H5, SG-3, triclinic, tabular or masses. White opaque, orange fluorescence.

CaMgSi2O6, H6, monoclinic.

MAGNESIUM, yellow-green or purple (opposites), internal coloring.

CHROMIUM, dark green. Brittle translucent, foreign coloring. 

, CaTiSiO5, H5.5, SG-3.5, monoclinic wedged shaped crystals and masses.

TITANIUM, yellow-green or yellow, to brown with neutral dark areas, in a transparent crystal. Centering yellow to neutral dark, through warm brown, is a common trait observed with titanium and iron. This is the way my coloring wheel works with yellow going to Brown as the neutral dark instead of Black. To reach Black, one would mix ultramarine blue (opposite of yellow) to brown

CHROMIUM, green, rare crystal, allochromatic. 

ZrSiO4, H7, SG-4.6, tetragonal system ends with a four sided pyramid, transparent. Clear to red-brown opaque.

ZIRCONIUM, full spectrum of pale colors, additional heat makes yellow and blue crystals.

Brittle, idiochromatic, the transparent crystals are doubly refractive and rival the diamond in dispersion. 

, Na[Mg2+,Ca]2Si3O8[0H], H4.5, SG-3.5, triclinic.

MANGANESE, red-orange, pale, opaque. A weak manganese color with two electrons gone, idiochromatic.

, [Mg,Fe] 2SiO4, H7, SG-3.3, orthorhombic crystals.

MANGANESE, red-orange opaque, shows up as brown when mixed with yellow-green, like the light color wheel, idiochromatic.

IRON, yellow-green, transparent, with two minerals, iron making a transparent yellow-green and manganese making an opaque split-analogous red-orange, what you get is a transparent yellow-green going to opaque brown in the same crystal, or anywhere in between, the peridot series. 

, Al2SiO5, H7.5 across 4.5 down, SG-3.7, triclinic.

ALUMINUM, white, pale-green to gray, opaque to translucent. Pleochroistic, (changing colors with direction), transparent light green background when perfect, with a "cyan-blue light" stripe, translucent. The aluminum element plays tricks with light that are unique. No other element can do what aluminum can (no pun intended:). 

Li AlSi2O6, H7,  SG-3, monoclinic, transparent, ore of Lithium.

LITHIUM, yellow-green, yellow, orange, red, and a Cool Magenta Standard crystal called "Lilac Kunzite". Clear to pale translucent, idiochromatic. Red-orange phosphorescent (the opposite of Lithium's missing cyan color).

ALUMINUM, yellow-orange, enhances iron and chromium.

IRON, warm green, allochromatic.

CHROMIUM, cool green, allochromatic, works well with ALUMINUM, as in the Corundum compound (Ruby). 

KAlSi2O6, H5.5, SG-2.5, tetragonal, opaque, white.

ALUMINUM, very pale yellow-orange crystal. The aluminum spin on this compound is interference colors on the cut face, like an oil film on water, with orange fluorescence in long-wave ultraviolet light and blue too, as seen in X-ray's. 

, KAlSi308, H6 STANDARD MOHS, SG-2.5, monoclinic.

ALUMINUM, pale yellow-orange opaque crystals. The transparent yellow gem (moonstone), has internal light diffusion, another light trick by the inclusion of aluminum. 

Be3Al2[Si03]6,  H7.5, SG-2.7, hexagonal crystal system.

BERYLLIUM element in Beryl crystal, cyan, yellow, idiochromatic.

ALUMINUM, yellow-orange, idiochromatic,

IRON, IRON AT IT'S BEST WILL DISPLAY THE WHOLE SPECTRUM IN THE BERYL CRYSTAL: green, yellow-green, yellow, orange, red, scarlet, magenta purple, blue, azure (cobalt blue), cyan, turquoise, allochromatic.

CHROMIUM, Green Standard, 12RCW#11, [CCYY] and red, allochromatic.

MANGANESE, red, allochromatic.

Double elements in yellow 12RCW#1, [YYYY], cyan 12RCW#9, [CCCC], red 12RCW#3, [YYMM], and green 12RCW#11, [CCYY], all Standard Colors. Plus: Yellow (heliodor), magenta (morganite), cyan (aquamarine) and green (emerald).

ALUMINUM in beryl excepts a lot of foreign chromates, just as it does in the corundum and spodumene compounds, Here an aluminum light trick is found in aquamarine: Light cyan is seen from one direction and a deep cyan from a 90º off angle.

ALUMINUM in in the air excepts a lot of foreign chromates, just as it does in the corundum and spodumene compounds, Here's an aluminum light trick is found in aquamarine: Light cyan is seen from one direction and a deep blue from a 90º off angle. Another trick, my spit and mucus now dry with sparkles of all colors, 12-12-12.

BeASi04[0H], H6.7, SG-3, monoclinic system.

BERYLLIUM, Standard Color Cyan, 12RCW#9, [CCCC], yellow to cyan, idiochromatic, transparent.

, Ca3Al2 [SiO4]3,  H7, SG-3.5, cubic, garnet group.

ALUMINUM, Standard Color Orange, 12RCW#2, [YYYM], yellow to orange, centering to brown, idiochromatic, transparent.
CHROMIUM, green, allochromatic.

NaAlSi3O8-CaAl2Si2O8, H6, SG-2.5, sodium-aluminum series of plagioclase feldspars.

ALUMINUM, blue to cyan color plus an unusual effect called schiller, the inside glow of cyan color moves with you, playing off included lamellae minerals. Idiochromatic, opaque.

IRON, yellow to red, the allochromatic intrusion of hematite reverses the spectrum to show it's opposite colors. 

Mn3Al2[SiO4]3, H7, SG-4, cubic, garnet family.

ALUMINUM, yellow-orange, turning red to orange with manganese.

MANGANESE, orange to red, transparent, idiochromatic.

IRON, red, transparent, allochromatic (an outside element added to the compound), adding transparent red until it's a deep transparent red. This is only a 30 degree span of color with no complementary intrusion toward centering. This is the light "almandine garnet".

Fe3Al2[ SiO4]3, H7,  SG-4, cubic, transparent, Garnet.

ALUMINUM, yellow-orange, added to the red of iron, idiochromatic.

IRON, red, idiochromatic, transparent.

CHROMIUM, red, deeply saturated, transparent, allochromatic. These two elements together make a transparent red and transparent red deeply saturated. This red is so deep and spectrum dark it has to be very thinly sliced to see any color at all. Deeply saturated means a transparent to opaque color skipping translucent.

Ca2[ Al,Fe3+]3[SiO4]3[OH], H7, SG-3.4, monoclinic.

ALUMINUM, yellow-orange, transparent, idiochromatic, pleochroistic directional change of color.

IRON, yellow-green Epidote has a unique coloring system, combining split analogous colors yellow-green and orange, through brown to a warm neutral dark transparent color. 

Ca 10Mg2Al4[SiO4]5[ Si207]2[OH]4, H7, SG-3.3,

MAGNESIUM, wants to go dark and opaque, or transparent, either way, it does it with flair.

ALUMINUM, Yellow Transparent Standard 12RCW#1 [YYYY], and Blue Transparent Standard 12RCW#7 [MMCC], centering to neutral. Crystals in the tetragonal system, some masses in the orange or azure range. By centering yellow to brown, the three analogous colors of this gem, yellow-green, yellow and orange go to brown. On the other side of this analogous range is blue, blue crystals were found in Norway. Idiochromatic.

CHROMIUM, green, allochromatic. 

, KCa4Si8O2O[F,OH]8H2O, H4.5, SG-2.

White to pale cool green, opaque, idiochromatic, non-metallic mineral. 

Al2 [F,OH]2SiO4, H8 STANDARD MOHS, SG-3.53, orthorhombic crystal system.

ALUMINUM, yellow, mostly orange, red and magenta, some azure crystals come from Zimbabwe.

Idiochromatic colors of aluminum under high pressure. 

Na[Li,Al] 3Al6[ BO3]3Si618[OH]4, H7.25, SG-3.05, trigonal, tourmaline group, transparent, pyroelectricity w/heat.

IRON, green, red, and warm Magenta, brown.

LITHIUM, yellow, magenta, idiochromatic.

ALUMINUM, yellow, blue, idiochromatic.

MANGANESE, orange and red, allochromatic.

COPPER, green, cyan, allochromatic. Many Elbaite crystals show more than one color in a clear rainbow ordered spectrum.

H5-6, SG-2.8, or higher if pyrite is included. This is the Standard Color Ultramarine Blue opaque, 12RCW#7, [MMCC], an ancient pigment. A rock of many compounds. Lazurite, a sodium aluminum silicate with sulfide, deep blue crystals. Hauyne, Sodalite, (a sodium aluminum silicate with sodium chloride that occurs in crystals and masses), and Nosean. Lapis lazuli is a contact metamorphic mineral found in limestone and granite, the best is found in Afghanistan, from ancient times until today.

CuAl6 (PO4]4[OH]8.4-5H2O, H5.5, SG-2.7, triclinic.

ALUMINUM, transparent.

COPPER, Transparent Turquoise Standard Color, 12RCW#10 [CCCY]. Transparent turquoise crystals are rare, it's usually found within opaque masses, idiochromatic. 

Al3 [PO4]2[OH,F]3.5H2O, H3.5, SG-2.36, orthorhombic crystal system, acicular, like the needles of Rutile suspended in clear crystal, only these needle crystals form a dense rocklike mass.

ALUMINUM, yellow, brown, blue, centering standard, transparent. Aluminum really does it big this time, each needle starts at the center radiating outward, concentrical ringed bands form around the center, each band ending as a cleavage line, twenty or so bands per complete needle crystal. The band itself can change from clear transparent to opaque white while in the center, the second band range is transparent yellow crystal, than brown, than blue. From brown to blue, the crystal can change into an aggregate and lose it's crystal properties. THIS MINERAL PHOSPHATE SHOWS THE CENTERING OF YELLOW TO BROWN AND BROWN TO BLUE, LIKE MY REAL COLOR WHEEL FOR ARTISTS PIGMENTS. 

NaAl3[PO4]2[0H]4, H5.5, SG-2.9, monoclinic.

ALUMINUM, yellow, cool, transparent, idiochromatic. 

, Ca[UO2]2[PO4]2.10-12H2O, H2, SG-3.1, tetragonal.

URANIUM, yellow, translucent, Idiochromatic uranium, warm to cool yellow, pigment in the 1940's, fluorescent yellow. 

Fe3[P04].8H20, Hard ness 1.5, SG-2.68, monoclinic.

IRON, Standard Color for Cyan, 12RCW#9, [CCCC], transparent, idiochromatic. Cyan to green crystals.

Laminae fibrous, long thin radiated crystals, transparent clear when first mined, turning cyan with light exposure. 

LEGRANDITEZn2[AsO4][OH],H20 H5, SG-4, monoclinic family.

ZINC, yellow, cool, transparent, idiochromatic.

ARSENIC, Standard Yellow, 12RCW#1, [YYYY], transparent, idiochromatic. Bright yellow idiochromatic, with zinc and arsenic. Arsenic taking it to the warm side in it's luminous shadows. Probably the strongest, purest yellow color in transparent crystal form. 

Ca5[P04]3F, H5 STANDARD MOHS, SG-3.2, apatite family, hexagonal system, transparent.

Yellow, yellow-green, green, cyan, blue, purple and a violet close to magenta, [MMM,1/2M-1/2C]. Two-thirds of the color wheel without any metallic element in the compound. 

, Pb5[P04]3C1, H3., SG-6.5, hexagonal system.


Yellow to yellow-green in the shadows, translucent, some times found on azurite, the opposite color. 

, Pb5 [AsO4]3CAsO1, H3.5, SG-7.24 monoclinic, transparent.

LEAD, yellow, cool, idiochromatic.

ARSENIC, yellow to orange to brown, idiochromatic.

Cool yellow, warm yellow and orange analogous colored crystals are found around the world. 

, Pb5[VO4]3C1, H3, SG-6.8, hexagonal system. VANADIUM, scarlet, transparent, idiochromatic.

LEAD, Standard Red, 12RCW#3, [YYMM], transparent, idiochromatic. Vanadium, a rare metallic element, compounded with lead makes a red transparent crystal. 

, CaSO4.2H20, H2 STANDARD MOHS, SG-2.32, monoclinic, white, idiochromatic yellow and green to a centered brown. 

, SrSO4, H3.5, SG-4, orthorhombic, ore of strontium.


BaS04, H3.5, SG-4.5, orthorhombic. Ore of barium.

BARIUM, yellow to yellow-orange and blue to azure, opposite colors on the Real Color Wheel. Transparent to translucent, idiochromatic.


, PbCrO4, H2.5, SG-5.99, monoclinic, transparent.

LEAD, no color, transparent.

CHROMIUM, red, transparent, idiochromatic.


PbM4, H2.75, SG-7, tetragonal.

LEAD, no color, transparent.

MOLYBDENUM, yellow, orange, red, transparent, idiochromatic. 


, CaWO4, H4.5, SG-6, tetragonal, forming octahedra crystals or masses, ore of tungsten.

TUNGSTEN, colorless, yellow, orange, brown, transparent, crystals. Idiochromatic. Tungsten has very unique spectrum of colors, it's a curve to neutral dark. THIS CRYSTAL HAS THE SAME COLOR PATH AS THE PIGMENT INDIAN YELLOW GENUINE, which we no longer have available. (Banned in 1899 by England W/N, political not puritan I'm sure) THIS YELLOW IS ON THE REAL COLOR WHEEL.

, [Fe,Mn]WO4, H4.5, SG-7.5, monoclinic.

IRON, red, matching the manganese, iron can be, and can center any color to a neutral dark, red dark is in the yellow dark of the Real Color Wheel, and YELLOW CENTERS THROUGH BROWN. Idiochromatic.

MANGANESE, red, transparent, idiochromatic, Manganese and iron, two red elements making a very deep red-brown that looks black, found with white and clear quartz.

Chapter 6
Lime Frescoes

MEDIA: More in chapter 7

A page on just lime fresco. (new window)
Finished buon frescoes with painting procedures. (new window)

LIME is the oxide of calcium [CaO], calcined limestone or quicklime. Limestone and gypsum both make plaster of Paris if heated.

4000 B.C. They had watercolors and lime paint using tin based colors and made plaster by heating limestone for murals and gypsum mud for building, adding alum made a hard cement. Limestone powder is chalk or calcium carbonate. Gypsum is hydrated calcium sulfate, a light spar. Heated gypsum makes plaster of Paris also. The limestone crystal the is softer of the two. Calcine them and it they will have made dry cement. Gypsum makes the harder more waterproof cement but has pigment color changing sulfur in it so it's not used for murals.

After slaking lime in a container remove all the slaked water off of the top. This is clear Lime Water. The longer you wait the harder the sediment lime compacts its self, but it will never dry under water. Lime and water don't mix. Lime that has been heated or calcined and had all the water removed from the compound it is very porous. When the grain of lime reaches it's total absorption capability the cell is very close to the weight of water and only the weight of the lime crystal will cause it to precipitate. The lime is heavy compared to the water molecule and it will sink, but slowly. Quicker as time goes on because the lime is contracting as it sinks and compresses with other lime. The lime crystal will dry in the water up to the point of squeezing it out, it takes time. It changes from a thick yogurt after 4 months to being like room temperature butter after 24 months.

Two to four month old slaked will not hold any more water and has cast out some water becoming heaver and sinking faster. Slaked lime sinks quickly. Out of the water it will shrink more and faster. Dried lime re-crushed sinks fastest but looses it's bonding power and it's alkalinity. At this point it makes a good white pigment. I add it to my titanium white block-out water color. It doesn't sink into the paper because the particles are too large.

Egypt made the first cement, firing their plentiful limestone and adding clean sand. This natural limestone is calcium carbonate. Burning gives off carbonic acid gas or carbon dioxide, leaving caustic lime. Add water and you make slaked lime or calcium hydroxide. This is the mural material, add silica sand or crushed marble or, as the later Italians did, add some volcanic ash. A good grade of volcanic ash came from Pozzuoli, it was light, fine and had rough edges, this will make mortar. Slaking gives off heat and water, the top layer again absorbs carbonic acid gas from the air and forms a film of carbonate of lime, on top of the lime water solution called calcium hydrate.

Limestone that contains clay slakes very slowly. The best lime has been burnt over wood, coal would give off sulfuric acid and make gypsum, that would damage pigments. Lime plus hydraulic clay set too quickly for murals, but would work for dried secco paintings. The best lime has set for two to twenty years, after removing the top layer of crust, the calcium hydrate can be mixed with different proportions of water to form "milk of lime" and "lime wash". Clear "lime water" is made from settled milk of lime and is an excellent medium for fresco. Thin lime paste mixes with skim milk, casein, resin varnish, egg and glue. They are all used in secco painting and in stucco luster, the imitation marble. The "Athos Book" Hermeneia of Dionysius the Painter's Handbook from Mount Athos Greece (Greek-Byzantine), said to add fibrous materials as oakum, chopped rope, calves hair and straw to prevent cracking. Clay causes cracks in mortar as it dries, sand is best, granite powder should be used in the final coat or powdered limestone.

What we call Cement today is hydraulic lime, Portland Cement contains 75 percent caustic lime and 25 percent clay, clay contains gypsum and alumina, the addition of sand makes concrete.

GYPSUM is sulphate of lime or hydrated calcium sulphate or light spar, heated, slightly burnt (calcined) gypsum is plaster of Paris. Alabaster is a granular gypsum, and kaolin clay is decomposed light spar. Heated gypsum forms a sulfur dioxide gas and sulfuric acid.

FRESCO MORTAR is sand and lime mixed 3:1 in the rough coat, 2:1 in the second coat and 1:1 in the last top coat layer called in Italian, intonaco. Marble meal is best in the top coat for a whiter painting surface. A good "secco" ceiling fresco will measure from 1/4" to 1/2" thick, let the final coat set for a day. Then, scrub off the skin of carbonate of lime and apply some lime-wash, paint onto the wet or dry lime-wash with paints ground in skim-milk casein or lime milk. Very fat lime plaster with too much lime, cracks easily. This secco paint may include lime-water, casein, glue or egg. Casein will increase the weather resistance as will egg yolk with alum.

The total thickness of outside walls should be about 1 to 1.5 inches thick. Pompeiian walls were 3" thick, and could be painted on for up to two weeks wet, joins went unseen if they were necessary. Here is Doerner's advice on preparing a surface for fresco. On a thoroughly wet wall, apply the roughcast, make it with 3 parts clean dry sand, mixed with one part lime. Throw this on about 1/2 inch thick, the equalizing coat is applied when the roughcast no longer indents with finger pressure or dry. This second coat can be slightly drier than the first, in about the same thickness or less, still using coarse sand. Apply all coats from the bottom up. The third coat is made with 2 parts finer sand and 1 part lime, this coating is thinner, perhaps 3/8's of an inch thick. A last coat is made of 1 part fine sand or marble meal and 1 part lime. Wet and brush this third coat with lime-wash before applying this intonaco painting layer, it should be less than 1/8" thick. Work this coat to perfection, two hours per square yard isn't too long. It takes me 1 hour to do 12 square inches.
A good fresco can be painted on only two coats of mortar, a rough coat 1/8" of an inch thick dried and a 1/8th inch thick top coat to paint on.

Vitruvius described the plaster used by the ancient Pompeiians. Six coats were applied, wet on wet, the last coat was given a mirror polish with a smooth roller, They all totaled to 3" thick, skim milk was added to the pigments for additional gloss. I did this and it worked very well.

Colors must be lime-proof, the best white is dried pit lime, wet and dried several times until it tastes neutral, or use litmus paper. This was the "bianco sangiovanni" of Cennini. Naturally this white has no binding power of its own and needed to be applied with egg or casein if the fresco has dried. Organic madder root could then be mixed in and used because the white was neutral. Yellows were; Amberg ocher, a bright yellow that's long gone, yellow ocher, Naples yellow and native orpiment. The brown's were carefully washed iron-in-clay pigments, umbers and siennas both raw and burnt. Red and oranges were realgar, an arsenic pigment like orpiment, magenta was madder root, painted secco with egg or casein, like the blue, lapis lazuli. It's not that lapis lazuli couldn't handle the lye, but because it was such an expensive pigment and who could afford the sinking in properties of fresco. Today we can use PR122 Magenta and PB15 Cyan, they are both permanent. Also it is best to add titanium white to the white lime pigment paste.

Other blues were azurite, and light and dark frit. Cobalt native made a rose color, and burning the oxide moved the hue to blue. Green's were copper green frit, malachite and amazonite. Black's were made of carbon or iron oxide, they were applied very early on. Any color can be easily be painted over. The more coats, the more intense the color. One need not be afraid to run over outlines with local color, they can be easily modeled over as the support absorbs color. Highlights with lime cream were added last as the shadows are deepened.

Paint only until the plaster stops absorbing pigment and starts setting, The thicker the mortar the longer the working time. Normal working time is six hours. Lime water can be painted on to increase the absorbing time and retard the setting time. Paint from light to dark to light, lights can be made from thick lime putty wash that will over paint any color. A lime-water damp sponge will blend large areas of newly applied color.

Today I add titanium white, now, the color you see is the color it dries to.

If you get lime in your eyes, wash it out with a mixture of sugar and skim milk. Fresco should not be reworked for at least a month, apply the secco with wax-ammonia soap, egg yolk or casein and stipple in the additions. Dolomitic limestone sets slowly but dries hard, shortly after the fresco has set, use a glass roller to bring up a high gloss. DON'T TRY TO DO A FRESCO WITH COMMERCIAL CEMENT BECAUSE IT CONTAINS UNBURNT GYPSUM, SULFUR AND CLAY. Today there are pigments that can take the sulfur, white cement works well with the new pigments but dries faster so you have to paint faster or make a smaller giornate.

Much more on fresco (new window)
including pigment tests and step-by-step buon frescoes
techniques shown on paintings.

Fresco Forum (new window).

Chapter 7
Maroger Black Oil, Litharge, Massicot, Wax, Cera Colla, Casein Tempera Emulsion, Sandarac


Turpentine is the best thinner for oil paints. I don't agree with Mayer's Handbook saying that petroleum distilled paint thinner works for fine artwork, unless you are talking about alkyds only. Turpentine or mineral sprits work well with them.

Doerner expleined in his 1934 book, The Materials of the Artist, how they are unnatural with paints that absorb oxygen while drying, being refined from a nondrying petroleum oil, they only evaporate, without absorbing oxygen. Petroleum thinners are good only for cleaning brushes of the house painting trade, not the expensive brushes we use as artists. They should be cleaned in brush oil. Petroleum thinner will not dissolve the valuable damar varnish either, as turpentine does so well.

Only time will tell if alkyd oil yellows. The current manufactures of art supplies are betting on alkyds for the artist. Here is a five year medium test. (new window)

The essential oil of turpentine, is a volatile plant oil, steam distilled without pressure. Today's turpentine is very pure. The only reason to buy double rectified artist's turpentine in the small bottles is to guard against impurities. French turpentine from the maritime pine is best.

The ancient oleoresin, is turpentine in its solid state, pitch or fused colophony, the residue from turpentine is rosin. Pine sap with water removed is pine pitch; more water removed is rosin, cured under natural pressure is amber.

Siccatives "used by Bouguereau" are metal salts soluble in oil. (new window) They speed the absorption of oxygen by the fatty oils, a two percent addition to paints is all that can safely be used, and even that will noticeably yellow. The addition of damar is a much safer practice, but that leaves you with two days drying time instead of one. Siccatives have been used for as long as paints have been around, in the B.C. era. The first pigments, iron ore limonite, contained manganese siccatives. Green contained a copper resinate, sugar of lead was an early drier, it's called lead acetate. Today we use a cobalt oxide and limonite mix, to me the deep color purple is objectionable and it yellows badly. I would rather have the clear sugar of lead or the white calcined stannum oxide, like the Egyptians used. Recently I heard that garlic lightened the linseed and reduced the drying time to 24 hours. I haven't proved this yet but as the story goes it worked pre-1800.

Even white lead oxide could be heated and saponifies clear in oil. Here is a very good ONLINE link about megilp and Marogers mediums. These mediums, called malbutter and megilp, (new window) were made of heated oil, wax and lead, they were made in the past worked very well, they added a buttery character to the paint and a harder finish. Many masters from the North (1550) used Stand Oil, Sun Dried Linseed (dried in lead pans) and balsam. The lead acts as the metal in the drier if the oil was heated to sponificate (turn transparent) the lead.
White lead without oil can be changed to yellow, orange, red and caput mortum dark with heat.

MAROGER listed how to make his mediums of his past.

Here is a good recipe for Maroger Black Oil.

BLACK OIL is made of purified raw linseed oil cooked with red lead and adding mastic.
Cold pressed raw Linseed Oil - 96.5g, Mastic - 30g, PbO - 4g.
This comes out to visually about 1/2 cup oil, a handful of crystals, and about a 1/4 tsp of PbO. If you can make pancakes, you have the skill to make this medium. Now, mix the oil and the PbO together. It will look exactly like orange juice.

Now, using a Corning ware or some other such porcelain container, start warming it up. Don't let it smoke. Whatever you do, do not let it boil.
A transformation will start to take place, turning the mixture from orange to the color of black coffee. Stir it often with a wooden or porcelain spoon - NOT a metal one.
After the coffee color is reached, let it cook for a half hour to make sure the change is complete. The PbO does not go into the air, there are no poisonous fumes, so don't worry about that. At this point I like to let the temperature down a bit, before I slowly add the mastic, stirring it in.
There is a variation that skips the mastic and goes for 10g of beeswax, but I have never bothered to try it as I want the brilliance the mastic gives - besides you can always make a paste of wax and resin and add it later (I recommend adding some carnauba wax, it is harder than ordinary beeswax).

Okay, now that everything is cooked, you have Black Oil. Just forget about this for now, you are not there yet, I don't know why anyone would want to paint with this as it is. Now fill your jar with turpentine, which should be 40-45% of the volume of the oil. This is very crucial - if it is exactly half, the transformation will not take place. Then fill your tubes that are standing up in a jar with the mixture and seal it tightly, put it in the refrigerator overnight, it will transform into the Jelly. To see some photos of the process click this link. (new window)
When using this, add just a little, maybe about a third to your tube paint, that should do the trick - if it is slick, you are adding too much. Not only will your paint look incredible, you will be able to blend like you've never done before, add beautiful thin layers, put in detail that will stay, not drip or run, and any layer you make will dry within 24 hours! I recommend using Titanium and Zinc as the white paint.


Maroger uses the term litharge for oxide of lead.

The painters lead yellow pigment is also called litharge. That would be white lead roasted to yellow. In this form it is of the orthorhombic crystal system. Yellow PbO is an orthorhombic crystal. The natural mineral litharge is red lead PbO, a tetragonal system crystal. Produced red lead is tetroxide PbO3, the same as the natural mineral minium.

Red lead is the heated litharge transformation ingredient made from the heating process of white lead. The yellow and red lead are lower in tinting strength than the white lead. Saponifacation turns the white lead transparent in oil and even more so the yellow-orange lead called red. Black oil adds no color of it's own to pigments.

Adding heat to lead white forms yellow litharge pigment early on the heat process. Lead Litharge has a early temperature of yellow. Maroger's medium uses the the lead color orange, it's called red lead. There is a lead heat transformation heating lead rapidly at a high temperature. This decomposes the lead and turns it into litharge. Cooking this litharge and oil mix makes it a translucent brown gel called black oil.

Any lead heated in a fire will cause white lead oxide to form. Acid gas does a better job making more white oxides.

Roast the white to make the colors from yellow to orange, red and brown. Lead white carbonate heats to yellow, orange, red (lead tetroxide, PbOsub3 called Litharge and PbOsub4 called Red Minium and/or orange lead. It has low tinting strength and good body). Orange lead, called red lead, is higher in litharge oxide which is more transparent.

Artists Pigments, Feller, pg 118. When heated strongly red lead decomposes to form litharge. When heated gently it turns to reddish brown than purple. That would be cuput mortum.

My color wheel uses the same line of darkening as this lead oxide crystal. The colors yellow to orange and red use the same brown as their color's hue darker hue, Burnt Umber.

MASTIC VARNISH is made of pure gum spirits of turpentine and mastic resin tears. It can be added to Black Oil for an instant Flemish type medium. Diluted slightly with turpentine, it may be used as a final picture varnish, after the oil painting has completely dried.

ITALIAN FORMULA MEDIUM combines white leaded oil with beeswax for a transparent paste which dries to a soft semigloss luster and give an opulent body to impastos. Beeswax also adds flexibility which prevents cracking.

FLEMISH FORMULA MEDIUM combines oil with mastic tears, pure gum spirits of turpentine, and beeswax for a transparent gel medium. Colors have more intensely and a rich gloss finish.

Theophilus Presbyter, the monk of Paderborn, [1200 A/D] wrote on oils and pigments, he knew back then that cold pressed linseed oil was good... He said the best linseed oil was from the Baltic Sea area, and freezing oil and snow together for a week was a great purifier, than sun drying the oil in a shallow lead container 1/2" high, breathable covered, for long enough for the oil to become thick. Cennini called this the best of all oils.

Stand oil is linseed oil boiled with carbonic acid and without oxygen, it dries very slowly, and is very sticky to paint with. Turpentine must be constantly be added to keep it flowing, linseed oil will keep it from being sticky, it was known of and used early in the 15th century. It can't be used alone with a drier because it makes the paint stick to itself and not what you painted it on! The separated paint looks like a sponge print instead of a layer of paint. It would rather stick to itself then to anything else.

Nut oil was recommended by Heraclius and Theophilus, Leonardo liked it because it didn't yellow as much as linseed oil, Durer and Van Eyck used it in the 1400's. It was used all through the high renaissance in Italy, the greatest artists that ever lived used it and preferred it over all others. Get it at
It should be lighter than most linseed oils. Nut oil is pressed from the seeds of ripe but not brown walnuts. It was also recommended by Vasari, Borghini, Lornazzo, Armenini, Bisagno, Volpato, etc., as late as De Mayerne and even later. No doubt nut oil was more popular then, then now. Storage was the problem then, not so today. The alkyd walnut oil may well be the best fast drying base medium today, although it still yellows, all oil does.

Poppy oil is a slow drying oil that seldom yellows, stays wet for ten days and wrinkles less than linseed oil. Poppy oil is pressed from the seeds of the white poppy, its major use is in the processing of tube oil colors.

Castor oil has its place with lacs and spirit paints, adding 5% to shellac will make it pliable and remove the brittle quality.

Lavender oil comes from the flowers of the lavender plant, spike oil, from the whole plant. Lavender oil is preferred, both dissolve mastic, sandarac (sandracca), and shellac and were used since ancient times.

Oil of cloves is the slowest drying oil of all, how about a month and a half. Portrait painters find it useful, the slow one's. :)

Copaiva balsam oil and copal resin both dissolve the lower layer and really slide the paint around... I never liked the brands I tried until I tried Ron Garrett's (; because in others there wasn't enough control. His brand painted beautifully.

Venice turpentine is a superior turpentine, balsam, it's from the larch tree. Strasbourg turpentine is similar and comes from the white fir. We could make this fine medium here in the United States, but I don't think we do, Canada makes a good balsam. They're not really a thin turpentine, but a thicker and undistilled balsam, they are basically non-yellowing and have an enamel-like effect on the painting. Rubins used it 2:1 in oil, Van Dyck used it 1:1 as an intermediate varnish with egg and oils. Reynolds used it with ammonia and wax. I like balsam as a painting medium with cold pressed linseed oil and damar resin, 3oil:2damar:1balsam. It paints and glazes beautifully.

Damar, Chios or Lavantine mastic, some Copals (Brazilian, Manila, Borneo), Shellac, and the ancient oleoresin are soft resins, damar makes the best natural picture varnish for wax and mastic painting, it's the hardest. Resins and balsams keep oils from wrinkling and forming a skin. Any resin or balsam or copal added to oil paints permit painting layers in rapid succession. Oil paint without resin, balsam or copal (all of which redisssolve, unlike oil) must be completely dry before a second coat is applied, or it may chip off. Because the lower level will continue to shrink at a different rate than the new upper level. Linseed oil by itself is a poor binder and allows moisture to enter.

The hardest resins are succinite amber and hard copals. Don't use them as a varnish... they are too hard to remove and they also crack.

Amber resin is very hard fossil resin, it can cause cracks over some soft paints and darkens in time, Don't bother with it.

Acrylic Polyurethane resin can be made hard or soft, the furniture industry makes a hard varnish that is water soluble, I've been using it on my acrylics as a final finish since 1976 with perfect results, they are as clear as the day I put them on. Deft is one of several good brands you can get at any hardware store.

A good choice for acrylics, oil billboards or oil paintings without added wax is this coating by, Triangle Coating.
Clear Flex UV. Clear Satin or Gloss, non yellowing ultraviolet inhibiting, flexible, Water based, Acrylic Urethane coating. 1930 Fairway Drive, San Leandro, CA., 94577-5631 


There are two kinds of wax, those from the animal itself are called tallows, we don't use them in the art's. The second type is from the insect's nest, this is very valuable to us and has been used in turpentine based paints, water based paints and by itself since ancient times. Ancient Greece had a 3370 foot mountain that was famous for honey and beeswax, called Hymettus. The Etruscans used wax and mastic paints in 500 B.C., the Minoan's in 700 B.C. and the Egyptians even earlier. It was their easel and wall media beside buon and secco fresco, they mixed ammonia with it or turpentine and mastic.

Old brown wax can be whitened by just leaving thin strips in the sun, or by melting and cooling it in alum water. The second nest wax comes from the Indian lac producing insect, the laccifer lacca. It's softer and not as useful in painting, but very good in batik tapestry, they did a lot of dying in India.

The third nest wax is from a Chinese insect and it melts hotter than beeswax, so it's a good substitute. This insect is cultivated on two different trees with human assistance. Clever people these Chinese.

Wax dissolves in turpentine, mastic, balsam and oils, but not water or alcohol. It's non-yellowing and forms an emulsion in lye. The Greeks and Romans stored their pigments in small covered containers and called them "waxes", pigments in wax and mastic. Add a little turpentine with your brush and paint away! These ancients were pretty clever also.

They painted with pure melted encaustic wax and pigment too, this was probably the wax Pliny talked about, the punic or eleodoric wax. Three times melted and cured in salt water, when this wax was applied on stone for decoration, it was called "ganosis". Traces of this wax are found on Egyptian sculptures and tombs as far back as 2500 B.C..

The early Greeks, before the "Dark Ages", around 500 B.C., were fond of decorating their statues and the friezes of buildings, and probably a lot more places that were not so protected from twenty five hundred years of weather. Traces of wax were found on the Trojan Column in Rome. It was the architect's paint... wax and turpentine was the picture paint.


Ammonia, NH3, is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, a water soluble gas.

Ammoniac, a salt and gum found in the Qattara Depression 200 miles East of Memphis, Egypt. Ammoniac is the remains of a long extinct insect that lived in the area.

Ammonium, is the Egyptian city founded about 500 B.C., as a shrine to their god Ammon. Ammonium is also NH4, a radical that plays the part of a metal in the compound formed when ammonia reacts with acids, ammonium salts are alkaline.

Ammonium hydroxide, basic NH4OH is a weak alkali.

Carbonate, a salt of carbonic acid, as calcium carbonate or ammonium carbonate, made by mixing the ammonium alkali with carbonic acid. H2C03 is formed when carbon dioxide dissolves in water.

Ammonium carbonate or ammonium hydroxide (common ammonia water), can be mixed with white beeswax 1:2 and boiled until the effervescence stops, stir the mix until while it is cooking and until it's cool. This will be a water soluble wax soap emulsion that will mix with pigments, casein, gum, glue, egg, gelatin, turpentine, resin, balsam, shellac or oil. The volatile ammonia alkali dissipates and the soap dries insoluble to water, like it was before you started, beeswax. Use cera colla wax to give gloss and protect secco frescoes as Egyptian's did to their colored walls. Cera Colla was an early winner in the Paint Wars. Put a cap on the container and it will keep for a very long time. Grind your store bought dry pigments into it as you need them.

Giotto added a little cherry gum to the mix and the Byzantine's added a little "milk of fig". This is the ancient "cera colla' paint of the Dark Ages

I would like to attribute the discovery of cera colla (new window) to Egypt and their god Ammon not to Byzantium.

Potassium carbonate or caustic lye soda, is obtained in the impure form from wood ashes, potash [+IUM], are all the same alkali. It will emulsify wax, but will remain soluble in water, hygroscopic.


There are two types of casein tempera paints, both very strong glues, casein with lime is so strong that if it's not diluted very thin with 5 parts water, it could pull an old thin coat of plaster off a lower coat. Casein sets quickly, simi-mat, and transparent, all of the pigment is exposed, making a very luminous surface. Casein should be prepared fresh daily, in small quantities instead of depending on preservatives which effect there painting qualities. Lime combines with casein or egg yolk to make a weatherproof mural paint. Use only pigments that can stand up to lye, some vegetable dyes will bleach out.

Start with fresh skim milk curd and add four times as much slaked lime to make a paste. This is the glue the wood workers use on furniture. This is also the casein lime medium, mix the pigments in some thin paste to paint with. Casein medium will emulsify egg, mastic, balsam and wax soap. Oil will emulsify also but will quickly turn yellow, stand oil is better suited.

Casein powder is available in two types, pure dried curd, which is insoluble in water but is soluble in ammonia and mono ammonium caseinate, which will dissolve in water. If it chunks up because it's old, add some ammonia. It doesn't take much ammonia water to dissolve either fresh curd or the powdered pure curd, soak the pure powdered curd for a few hours before adding the ammonia. 1/5 its volume over moderate heat will cause the effervescent reaction. When the reaction resides the casein will be in a colloidal state, stir it until it's cool. Casein is still strong when it's water thin.

Thin a shellac size to apply an intermediate sealing coat to a casein painting or it will soak up an oil glaze like a blotter.

Tip: Casein and lead mix well together, combining this white with an oil white makes a fast drying white for water or oil, whichever has the higher concentration. Make your own with titanium white powder. Copper colors turn blue in ammonia.



Sandarac (sandracca) is a coniferous resin from the Alerce Tree of Morocco, it was probably the first permanent paint, it's a hard resin. "Sandracca" as it was called in ancient times, was the term used for paint itself. It's soluble in alcohol and oil of spike, and can be made more fluid with castor oil.
Sandracca was used as the intermediate and final varnish over tempera paintings at the time of Giotto, and as a medium by itself. Because it was harder, it was actually a superior paint than the softer mastics or oils, but with more choices, turpentine won the paint war, the people liked all the medium combinations possible with a turpentine based paint better.

Sandracca does not mix or adhere to oil, so it lost the final medium battle in the Paint Wars during the Dark Ages. I follow the Paint Wars up to today, find the term in your browsers Edit-Search & Find. Sandracca did have some early victories though, a major one was back before 1000 B.C.. The Phoenician's painted their ships of commerce with sandracca (sandarac, castor oil and red lead, all available on the southern side of the Pillars of Hercules, or Strait of Gibraltar. Just across from their city-state of Gades, in Iberia, or Farther Spain, as it was later called.

(Article Added 3-16-11) Lost city of Atlantis, swamped by tsunami, may be found.
(Reuters) (LOST CITY OF ATLANTIS) - A U.S.- led research team may have finally located the lost city of Atlantis, the legendary metropolis believed swamped by a tsunami thousands of years ago in mud flats in southern Spain. "This is the power of tsunamis," head researcher Richard Freund told Reuters.

"It is just so hard to understand that it can wipe out 60 miles inland, and that's pretty much what we're talking about," said Freund, a University of Hartford, Connecticut, professor who lead an international team searching for the true site of Atlantis.

To solve the age-old mystery, the team used a satellite photo of a suspected submerged city to find the site just north of Cadiz, Spain. There, buried in the vast marshlands of the Dona Ana Park, they believe that they pinpointed the ancient, multi-ringed dominion known as Atlantis.

The team of archeologists and geologists in 2009 and 2010 used a combination of deep-ground radar, digital mapping, and underwater technology to survey the site.

Freund's discovery in central Spain of a strange series of "memorial cities," built in Atlantis' image by its refugees after the city's likely destruction by a tsunami, gave researchers added proof and confidence, he said.
Atlantis residents who did not perish in the tsunami fled inland and built new cities there, he added.
The team's findings will be unveiled on Sunday in "Finding Atlantis," a new National Geographic Channel special.
While it is hard to know with certainty that the site in Spain in Atlantis, Freund said the "twist" of finding the memorial cities makes him confident Atlantis was buried in the mud flats on Spain's southern coast.
"We found something that no one else has ever seen before, which gives it a layer of credibility, especially for archeology, that makes a lot more sense," Freund said.

Greek philosopher Plato wrote about Atlantis some 2,600 years ago, describing it as "an island situated in front of the straits which are by you called the Pillars of Hercules," as the Straits of Gibraltar were known in antiquity. Using Plato's detailed account of Atlantis as a map, searches have focused on the Mediterranean and Atlantic as the best possible sites for the city.

Tsunamis in the region have been documented for centuries, Freund says. One of the largest was a reported 10-story tidal wave that slammed Lisbon in November, 1755.

Debate about whether Atlantis truly existed has lasted for thousands of years. Plato's "dialogues" from around 360 B.C. are the only known historical sources of information about the iconic city. Plato said the island he called Atlantis "in a single day and night... disappeared into the depths of the sea."

Experts plan further excavations are planned at the site where they believe Atlantis is located and at the mysterious "cities" in central Spain 150 miles away to more closely study geological formations and to date artifacts. (Article End)

Chapter 8
B.C. Mediterranean Civilizations, Aegean Sea, Phoenicia, Greece, Macedonia, Mesopotamia, Italy, Thrace, Germany


8-1, INDEX OF PAGES 8-2, ART ADVANCES IN B.C. CIVILIZATIONS  8-3, EGYPT, 8000 B.C. to 500 B.C.  8-6, AEGEAN, 7000 B.C. to 1000 B.C.  8-7, PHOENICIA, 7000 B.C. to 600 B.C.  8-9, GREECE, 2000 B.C. to 410 B.C.  8-12, MACEDONIA, 356 B.C. to 100 B.C.  8-13, MESOPOTAMIA, 7000 B.C. to 701 B.C.  8-16, ITALY, 500 B.C. to A/D 476  8-18, THRACE, A/D 500 to A/D 867  8-20, GERMANY, A/D 960 to A/D 1100


ONE MILLION B.C., People were sparsely covering the earth, moving in tribes and gathering where important resources were found, Weapons were important, hard flint was found while digging caves in feldspar and clay, people gathered in these areas, England, France, Egypt and Central Africa. Over a hundred thousand people were walking around at any one time. Salt was found and traded. Egypt was settled from the top with the Nubian's coming over the mountains from Central Africa and the salt traders moving up to lush cool land on the upper Nile.

100,000 B.C., Rivers were important too, people found the Niger River with perfect weather. Have you ever heard of Timbuktu? There it is in the middle of Africa. The Congo River was settled, and Lake Victoria must have been "The Garden of Eden", it connected to the Upper Nile. The Tigris and Euphrates River Valley drew a crowd, as well as India's Indus and Ganges Rivers. The Mekong and the Thailand region got its share too, but inland China got more, with the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers.

30,000 B.C., A lot of people came and went by now, over thirty six billion people so far, all the good places were occupied by somebody.

10,000 B.C., Man had settled down to farming, raising animals, and having pets and kids.

8000 B.C., Egypt and China are working metal, China has pottery happening also, both places are into mining, for tools, weapons and pigments. When the fighting is done artists are revered, important people like to have nice things and their willing to pay for them.

6000 B.C., Eskimo's Northwest of the Hudson Bay had copper fish hooks ground from native glacial copper.

There's enough people in each area now to develop cultures, we'll start with Egypt, the Mediterranean, and include the Tigris-Euphrates Valley, since they had the highest developed cultures at the time.

8000 B.C., EGYPT The Nile flooded annually and left behind fertile farm land for crops, water wheels moved water around since there was no rain. Early surveying established boundaries, since the Nile left no landmarks. On the Lower Nile where there were no trees, reeds made forms, to be filled with clay as building columns. Above the 6th cataract, boats traveled up and down, to Lake Albert and into Lake Victoria. The cataracts separated groups of people and Egypt had full control of the Nile below the 1st cataract.

5000 B.C., An estimated 500,000 people were alive in Egypt, by now they were casting copper and mining these minerals; gold, silver, agate, carnelian, chrysoprase, jasper, rock crystal, turquoise, olivine, chrysocolla, green feldspar, jade, green fluorite, malachite, azurite, galena, tin, copper, garnet, cuprite, hematite and lapis lazuli. This list grows in later periods of Egyptian history. They were the world's greatest miners, when they found a vein they followed it to the end.

4000 B.C., Egypt, Iran and Iraq are casting gold, silver and bronze. Egypt heated gypsum to make quicklime plaster of Paris, for walls and murals. An iron-nickel knife was found in a pyramid, possibly made from a meteorite.

3500 B.C., Upper and Lower Egypt are joined together, they were painting with water based mediums of gum, casein and lime. Tin was their color base. Alum was used in dying cotton and hardening lime cement.

3000 B.C., An Egyptian priest named Manetho, listed the rulers of Egypt. Big government must have started around 5000 B.C. in Thebes. The III Dynasty's capitol was in Memphis, and by then a thousand years of mastabas's had been built, preceding the pyramids built in 3000 B.C.. The Great Pyramids and Sphinx at Giza are a short distance away. The Sphinx was a portrait of Pharaoh Khafra of the IV Dynasty, the entrance passage pointed to Polaris, it was 479' high, covered with smooth polished marble, which the Roman's later took for their own buildings, An underground passage way connected the Sphinx to the Pyramid. No human structures are older then the mastaba tombs of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.

2500 B.C., Egypt's Old Kingdom had frescoes of miners, smelters, farmers and their crops, musicians, portraits, the "good life". Men were painted red-brown and the woman were all fair skinned, both had black or blond hair. Fresco were painted on flat walls or on bas-relief, the support was quick lime plaster. Their fresco pigments were calcined tin, which fired from white to yellow, orange, red and magenta. They also had madder root and karmes to deepen the magentas. Another yellow was realgar, a native crystal compound of arsenic di-sulfite, and native orpiment arsenic for the brown, orange and red transparent colors. Yellow to brown, and yellow to red were the earth ochers. Light green was crushed amazonite, dark green was crushed malachite. Other valuable crushed ores, were the dark and medium cobalt hues and cyan colored azurite. The ancient true blue ultramarine and natural cobalt. Sculpture's were done in limestone, marble, granite, basalt, quartz and diorite. All done in the perfect, lifelike, "high art" technique. Most sculptures were painted, like everything else in Egypt.

The Egyptians were big-time shipbuilders in the Old Kingdom which ended with Pepy II of the VI Dynasty, 2350 B.C., Art starts going downhill as disruptive changes start taking place.

2000 B.C. EGYPT, MIDDLE KINGDOM, Nubia produced one thousand tons of gold for Egypt.

2160-1785 B.C., The Middle Kingdom of the XI-XII Dynasties were a feudal system set up by the kings of Thebes. Art declined into chaos. The tombs were moved up river to the cliffs of Beni Hasan.

1500 B.C. Ireland, Added 2-14-9, New information; The Book Barn in Niantic, Connecticut had a volume on Irish metal work from 1500 B.C..  This came in an email from Laurie Pessemier, a long time member of the Painting on Location Forum. (new window) "Can you believe in Ireland they were making sophisticated gold objects in 1500 BC?  In fact, there is a big difference between what was produced in Eastern and Western Ireland. This sort of thing doesn't fit neatly into our concept of Western civilization."

1580 B.C., EGYPT, The Empire or New Kingdom, waged war and conquered from Nubia to Mesopotamia. The XVIII Dynasty with Ikhnaton would change from polytheism to monotheism, with Ammon as their chief god. The XX Dynasty was losing power and the Assyrian Kings captured the land. Zinc is smelted from lead.

1300 B.C., EGYPT, included Lake Moeris at the outside, twenty five miles from Memphis. Alexandria was just east of the last tributary of the Nile.

King Tutankhamen of the XVIII Dynasty had smelted iron tools, "high art" was back for a short time, they produced a lifelike 240 pound gold casting of him for his inner coffin. During this period the Egyptians are friendly toward the Greeks and influenced their architecture.

663-525 B.C., The Saite period was named for the new capitol in Sais, in the Nile delta, the XXVI Dynasty drove out the Semitic invaders, only to fall later to the Ptolemies, and than Rome.

500 B.C., EGYPT, has expanded to include a new shrine to the god Ammon, in the city of Ammonium, 200 miles east of Lake Moeris, in the middle of the Qattara Depression, 436' below sea level. Here is mined the ammonia gum and salt to supply the ancient world with a new medium, water based wax paint, cara colla/cera colla. This was the medium of the Fayum Funeral Portraits, not encaustic (hot wax). Egypt has now expanded 300 miles east of Memphis. It is now 20% bigger than China in this age of Confucius. Byzantium was half the size of the peninsula of Italy and one quarter the size of Egypt.


7000 B.C., AEGEAN, Crete is the lost and found department of the Mediterranean. The current circled Crete and dropped off lost sailors, these settlers exported wine and olive oil, became sea traders and started the Minoan Empire.

6500 B.C., Flint and copper mined at Catal Huyuk, in Asia Minor, a Turkish culture.

4000 B.C., MINOAN, Aegean Sea, the Pre-Creek, Crete civilization was awesome. The two, three or four storied Palace of Cnossus had running water, flush toilets, and the original underground beehive corbel vault, the first curved ceiling.

2000 B.C., Homer said there were ninety cities on this little unfortified island During this peak, their paintings were similar in tone to Egypt's, including the front facing eyes on profile heads. There were no large sculptures to be found on Crete. A Greek guide told me they were stolen. Crete's fresco had better shading than Egypt's, they also had 3/4 views of people in everyday scenes. Their ceramic fired paint was iron based.

By this year in history, bronze was being made all over the Mediterranean.

1000 B.C., MINOA, Red lips and eye shadow were reflecting taste's from Egypt. Woman wore bare breasted fashions, which is why probably no painting examples are to be found, they were all destroyed, as being pagan, or just stolen.

The Sumerian's taught the Minoan's how to smelt bronze from copper and tin. Lead and sandarac (Sandracca) was the protective paint. Homer mentions a red cart he saw in a courtyard, lead red.

The later Mycenaean Age on the mainland was only the afterglow of this great culture.


7000 B.C., PRE-JERICHO was big in the salt trade at the north end of the Dead Sea.

2000 B.C., PHOENICIA was on the coast between Egypt and Mesopotamia, they were merchants and had discovered how to extract silver from lead.

1200 B.C., PHOENICIA was growing into a world power via trading with it.

The oldest paints came from the oldest civilizations, they all made one kind of paint or another. Most of the known world was traveled by sea, from Africa to England to Japan. These world travelers and traders worked with the best of everything, always on the cutting edge. Painting and protecting their boats was very important. Alcohol paints were the oldest paints outside Egypt and the most used. Sandarac, (Sandracca) was mixed with lead paint and castor oil, it was the best for their boats. They got the materials from Morocco in north Africa.

Lead corrodes with acids and forms oxides, when heated they turn from white to yellow, to orange and then red. They painted their ships of commerce this bright red and the whole world looked forward to seeing them arrive.

"Eric the Red" had a red boat and red hair.

1100 B.C., Phoenician's built city-states at their ports of call, Gades was at the entrance to the Mediterranean, other City States were in the Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Carthage, Oea (between Cartage and Egypt), and their home port of Tyre, at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, now called Beirut.

700 B.C., Phoenicia, all the known world was shared by the Greek, Phoenicia, Etruscan and the Assyrian Empires.

600 B.C., Phoenician Empire becomes part of the New Babylonian Empire, reaching to the Persian Gulf, their empire was over.


2000 B.C., MYCENAEAN'S, from the city in Argous State on Peloponnesus Island were Pre-Greek and were a rich culture for the last thousand years, as Homer said, over a ton of gold was retrieved from the Heinrich Schliemann excavations. He was a merchant for the color indigo from India. The finest indigo was transparent cyan in color, rivaling the opaque copper cyan frit of Egypt that was distributed by the Phoenicians.

1500 B.C., The ETRUSCAN and GREEK civilizations formed about this time, equal to the EGYPTIAN MIDDLE EMPIRE, the XII Dynasty. The Etruscans used lead, iron, mercury, cobalt and arsenic colors, and the copper frits from Egypt. Turpentine, mastic, balsams, egg, wax and lime were the mediums for painting, also sandarac, (Sandracca) from Morocco. By the time Christ was born, Romans were great painters and the Greeks would be great sculptures. The Greeks were probably great painters also, but no paintings or murals survived. Pompeii and Herculaneum murals in Italy were saved by being buried with lava dust from the Vesuvius eruption in A/D 79. These painting were wax based, cera colla to be sure. Experts can't find any additives to the wax and so call it wax encaustic, but that is because the ammonia turned back to gas. It's the same with the Fayian Grave Portraits.

1100 B.C., PELOPONNESUS, the seat of this early Mycenaean, Pre-Greek civilization, is the large land that forms the southern end of the Greek peninsula. The Dorian, Ionian, and Aiolian tribes that begin occupying Peloponnesus will form the Greek civilization, and fight the Trojan War. Art diminishes and the first "Dark Age" period is upon us, artisans are working in limestone, marble and diorite, an igneous rock of plagioclase feldspar and hornblende. Their not getting much support.

1000 B.C., PELOPONNESUS Dark Ages, Homer writes the Iliad and the Odyssey, and unites the people with stories about their great god's.

All art is only abstract, the work of children who lived through the wars. Geometric forms similar to our post war abstract modern art, painting in general is on a downhill slide after the Mycenaean Age, which was also declining at the end. Very little art is to be found from this"Dark Age period of Painting" until 525 B.C.., and there only cartoon drawings without shadows, like the Egyptians with out the rigorous formality of positions. Perhaps this is a great step forward.

900 B.C., GREECE is smelting bronze, It's now all one big happy, united peninsula.

700 B.C., Clay plate ceramics of mining at Corinth, Greece are found.

600 B.C., The Temple of Hara, the Heraeum at Olympia, had wood columns which were replaced by stone in the Doric order. In Delphi, Greece, their sculptures were stiff with heavy Egyptian influence. I went there in 1963 to see the theater stadium, it was about 30 seat steps high, half way around a single tennis court in size. It was way out of the way and everything was a red-tan color.

580 B.C., Coreyra, early Corfu, at the top of the Ionian Island's chain, bas-reliefs with Egyptian influence. The "Youth from Attica" sculpture is the stiff "Apolos", or Greek-Egyptian type.

550 B.C., the "Hera of Samos" looks as if it were cut from a tree, very massive.

500 B.C., Cretin sculpture is more advanced with perfect lifelike figures.

500 B.C., Aegina, the large island near Athens, is reaching the peak in sculpturing, good movement and good proportions.

500 B.C., Berlin has a ceramic jug with realistic stylized drawing that is better then the Greeks work at the time.

470 B.C., Delphi bronze are life size, stiff and close to realistic. The Persian War's are over and Greece starts rebuilding. They will be the next rulers of the Persian Empire.

460 B.C., Percles is in power, the second Temple of Hera is built at Paestum, it's 80' wide and it's also called the Temple of Posidon. Located in Southern Italy, it looks like an early Parthenon, Doric in style, with salt water cured wax painted blue and red on at least the moldings. The other order of architecture to emerge from the "dark Ages" is Ionic, a more elaborate and decorated style, which was popular on the more advanced Aegean Islands.

"Zeus" the poured bronze sculpture was larger than life and perfect. They told me in Greece it was really a sculpture of Posidon and probably stolen from Crete. Myron, made perfect "High Art" bronzes as seen from the Roman copy of "The Discus Thrower".

440 B.C., Doric Parthenon, 101' wide, 228' long, created by the Greek architects Ictinus and Callicrates, it was Athena's Temple, built on the highest of Athens three hills. It was made from the best pentelic marble, Phidias was the master sculpture. Polygnotus was their greatest painter, working in wax and mastic. All of his paintings have vanished. Polyclitus proportioned the body seven heads high, close but ...

410 B.C., Ionic Erechtheum, straight fluted pillars on the back and the Porch of the Maidens in front.


356 B.C., ALEXANDER'S EMPIRE. Macedon or Macedonia was just north of and almost as big in 450 B.C., as all of Greece, of which he unified most of in his conquests.

His Empire was so big, how big? It started across from the heal of Italy, the Etruscans were the third largest land holding empire at that time, from that point on to India, including Egypt, that's big. It combined the Aegean, Egyptian, and Phoenician Cultures, and the Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia to the end of the Tigris-Euphrates in the Persian Gulf. Than, that distance again to the Indian cultures, up to and including the Indus River. This was too big to control and it ended after only thirteen years.

323 B.C., MACEDONIA-GREECE, Aristotle, pupil of Plato, the world of science, author of the "Republic" and "The Poetics", tutor to Alexander and inventor of his glass diving bell.

300 B.C., Eratosthenes measured accurately the size of the earth. Euclid developed his theorems of geometry and Archimedes discovered the principle of specific gravity.

The Corinthian capitol was designed for the Temple of Apollo at Bassae. Three sculptors were famous at this time, Praxiteles, Scopas and Lysippus, who was a court portraitists for Alexander the Great. Lysippus changed Polyclitus's body-head ratio from 1:7, to 1:8. I found perfect average human proportions (new window) to be adding a quarter head between the two joining heads in the eight head high human length and subtracting it from the lower torso, that puts the center of the body one quarter head above the top of the legs space instead of between the legs like Leonardo da Vinci's.

200 B.C., The "Victory of Samothrace" that we see was reconstructed from pieces. The "Dying Gaul" by Pergamum in 225 B.C., and the "Aphrodite of Melos" are all fine examples of Hellenistic sculpture. Great sculpture under Attalus I, thus forming the first school of Pergamum.

100 B.C., The Second School of Pergamum under Eumenes II, "The Boy With a Goose" by Boethus, marble, 2'9" high is "perfect high art", it's the second time man has reached this level of sculpture, absolute control of the medium and complete understanding of anatomy. Boethus may have come from the workshops in Alexandria, which Alexander helped create. The next time this stage will be reached is in 1500, with Michelangelo the sculpture and Signorelli the painter, They must have had some great paintings in 100 B.C., but none survived.


7000 B.C. MESOPOTAMIA, Camps were forming in the Fertile Crescent, 600 miles East of the Mediterranean, by 4000 B.C. they were large villages and by 3000 B.C. these non-Semitic Sumerians had city kingdoms, in Babylonia, the area was called Mesopotamia. Their art was on glazed tiles and bas-relief sculptures. Tapestries took the place of paintings.

I added this on 5-21-12, I found it while researching Victoria Falls near where I thought the original "Garden of Eden" (new window) was.

5000 B.C. MESOPOTAMIA - Eden, Adam, and the birth of writing

   "Here in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys and in northern Arabia, where the hunter-gatherers, flooding in from less hospitable regions, were faced with more technically accomplished humans who knew how to breed and raise animals, who made distinctive pottery, who seemed inclined to cluster in settled groups. Who were these people? Zarins believes they were a southern Mesopotamian group and culture now called the Ubaid. They founded the oldest of the southern Mesopotamian cities, Eridu, about 5000 B.C. Though Eridu, and other cities like Ur and Uruk, were discovered a century ago, the Ubaidian presence down along the coast of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia has been known for little more than a decade, when vestiges of their settlements, graves and distinctive pottery turned up.
   It was in Saudi Arabia that Zarins encountered the Ubaidians, and there that he began developing his hypothesis about the true meaning of the Biblical Eden. One clue lies in linguistics: the term Eden, or Edin, appears first in Sumer, the Mesopotamian region that produced the world's first written language. This was in the third millennium B.C., more than three thousand years after the rise of the Ubaid culture. In Sumerian the word "Eden" meant simply "fertile plein." The word "Adam" also existed in cuneiform, meaning something like "settlement on the plein." Although both words were set down first in Sumerian, along with place names like Ur and Uruk, they are not Sumerian in origin. They are older. A brilliant Assyriologist named Benno Landsberger advanced the theory in 1943 that these names were all linguistic remnants of a pre-Sumerian people who had already named rivers, cities-and even some specific trades like potter and coppersmith before the Sumerians appeared.
   Landsberger called the pre-Sumerian language simply Proto-Euphratian. Other scholars suggest that its speakers were the Ubaidians. However it was, the existing names were incorporated into Sumerian and written down for the first time. And the mythology of the lush and lovely spot called Eden was codified by being written."

3000 B.C., MESOPOTAMIA, Mesopotamia has fully developed palaces and mansions, a grain and wool trade, and had developed the first form of writing called, cuneiform. With a single wedge shaped stick they made an entire alphabet and counting system on clay, that's the basis for all Western written languages today. The Sumerian's had 200 words for different kinds of sheep. Their art was also based on clay, as stone was as rare as wood. These non-Semitic Sumerians and Semitic Akkadians, were warring people, with the balance of power shifting back and forth in Sumer.

The sculpture was heading to realism in 2400 B.C., it never made it and went downhill after that.

2300 B.C., MESOPOTAMIA, Sumer is conquered by the Arab Semites who start Babylon in 1800 B.C., north of Sumer.

800 B.C., MESOPOTAMIA, bas-relief looks Egyptian with stiff poses and frontal eyes on the profile.

705 B.C., MESOPOTAMIA, The Palace of Sargon, at Khorsabad, was honeycombed with arches and drains, glazed tiles protected unfired clay brick walls. The temple tower was oriented like the pyramids, it was seven stories high with a ramp around the outside, leading to the top. Each level was a different color tile with white at the bottom, than black, scarlet, blue, orange, silver and gold at the top. This is where I first surmised the top of the Great Pyramid was capped with gold. From the top of the temple one could see for twenty miles in each direction, no trees, no hills.

This Sumerian, Assyrian, Palace was fortified and raised sixty feet off the ground, 1140' x 1050'. That's a lot of brick to make and set, and a lot of slaves to do the work. There were no wood beams to be had, so the ceilings were domed brick, the cavities filled in, and a flat roof on top. Great rugs and tapestries covered the walls and floors. Sculpture followed an Oriental and Egyptian line, monsters of stone guarded the entrances. People were stiff as in later Egyptian work. Bas-relief wall sculptures covered the interior walls of important rooms.

Persia ultimately conquered Mesopotamia in 590 B.C..


500 B.C., ETRUNIA, Pre-Roman Etruscan art was influenced by Greek art, mostly humans with simple landscapes and flowers. They used the colors of Egypt but were not as far advanced as Egypt or Crete.

Palermo bas-reliefs are stiff in the Egyptian style. Naples has better drapery, more flowing and less stiffness.

146 B.C., ROME conquers Greece. There was a new king now, that other one third of the Mediterranean, Etrunia, had grown into the Roman Empire. This was the time of Caesar, 44 B.C.. They paid big money for the best of the Greek artists to decorate their great vacation paradise, Naples.
   The other great Mediterranean vacation city was Alexandria, Egypt. Greek artists and Egyptian artists taught school there. Roman artists would come to study and be great artists themselves in a hundred years. 10 B.C., The statue of Agustus from Prima Porta is a good example of great Roman work, after Greece.

100 B.C., HERCULANEUM and POMPEII, high art painting, natural and realistic, fresco figures show solid form without resorting to outlines. Pompeii has a lot of great glue paintings protected by wax, there not encaustic as some historians believe. Cara Colla painting with emulsified wax was also popular. Tight work was not done with hot encaustic wax. Art will become scarce again, destroyed for the second Dark Age of painting after the Vesuvius eruption in A/D 79, until its resurrected by Cimabue, in A/D 1300, Giotto, Duccio and finally, the great Masaccio, a hundred years later in 1420. Twelve hundred years of work, destroyed by the Iconoclasts of A/D 842.

A/D 100, Roman vaulted architecture, the Pantheon and Coliseum. The Roman Empire includes from England to Morocco, over to Egypt, Mesopotamia, Armenia and up to Germania.

A/D 200, Roman Baths of Caracalla, high vaulted.

A/D 400, Christianity was an oriental cult in Rome, with "mithrac" the Persian sun god being important, but Christianity prevailed. The Apse Mosaic, Santa Pudenziana, Rome, was fired colored glass of a somber nature, grays, green and umber.

A/D 476, The Last Roman Emperors, are displaced by German soldiers. The Han Empire of China is breaking up. India is being sacked by nomadic invaders. Everything was in regression except East Rome, the Byzantine Empire with their mosaics, wax and mastic and egg painting. They would be the premier artists until Giotto came aboard. Two art periods arose, one before the Iconoclastic Controversy which destroyed most pagan art and one after the victory of the Pro-image Party in 842. Most of the Byzantine art that remains are mosaics in churches. Byzantine was captured by the Turks in 1453.


A/D 500 CONSTANTINOPLE, Hagia Sophia, four pendentive pillars hold up the dome. A great architectural achievement by Justinian, successor to Rome in the sixth century. This is the First Golden Age of Byzantine, it will end with the Iconoclastic controversy of the ninth century.

A/D 600 ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS, The transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages, still in the second dark age period, art is nowhere yet. The monasteries are the only places any painting is being done, they are the decorated manuscripts that persist for another five hundred years. Painting in books is a little like the Chinese are doing at this time, by painting on scrolls and putting them in boxes.

A/D 700 CONSTANTINOPLE, The Lucca Manuscript describes some little known forms of art, one called Pictura Translucida. (new window) A big loss in the Paint Wars. At this time when artists were making paintings more beautiful then ever seen today. They had not only a complete opaque palette, but a compleat transparent palette as well. By todays standards the colors were not as permanent as todays pigments though. They made a halo or face glow by adding reflectance to the surface support.

They, the Byzantines, painted on a shinny tin plate. To give you an idea of how this works, raw sandracca resin can have a yellow transparent color, and when painted on shinny tin it gives the appearance of gold. Sandracca can be made clear and has a very hard finish. Sandracca uses alcohol, lavender oil and castor oil as it's thinner and plasticsizer to change the painting viscosity.

However this Sandracca resin pitch medium would not mix with resin pitch turpentine mediums, just as another popular medium of the time would not mix with turpentine, Cara Colla. The Paint Wars were now including mediums as well as pigment bases. Cera Colla was Egypt's wax and ammonia medium that was better suited to painting murals as it was softer, glossie, painted easily and was weather proof. This medium is erroneously sometimes called encaustic painting, when the ammonia evaporates it leaves behind only the wax, as in encaustic, which is the hot process of applying wax. The Vesuvius paintings were Cera Colla not encaustic.
Pigmented wax in turpentine cakes as a media came later from the northern side of the Mediterranean.

The turpentine based media that were used in  Pictura Translucida or picturatranslucida, on polished tin were before oil was added to paint. This was before Cennini, in the Dark Ages of Greece. Some of these mediums that dissolve in turpentine would also dissolve in alcohol. Wax, would not dissolve in alcohol but would dissolve in turpentine, and so was used with these pitch resin oil varnishes; Levantine Mastic, Chian Mastic, Copal and Amber. Wax imparts the flowing quality to turpentine based paints just as Castor Oil does to Sandracca paint. These were the mediums used to paint Pictura Translucida paintings on tin mirrors.

Here is an example of a Pictura Translucida (new window) transparent painting.

I really enjoy the added thrill in planning the choice of painting opaque or transparent passages of color. Whether or not I would work a passage to reflect back light if the light source had it right angle.

Here is a tip if you are going to try painting in this style on a shinny support such as Silver, zinc, tin, aluminum, chrome or silver colored plastic. A mirror will not work as the clear glass has thickness. Treat the unpainted areas as a dark color. Use Opaque white as highlights.

They did have some advantages back then, their lead whites were hand ground thicker and courser so they painted more opaque and dried faster. Also they had their favorite color, Naples Yellow in tints from a cooler green-side pale yellow-brown, to a warmer yellow red-side. Higher calcined antimony lead colors were lightest. They also had a popular light yellow color called Lead-tin yellow which isn't as opaque as antimony lead.

Here are the names and brands of transparent colors I have used with great satisfaction.

Mussini Burnt Umber, Mussini Burnt Sienna, Blockx Transparent Yellow, Old Holland Indian Yellow-Brown Lake Extra, Old Holland Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra, Old Holland Gamboge Lake Extra, Rembrandt Rose, Quinacridone Magenta, Rembrandt Ultramarine Violet, Liquitex Dioxine Violet, Blockx Ultramarine Blue, Grumbacher Thalo Blue, Rembrandt Blue Green and Thalo Green. With these transparent colors it is possible to make the deepest darks.

Another 200 A/D medium written about in 700 A/D. medium was called "cera colla" (new window) or "cara colla", which is emulsified wax. Bees wax from the "Honey Mountain" in Greece, emulsified with ammonia from the city of Ammonium, in Egypt. The Egyptian's painted their walls with it, buff it up and it would radiate reflecting light, passageways would glow with this ammonia and water based wax paint. Casein can be added to this water based medium to make it hard. Other mediums he talked about were, stic-lac and borax mixed, this made an India water-based paint, gilding gums, alum, as used in dyeing, egg and wax emulsions, and the exceptional Chios resin paintings. None of these paintings survived either.

Heraclius also wrote about art at this time, he wrote about oil paints, and egg white plus alum, for miniature painting.

A/D 867 CONSTANTINOPLE, Under Basil I in 867, their Second Golden Age starts and the "Dark Ages" are over. So is the Second Golden Age after the capture of Constantinople by the Forth Crusade in 1204. This new Latin kingdom only lasted fifty years or so and left way for the Byzantine Renaissance which only produced more mosaics with an even stiffer style and more churches. Their art and architecture did influence Russia and Rome though, because they were just spinning their wheels at the time.

Other parts of the world were doing better, India was traveling at warp speed and I've got a little to say about the Tang period in China also.


A/D 960, OTTONIAN, The near end of this period comes with the "Ottonian golden century" 960-1060, under Otto the Great of Germany, painting pictures is resumed, icons on board, but the quality was dismal, Icons continued in Russia until 1600.

A/D 1100, ROMANESQUE, Wall painting are the final stage of Antique art, the "Second Dark Age". The Early Middle Ages has already started. These fresco were done in a crude cartoon style but lead the way toward the early Gothic paintings. Nowhere near what we left a thousand years ago. Giotto is really the first sunny day, in 1300, Italy.

Chapter 8a
B.C. Persia, India

ART ADVANCES, 4000 B.C. to 1670 A/D


4000 B.C. PERSIA, Later called Iran, the land between the Tigris and Euphrates river, and to the east of it to the Indus River in India. Susa, to the east of the Euphrates, on a tributary of the river, is were the earliest pottery and signs of life were found. Flint, stone and clay, that's what they were made of. As always, natural resources are important to any starting culture.

2700 B.C., PERSIA, is in the Bronze Age and raising horses. The bridle ornaments, weapons and jewelry show an early connection to the Far East. These designs are present up to the ninth century.

900 B.C., The Sanskrit language and the caste system came from an invasion into the area by Aryan people of the North East. These ideas left their mark here and in north India, where they also settled.

750 B.C., The Scyths, or Iranian race, conquered the Cimmerians, north of the Black Sea. The Sarmatians in turn conquered them in the forth century B.C.. Their predatory and killing nature lead the Greeks to calling them complete barbarians. Their art is referred to as "Animal-Style Art", creatures of the herd and hunt.

612 B.C., The Medes Scyths destroyed the Assyrian Empire and were in turn destroyed by the Achaemenid Empire of Cyrus.

550 B.C.. It included from Lydia south of the Black Sea to the Indus River, Egypt, and the Babylonian Empire. Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius, and Xerxes built that empire. Xerxes's tomb was carved on the cliffs above the Iranian pleins, like the Egyptians, only with side view torsos and a fire alter representing their god, Ahura Mazda.

Cyrus had a free standing sarcophagus of stone blocks, seven steps high. The palaces at Susa and Persepolis were much more grand in style, naturally they were built by slaves. The work took one hundred and fifty years and Alexander the Great turned it to rubble. He had the same ideas that Sherman had on his march through our south. Xerxes had an audience hall that could hold ten thousand people, made of sun dried brick, 15 feet thick, and a ceiling 60 feet high. The carvings are more realistic than Egypt's, full profiles mostly, the animals show much more action. The palace at Susa had columns with double bulls on top with twice as many flutes as the Greeks would have.

323-250 B.C., The Seleucid period. Alexander destroyed Iran.

200 B.C., Mongolian textiles from graves of this period and Persian rugs of the sixteenth century have similar patterns of twisted, grotesque animals. They wore woven peaked hats with ear flaps and leather pants, appropriate for horse riding on the windy steppes of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea.

250 B.C.-A/D 226, The Parthian period, traders of silk between the Romans and the Chinese, money making mongrels.

A/D 226-642, Sassanian Dynasty, their first palace was built at Ctesiphon out of solid rock, Mesopotamia. It was classed as one of the wonders of the world, they also had tombs carved into the cliffs. The artist worked sculpture, metal, textile weaving and architecture, no paintings. The pointed arch was developed and bricks were set with gypsum cement. Their carpets were world famous, the most famous is called the "Springtime of Chosroes".

A/D 276-293, Bahram II, developed chain mail armor that would be the rage of Europe a thousand years later.

A/D 570, Mohammed was born in Mecca, taught monotheism and was forced to leave. His arrival at Medina in 662 marks the beginning of the Muslem calendar. Praise be to allah, Arabia was unified politically. In the eighth century the capitol was moved to Baghdad from Damascus. The mosque was their first concern, built by Byzantium architects who were brought in to do the job right. Towers, called minarets, were erected to call the faithful.

As Sassanian power was overthrown, Islam spread through the land and Iran became a stronghold of Mohammedanism. The ceramic artist and the architect built together in white, yellow, blue and rose, from Persia to Turkestan.

A/D 1010, The Book of Kings, illuminated scriptures.

A/D 1258, Baghdad was destroyed by the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Khans. Illustrations combined the Persian and Chinese styles, not much to work with but their working at it. It's a primitive style.

A/D 1369, Tamerlane of Turkey conquers all, and the Master of Miniatures is painting in Iran, painting legends of the past. He still uses the cartoon line, but he brought illustration up to the level of the calligrapher at least.

Art goes no farther around here so we move over to India with their textiles and carpets.


4000 B.C. NEOLITHIC, Pottery and weapons were found at Amri, the first city on the Indus River.

If Ancient India were the face of a clock, the Indus River would be 10:00, Old and New Delhi are at 12:00 and touched by the Ganges River on the other side top right, at 2:00. The Kistna River would be lower east at 4:00, Ceylon is an island about two hundred miles long and one hundred wide at 5:30, the Waghora River is at 9:00 just above the city of Bombay. Civilizations start on the major rivers or islands.

3000 B.C. INDUS RIVER, The Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa excavations in the Indus Valley show contact with Mesopotamia, which had fully developed palaces and mansions by now. In Egypt the pyramids at Gizeh have been built, and on Crete the Minoan civilization is in its top form.

Mohenjo-Daro is a great city also, some thirty acres in size, with streets running north, south, east and west. Houses were made of fired brick of a better quality than Mesopotamia, they had more wood to burn and had hotter kilns. Separate bathrooms in the homes were connected to sewers under the side streets, as tall as a man. In the center of town was a well fed bathing pool, cleanliness was number one, I like that. Their sculpture was at a high standard, anatomically correct with complete control of the medium, as the Torso from Harappa shows.

These are a phallus-worshiping people with a mother goddess. They had clay toys of animals, not combat symbols. Harappa had 35,000 people by 2300 B.C..

2000 B.C., India cultivated a sap eating insect that secreted an alcohol soluble stick-lac or lac, or shellac paint. By adding borax from Tibet it became a water-soluble permanent red paint. Boiling removed the crimson to magenta color, adding alum made it a dye. Madder root made a similar color without the shellac. Colored resins from the sap of trees and boiled roots from as far away as Singapore made red, crimson and yellow dyes. Insects and insect secretions made the brightest and dearest magenta dyes. I think "Imperial Yellow" and "Mandarin Yellow" were made from Monghyr puree, named after a city in Bengal. Other yellows were made from weld family vines and rhubarb leaves, tea leaves made nice tans. Transparent Cyan Blue was a major cultivated trade product, made from the leaves of a plant they grew. Tapestries and rugs were colored with these dyes. Mordants of alum or metal bases were used, the Poplar and Tamarisk tree barks, pomegranate husks and grape leaves worked as mordants also, all giving a different color. Cotton and wool textiles, rugs, dyes and pigments were big export products.

Morocco and China used the alcohol based sap of a tree as paint. Malaysia had the best turpentine based damar mastic, but no one used it yet, they used the soft copals that were alcohol based. Greece and Italy were going to be happy with Chian or Levantine mastic from the island of Chios. Chian mastic also dissolves partly in alcohol, Batavia damar desolves completely. Thus the Paint Wars continue.

Damar mastic resin is from the damar fir, Chios or Lavantine mastic resin from the pistachia tree, Bombay Mastic etc., and the ancient oleoresin are soft resins, damar makes the best natural picture varnish because it is the hardest of the soft. It keeps oils from wrinkling and forming a skin, and is soluble in mineral spirits. Any mastic resin added to oil paints permit painting layers in rapid succession, oil paint without damar must be completely dry before a second coat is applied, or it will chip off.

Egypt had the best linen and cotton, but didn't do rugs or windows, their pigments were solids not dyes, except for some reds.

1500 B.C., Priests were singing hymns from the "Vedas" and later from the "Brahmanas", and around 1000 B.C., the philosophical "Upanishads". These were to become the basis for the three religions of India, Hindu, Jain and Buddhist.

1200 B.C., The Aryan invasion came from Iran and North, they took the place apart and added a new class of people to the castes system, the surfs.

612 B.C., The Achaemenids civilization of Persia is the largest and most important in the world.

500 B.C., Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes rule from the Mediterranean to India. They built great palaces in the middle area, at Persepolis.

500 B.C., Mahavira founded the Jain sect, Gautama became the Buddha, as Prince Kapilavastu of Nepal he became enlightened by resisting the demon Mara and his daughters. He was buried in a stone mound 54' high called Stupa No. 1. Asoka, a king in the Maurya Dynasty urged more followers with large inscribed pillars, one was topped with four carved stylized lions in sandstone. Religious merit could be gained by walking around the pillar. Missionaries were sent to Ceylon, Burma and the East Indies with this type of symbolic art. Formulas were developed for making monuments and images that trained carver's could reproduce. Every body was a good carver, they were on an upswing and approaching high art standards again.

323 B.C., Alexander the Great destroyed all of Persia.

323 B.C., Alexander the Great added the Graeco-Roman influence to India, artists became more independent in style while the religious dominance was wetted down some. Most of their great art was destroyed, either by Alexander or later by the Moslems.

200 B.C., In the western region at Ajanta, near Bombay on the Waghora River, people lived in the jungles hiding-out from invaders. They dug caves near the river, not ordinary caves, these were carved and painted caves. The painting fresco on the walls started around 200 B.C., the work still there was done about A/D 400, in the Gupta period. They were fresco secco paintings in blue lapis and azurite, pearl whites, crimsons, brown ochers and green malachite, in a fresco smoothed, 60' x 60' cave room.

They really believed that men were beautiful too, not like their face scarring neighbors and intruders, the Aryan's in 900 B.C., the Scyth's in 700 B.C., and East Asiatic's in 400 B.C.., Alexander was just the last straw.

100 B.C., Ceylon was relatively unscathed since the third century B.C. and principally Buddhist, they built a city at least eight miles in diameter. This was their capitol in Anuradhapura, trading with Greece and Rome, they were their equals in grandeur. Red, yellow and green were the main painting colors, with little brown or blue, painting just never was their thing.

180 B.C., Farther inland from Bombay and Karli there's an interior called "Chaitya Hall". They carved a large temple room in living rock, 125' long and 50' high, a very intricate and repetitive interior. A small version of the stupa at the back the temple was there for people to gain merit, by walking around it. These are gentle people, followers of the Good Law of the Compassionate One.

Religion was making great artists by giving people time to paint and sculpture, everybody likes to have their work appreciated. The best India artists were alive now, supported by holy families and monasteries in different regions.

At the same time on the Ganges River, parallel developments were taking place, at Mathura and Mattra in the Indus Valley they carved in red sandstone.

The best preserved work is where the invaders were least, at the Kistna River at Amaravari. They worked in a green marble that was a pleasure to carve, and kept high standards until the Gupta kings in 320, who ruled the Aryan north, formed the classical style and drew the artists into developing a new easier image to copy, a dumbing down as it were.

A/D 100, In the battle areas, figures were losing their fine quality of definition and going back to the more mass produced symbolic style.

242 A/D, Persia was back in power and defeated the Roman emperor Valerian. Sassanian palaces were grand, a typical one at Ctesiphone, Mesopotamia, was classed as one of the wonders of the world. It had pointed arches, an original innovation of the time, a barrel vault with a span of 84' that runs through the center of the building. Gypsum mortar held the bricks and smoothed the outside painted surfaces.

These were great warriors, now was the time and the place "chain mail" armor was invented.

A/D 400. Many mold-made fresco mortar plaster casts of figures were found in the ruins of Hadda.

A/D 400. Java Island is farther out in the East Indies, they based their art and architecture on India. A 100 foot high monument was made on the Dieng Plateau, you could walk and worship up the circling path, past 1000 panels of reliefs. This would be three miles of sculpture if placed end to end, they could make the figure do anything. These people included Cambodia under Jayavarman II, and raised art another notch in realism but never left their religious symbolism.

A/D 600, Near Ajanta in Elura, the three sects, Buddhist, Jain, and Brahman carved out of solid living rock, a temple city. Two hundred feet deep, that's two hundred feet straight down, where you walk around, talk about a relief carving! This is one of the "Wonder Cities" of the ancient world, ranking with the Palace of Cnossus, the Aegean Pre-Greek city, in 4000 B.C.., the Great Pyramids of Gizeh in Egypt from 4000-3000 B.C., Alexander's Mesopotamian palaces in 3000 B.C., the Acropolis of Greece in 440 B.C.. and the Sassanian Palaces of Mesopotamia that were still great at this time.

All the cities of the greatest cultures at their peak periods. These carved four story buildings were to be lived and prayed in, carved out of solid rock, there still standing today.

700 A/D, Another hidden grand temple was carved in subterranean caverns on an island in Bombay harbor.

700 A/D, Ceylon had buildings twelve stories high, sculpture was massive

800 A/D, The tower is becoming increasingly important in the Ganges Valley. Greece is still in the Dark Ages at this time.

1000 A/D, In southwest India, the tower to Siva is 216 feet high built without mortar, the crowning stone carving weighed 80 tons and was pushed up a ramp 4 miles long by elephants.

1200 A/D, The Tai people from southwest China establish the Siamese style, curving roof lines and fancifulness that make Bangkok synonymous with the East.

1300 A/D, Tibet, here India and China met, in art and religion.

1555 A/D, Buildings were big but paintings were getting smaller, Persian influence in calligraphy and illumination in book making was the fashion but India was a little behind in their painting skills.

1600 A/D, Here in Delhi, India, the Moslems are slowly taking over, by the 1600's they controlled most of India. Their influence shows in the Taj Mahall.

1670 A/D, India's artwork was getting closer to the Flemish standard of the time, when a new Muslem in control decreed portraits were a sin. Cottons were stamped or printed with Hindu and Persian motifs for export.

Chapter 8b
B.C. to A/D, China's Dynasties

ART ADVANCES, 8000 B.C. to 1912 A/D


8000 B.C., China tribes were already settling and civilization had began its development on the Yellow River plein, at the Delta, where Peking is now. The same latitude as Trenton, New Jersey, where I was born. This plein extends a thousand miles down to Shanghai.

About the same time farming started and domestic dogs and pigs were kept. Grain was the first harvest of these peaceful Hsia people, just like Egypt at this time, but with a lot less people and a little cooler. They also had pictograph writing.

5000 B.C., Egypt starts smelting bronze and building pyramids.

4000 B.C., China, water and lacquer paints were developed, the water based was fired on clay, the Ning-Po lacquer from the Rhus Vernicflua tree, was painted on wood. Lacquer was the current leader in the Paint Wars, in this area.

Egypt made water, wax and lime paints, France and Spain made turpentine and mastic paints, Morocco made an alcohol based paint called sandracca (sandarac), from a tree sap. India made dyes and lacquers from trees and scrubs that were alcohol based. Alcohol paints were winning in the Paint Wars, and would stay the leader for three thousand years.

3500 B.C., China, many different kinds of clay were available, by this time white clay was rated the best, this clay rivaled the great kaolin clay from the opposite side of the known world, England. Flint was found in these clay mines, the Chinese were to become great miners, but never as great as the Egyptians.


2000 B.C., High quality carving in bone, ivory, jade and marble were found from the Shang-Yin period, bronze was cast in molds, big time. This period was based at Anyang, Honan, the heart of china on the old Ho River. It was to be a feudal society of kings and nobles. Fine silks were already cultivated from the silkworm "Bombyx mori". Tapestry rugs of wool and felt were an advanced art, the best wool coming from the Kansu region of Tibet. Eight colors on one rug, rose, red which turned to tan, three blues, golden yellow, brown and orange. Egypt was into painting murals on walls, China would be covering the walls with tapestry.

Cotton and dyes were imported from India, wool and felt were imported from Mongolia. Artists were painting in water based colors on silk, the bronze casters were the best in the world, ordinary household items were made of bronze with pride, in design and quality.


1122 B.C., Anyang was destroyed by the Chou people of the west, they started a dynasty that would last until 256 B.C.. They wrote "The Book of Changes", which included the Yang, or the active and the Yin the passive, represented by long and short lines, or a circle divided by a wave line, colored red for Yang and black for Yin.

722 B.C., Confucius, believed the good life would come only to those who fulfilled all their moral obligations to the state, community and the family. Nice guy, he came about the same time as Homer, and was just as important. Art and bronze work were at the bottom of the pendulum's swing, the wars were over, people were again working in the arts, it would improve until a western warring state took them over, the mighty Ch'in.

The simple Taoist priests at this time who started a movement to simplify life would become a cult of magic that practiced alchemy by the end of the Han Dynasty.


249 B.C., The head of the Ch'in family became the first emperor of China, he started the "Great Wall" and building canals. Heavy taxes made him unpopular and the Han Dynasty took over.


207 B.C., The Han Dynasty lasts until A/D 220. We have a good record of the Han, one reason was the custom of burying clay figurines with the dead, representing the times. These were good times, silk was traded with Rome. The arts were flourishing, Ning-Po lacquers on wood, mass cinnabar was carved, a luminescent green fluorite was carved into bowls and cups. Bronze, silk, and fine china, were glazed in colors never seen before, cobalt and zinc were at the alchemists cutting edge. Lead was the paint protector against water, red lead was also the choice of the Phoenicians for painting their boats.

Exploratory mining was big, silver was added to bronze to make black bronze. The things people do when their not at war. New pigments were found and devised, an iron black was used to dye silk for trade in the Mediterranean area. India supplied lacquer and colors until they cultivated their own tree sap lacquer. Paintings and portraits were hung in their homes. Their homes were like later pagodas, three or four stories high.

They never got very far in architecture, they only had wood to work with, lots of clay though, nice tile roofs.

It seems like similar minerals and materials are found on opposite sides of the continent.


A/D 317-589, All of northern China was overrun by Tatar tribes.


A/D 589-618, Buddhism was dominant, 3,792 new temples were being built, sculpturing reached the high standards again and things were looking good.


A/D 618-907, T'ang T'ai-tsung defeated the Turks who tried to take Ch'ang-an. Ch'ang-an was on the other side of the Yellow River from Anyang. These weren't the European Turkish, but the Eastern Turkestan people of the oasis. Basically, Eastern Turkestan is a drainage less basin surrounded by high mountains. The central portion of this vast area is the arid Takla Makan Desert, where rivers disappear into salt marshes. Both north and south of the desert are a series of oases that are the backbone of the trade routes linking China with the West and India. These oasis cities were Buddhist communities, all patrons of art, making countless images in clay as stone was scarce. Fresco were painted in the Indian tradition, with some changes. Ajanta shading was now band after band of solid color. White and black jade were prized by the Chinese and found along the southern oasis route.

Art stayed on the high road, hundreds of artists were hired to paint the Buddhist grottoes and sanctuaries, lacquered objects and pottery, scrolls, portraits, all showed good brush work. The Chinese style of brush work, ink on silk, with very little color, the "good brush" it was called.

The canons written by Hsieh Ho gave directions on painting great paintings, the poet-painters followed, departing from religious themes. The religious painters were adding new colors to their interpretations.


A/D 960-1279, One of the emperors, Hui-tsung, became a poet painter and started the Academy of Artists, with a special insignia and all. Competitors worked on idea projects of the emperor and were rewarded for ingenuity and style. He was killed by the Golden Tartars who made their capital in Peking. The poet-painters moved south and kept working. China's greatest works were now to be done in the simplest strokes. Scrolls were big, 10, 20, 30" long and 1 or 2 feet high, religion was out of the picture, story telling was in. Pottery was at a high point also, higher than it had ever been before, crackle glaze was new and well controlled.


A/D 1234-1294, The Mongol invasion ended the Southern Sung dynasty of artists, but the artists were not at war so their excellence continued. Genghis Khan, the Mongol captured all of China, up to and including the Black Sea and Persian Gulf. At least three times bigger than Alexander's Empire. Marco Polo came through at this time, trading with the world, color and portraits were introduced to a people that were just now reaching a "dry-brush" approach to interpretation, color and line were still at a cartoon stage, they were two or three hundred years behind Europe in some respects, especially color.

Cloisonne enamel was introduced to China, as practiced by Byzantine craftsmen, China became a great center for these highly colored vases and dishes.


A/D 1368-1644, A Buddhist monk lead the Chinese army to victory. Peking again became the capitol and the great imperial palace was built, perhaps the grandest palace in the world.

Color was added to the dry-brush, factories for porcelain were re-established and for three centuries the finest porcelain ever seen was made. Blue from imported Persian cobalt and red from copper, zinc yellow and flawless glazes. This was also the period of the famous "five-color" enameled ware, and unglazed, intricately carved, colored porcelains. Woodblock printing was a new medium used in the making of encyclopedias, religious texts and copybooks for artists.


A/D 1644-1912, The Manchus, who conquered Turkestan and Tibet, extended their rule to Indo-China, the Ch'ing dynasty would encourage artists to continue but only some porcelain ware remained showing the perfection of the past.

Chapter 8c
B.C. to A/D Japan

JAPAN, 660 B.C. to 1704 A/D

660 B.C., Three Precious Things were given to the founder of the Japan Empire, a jewel, a sword, and a mirror. That's as far back as I can find in Japan. There were people there, they used the potter's wheel and casting molds for figures and houses placed around grave sites. Bronze was also cast, thinly, like fired clay. These people believed in a female sun god, wood was the only building material, post and lintel, the only method. No paint, no decorations. A simple "torii" post and beam, marked a religious site. Korea was the chief source of arts and crafts.

200 B.C., The Han dynasty exerts some influence through Korea that is felt in bronze and Confucian ideals.

A/D 317-589, Tatar tribes overran China and built new temples to Budda, the Wei group was most active, carving grottoes in the Indian style. The Sui emperor in 589, ordered the repair of a million and a half images, a hundred thousand new ones, and four thousand new temples. This brought China to the highest sculpture standards and Japan, through Korea, became very proficient in carving, bronzing and painting, very quickly, a nonstop flight to the top.

A/D 593-646, The reigning emperor is killed and the Empress Suiko starts the first art period, the first written language and temples with priests and nuns. One of the temples, the Horyu-ji in Nara, still stands today, the oldest wooden building in the world, The Suiko period produced some of the best Nipponese sculpture, nurturing their high art standards as the wooden seated Bochisattva in the Chugu-ji Nunnery in Nara shows. Fresco were as well done as the 500 A/D Ajanta murals of India, India teachers or well trained students painted the walls of the Golden Hall of the Horyu-ji.

Another high point is the black bronze "ya kushi" in the Golden Hall. Bronze had developed from the barest knowledge to adding silver to the mix, making a superior non-tarnishing, black bronze. The best high points of art were incorporated from Sassanian Persia, India, and China. Japan was on top.

The last Roman Emperor was displaced by German soldiers in 476, the West was gone, the Byzantine Empire remained until the Turkish conquest in 1453, but art was in a tailspin. The seesaw was working.

A/D 646-710, The Hakuho period continued in the fine arts.

A/D 71 0- 794, The later Nara period was called Tempyo, these artists were modelers rather than carvers, clay and lacquer was used. Cloth dipped in lacquer was wrapped around a wooden armature and built up with more cloth and lacquer, then it was finished with colored lacquer. This was a new permanent medium, and with it Japan reached the top standards in realistic sculpture. "High art" in "dry lacquer".

A/D 794-897, The Jogan period, small religious feuds moved the capitol to Kyoto where art continued. Lacquer on wood was now decorating fine houses, a decorative, textile patterned wall paint. This wall painting was labeled 'yamato-e'. Continuous wall painting continued into continuous scrolls, the "tosa style", where a story was told on a scroll to be shown a few inches at a time. An average scroll might measure 1'4" high x 23' long, and be done in many tones with the drawing done in black. The cartoon outline was taken to new lengths by an artist named Toba Sojo, in the 12th century. In Walt Disney's style his characters were monkeys, frogs, and hares, acting like courtiers and priests. This secular art developed into the woodblock print five hundred years later.

A/D 1000, This new worldly art has a new goddess of beauty and fortune, Kichijoten, she's no longer an Indian goddess but a colorful, life-like noble lady, 3' high, with a halo.

A/D 1192, Yoritomo made himself a Shogun in Kamakura, the military took over running the country. The artists were now being paid to glorify war in the highly realistic style, Shinto, the god of war, is shown as a mild mannered monk. Unkei, perhaps Japan' s greatest sculptor is slightly before the great Claus Sluter of France. The East and West are now parallel in sculpturing although Japan doesn't have marble to work in.

A/D 1274-1281, Kubilai Khan twice tries to invade Japan but each time his fleet was destroyed by storms. The Indians and the Japanese were spared Mongol domination.

A/D 1392-1568, The Ashikaga family were the new Shoguns, ruling from Hyoto. Zen Buddhism was the favored religion and their priests controlled the art and trade of the time. The remnants of the Chinese Sung Dynasty infiltrated Japan and influenced a quieter form of art, flower arrangement and tea ceremonies were a change from the battlefields, everybody tried brush painting.

A/D 1449-1474, The eighth Sho gun, Yoshimasa, was a patron of all the arts, paintings went from scrolls to screens, still mainly black and white. Oda Toyo, 1420-1506, was a painter of merit, a Zen priest, ending the old style with great and simple strokes.

A/D 1500-1550, Screens and sliding panels for homes were done by the school called Kano, bright colors and gold leaf continued in the Tosa style.

A/D 1568-1615, The Momoyama period, civil wars and stone castles decorated with gold background screens, art was on another slide. The church and nobility ceased to be patrons. The way was left open for artists to do their own thing.

A/D 1615-1867, Painters made designs on pottery, screens and panels. The lacquer makers, porcelain manufacturers, and woodblock print makers now had the opportunity to make their work entirely Japanese in style.

A/D 1688-1704, The Genroku period was a time of great luxury, Tokyo was the new capital. The theater and the ladies of the Green Houses lived in a world of their own. Travelers came to the city and bought the woodblock print, done in black and white and then full color. By 1770, prints were made in as many as eleven blocks. Utamaro finally dispensed with the black outline and added powdered mica to the background. In 1794 Sharaku designed one hundred thirty prints of actors of the theater. These beautiful prints would influence some European artists.

Chapter 9
Cleanliness, Supports, Hemp, Brushes - Sponges - Chalk - Wipes, Accuracy of Line, Horizon Line, Triangulation, Perspective.
Four Vanishing Points, Placing the Image, Aerial Palette for 10 Concentric Rings, Reflections, Sky, Earth & Sea Grids



The first topic is cleanliness, it's a very important first block in building a painting. It's important for health reasons also, metal pigments are heavy and can't be eliminated from the body, so it's an accumulative poison. The Romans liked the taste of lead, it sweetened the water and wine.

When painting water colors, keep the water clean. If you can afford it, add a bit of ox-gall to the cleaning and mixing water, it will reduce the surface tension and increase the color flow. Wash the size off the paper with this water also.

In oil's keep your palette colors clean by mixing larger quantizes with a palette knife instead of your brush.

Cut paper towels or rags into 3 inch squares, these will be used for cleaning, and when folded into small triangles will apply paint in the early painting stages, especially when your working in oil where cleaning brushes takes time and materials. In water painting they will blot paper back to white, in the early stages. A rag and a latex glove is also recommended for spreading around the early oil paint.

Always put the tube cap back on any tube of paint right away. Keep the cap and tube clean and rolled.

Keeping your colors clean also includes the consistency of the pigment. Dependable viscosity will insure a complete stroke every time. You need that guarantee to trust your brush. Don't use just thinner as a medium, see the  award winning medium chart. (new window) Use accurate measurements in your oil and fresco mediums.


My painting surface of choice is thin linen, PVA acrylic or gel medium glued to 1/8 to 1/4 inch beech or mahogany plywood, than primed with acrylic or oil gesso. Rabbit skin glue is good also. Just hot/hard (today it's called Ampersand) pressed masonite is good too. I like one standard size for all mediums, the water color standard, 22 X 30, it divides into five classic sizes. Later the panel can be attached to stretcher bars or cradles for strength although this is not necessary.
Maybe I should say it again here, oil paint will not stick to acrylics. That includes acrylic gesso. I use acrylic gesso on my oil palettes surface so the dried paint removes easier.

How to make fine art canvas covered wood or masonite painting surfaces. (new window)


One acre of hemp is equal to four acres of forest to produce the same amount of paper. Hemp pulp paper can be recycled 20 times compared to 4 times for wood pulp paper, it requires 60-80% less chemicals to produce hemp paper than wood pulp paper. Hemp has a growth rate to maturity of approximately 2-3 months as compared to approximately 80 years for a coniferous plantation. Hemp cloth is stronger and longer lasting than cotton cloth
The strongest weave is a herringbone weave, that's what Tintoretto used.

Choosing the best brand W/C paper for the job. Waterford 300#, hot pressed and cold presses are excellent.

Twin Rocker 300# is a great American company everyone should be proud of. They have very large deckles.

Strathmore makes top flight water color papers, Gemini 300# rough and cold-pressed are my favorite.

Arches 300# belongs in this esteemed group.

To prepare a surface for acrylic and oil I have used pre-made Fredric's Acrylic or Oil Gesso, it has the best consistency. Three or four sanded coats, thick, thinner and thinnest is the way to go. The thinnest layer should leave no brush marks, it requires very little dry sanding with #220, wet-dry sandpaper, always sand with a sanding block.
The final ground is as smooth as possible so it won't make any unwanted textures, go for the gold!


The first tool on your oil or acrylic painting is gray chalk on a white primed support or white chalk on a colored ground, it dusts off easily with a feather. I paint in my outlines with very thin Ultramarine, Cobalt Blue or Bt. Umber, whichever is appropriate, then wash off the chalk before adding the local colors.

Here's another starting method for oil that is BASED ON THIS WATER COLOR TECHNIQUE. Put the horizon line in and the top and center reference marks, matching the view, in place, and the left and right object reference points dotted in pencil. Wash and wipe down the 300# paper with a 3-5" elephant ear sponge to get rid of the external sizing. Before the sheen leaves, start adding color with the sponge, don't overwork it just get a 100% coverage as accurate and as bold as you can and let it dry. Those colors will be set and not move when the paper is wet the second time.

In oil you use a small triangle of gauze or good lint free paper towels (the cheap one's won't shed). Wipe on the big colors with a medium of 1/3 Venetian Turpentine, 1/3 Sun Dried Linseed Oil and 1/3 damar or Chain Mastic Varnish with 2% drier (drier is optional, it yellows worst than oil). OR this medium, 4 parts Stand Oil, 2 parts Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil, 2 parts Venetian Turpentine, 1 part Turpentine, 1/2 part Wax, 2% Drier. OR this medium, 25% Alkyd and 75% turpentine or mineral sprits. Personally I don't like mineral sprits at all. When done in this method every stroke can be used in the final picture if its needed, treat these original strokes like precious paint over the gesso.


Oil brush #6, Signet, Robert Simmons, Series 43, Extra long, is a beautifully cupped filbert hog bristle brush that holds its shape. The brush goes from small to large under control. Use this brush to do the shadows and finish the first day's work. If you used 2% drier it will be dry in 18 hours, ready for the next day's work. If you use the new alkyd oil it's even faster and yellows less.

Nylon brushes give deep texture at fluid viscosity. Great for wet in wet painting.

In oils, most artists like the hog bristle hair brushes as their main workhorse, you may also if you paint thickly and show texture in the paint, I prefer the texture of the subject represented in smooth paint with sable brushes.

Here is my workhorse brush. Take your first used, #8 or #10, Winsor Newton water color brush and hammer the end of the ferrel as flat as you can. Trim any wayward hairs and you've got the best acrylic filbert I've ever found. This is one of my main brushes, used in every picture. Yarka makes a filbert of sable.

The next series of brushes are the brights and long flats, the longs make a longer stroke and the brights blend and mix more. On W/C's I paint with a 3/4" or 1" long flat sable after the sponge work.
In oil I start with a 1/2" #14 Windsor and Newton series 807, long flat sable for a 22 x 30 or a 3/8" #12 flat for a 15 x 22. Also on hand are the #10, #8, and #6, these are very useful brushes. Raphael and Grumbacher also make a very good lines of flat brushes.

The last stage of a painting is the calligraphy, done with two types of very long hair sable brushes. First is the round pointed long script liner, the best is by Isabey, Series 6318, #12, #10 and #8. You can paint a whole picture with one of these beauties. The sooner you pick it up the better. A shorter hair brush of the same style for tight work is the W/N 3A, #3 Designer's brush, it's like a paint pencil. The last style is the round ferrule, long, fine red sable, flat end, lettering brush. Those flat ferrule, flat end brushes they sell today as lettering brushes are a distant choice not to be considered. Utrecht 1-800-223-9132 sells a decent synthetic. They used to come in long, medium and short back when Mr. Langnickel was alive. You will need #2,4,6,8, and #10 for long square ended lines and corners. This style of brush is very important in my paintings, when I get down to the last stage of painting including the details, this is the type of brush I prefer.

11-22-6, Kalish Kolinski Sable Chisel Brushes. (new window)The new Series 8B I designed for water colors is complete, #1 to #8. They are perfect! I tested them all today and am proud and very happy.

That's it, I use the same style brushes for acrylic and oils. W/C's need a full bellied pointed round like the W&N series 7, #6, 7, 8, 9 and 10.

Small, well used hog hair bristle brushes, make great paint erasers for W/C's and 1/2" squirrel filberts make the best toning wash and glaze brushes for all mediums.

Photographs and use descriptions of over 200 brushes. What brushes are best for what duties of stroke. (new window)



Position your painting support directly below the scene, so the top of the painting is touching the bottom of the scene. Draw in a chalk center line and the horizon line. Next find the center of the image.

Mark the sides of the image with reference points.

Measure with only one eye, your right eye, and keep your head at the same relative position to the painting throughout.

Don't paint a picture of more than 90 degrees without two center lines because you will have to move your head from side to side to see the whole scene. Most paintings should be in the 60 degree area, you have that much undistorted overlapping vision. Compose the picture from what you see, if it's not perfect composition, MOVE.


The horizon viewed at sea level with both eyes will appear flat because your focus with both eyes is on one point, shared by the view of both eyes and you have compensated it flat. You can't do that at higher elevations, the curve is too evident.

At sea level the horizon line is 2 1/2 miles away, at 10,000 foot it's 200 miles away.

Both eyes can see a total of 180 degrees, they are angled in your head, not both facing forward. Each eye is angled off the frontal plane by 30 degrees, the overlapping view is 90 degrees, the least amount of distortion is in the center 60 degrees. Each eye can see 135 degrees, each eye can see 45 degrees that the other eye can't. The overlap of both eyes is 90 degrees, 90+45+45=180, your total view is 180 degrees.

The horizon line is curved, the higher your elevation the more the curve is noticeable. Astronauts see a sphere.


A MARKING POINT in the picture is an easily recognized still object or a crossing of objects, or a tangent meeting point of objects, they are easy to find at a glance. Find a marking point on the center line close to the horizon line as your center marker. This center mark can be on any distance away from you, on any concentric ring around you. This is lineal triangulation.

Find left and right side scene marker points also close to the horizon line. The top marking point will complete the format of the final painting because the bottom is marked by the top of your picture.

Distant objects are relative to nearby objects from your viewpoint through "lineal triangulation". Start by making at least two triangles using obvious marker points joining and starting from one common marker point. Two more triangle marking points anywhere in the picture will connect to one of the existing points forming another lineal triangle, if you're using different lineal distanced marker points in more than one concentric ring. If your used objects on a similar "concentric ring", you would have "plane triangulation", they work equally well. These triangles will insure the accuracy of the objects position. I use this system for portraits also. (new window)


Draw with a piece of inexpensive school chalk, because it contains no wax or oil, Rembrandt's Gray pastel is what I use. On colored grounds use white chalk and on white grounds use a pale gray.

Draw simple outlines of shapes on obvious concentric rings with chalk, the biggest patterns first, start on the reference points. Inside these big patterns show the texture with short directional lines. Simplify this texture with sparse, 1:10 representative lines of size, shape or direction.

Before painting in the final outlines with a liner brush, a long pointed round ferrule brush, dust off the loose and caked on chalk with a feather or soft brush. Paint the outlines in Ultramarine Blue and Brown, whichever color is appropriate. When the medium is oil, thin the color with turpentine so it will dry fast. If your painting in acrylic, thin the pigment with a little water and medium mixed together to give the film strength.

The outline you draw belongs to the objects behind it, in the background, unless you're going with a darker foreground for contrast. Never let the outline show as a line, it's unnatural, use the contrast of the shapes color or intensity against it's background.

Wash off the chalk before blocking in the local colors. Cover the first 100% with as little overlap as possible. Keep the wash graduations smooth so you can use any part in the final picture. Synthetic brushes are only good for the first few times that you use them, get natural sable brushes or natural hog bristle.


The vanishing points of a square are 90º degrees apart on your horizon line. It's impossible to show two 90 degree vanishing points in a 60 degree picture. A 60º equilateral triangle held with a point under one eye will accurately mark a 60 degree picture on your horizon line. A book or sheet of paper will be 90º, lay your painting support on the ground, place a corner between your feet, that's 90 degrees on the horizon line. Notice, the odds are good that you can't see both horizon line vanishing points in a 90º picture, and most pictures are 60º, cameras are 55º. Compose the picture from what you see, remember, if it's not a perfect composition, MOVE.

Here are links to painting examples (new window) using this new technique that is not now being taught, but will be soon I hope.

Aerial Perspective is relating the size and color of the object to the distance it is away from you. The curve of the earth cuts off your line of sight vision at 2.5 miles, a raft would disappear over the horizon at that distance if you were 60 inches tall. At 10,000 Ft. you can see 200 miles.

A square building viewed from the top has four sides and four 90 degree angles in view. From the front side, none of these 90 degree angles are visible. The top edge can look like a straight line, except there are no straight lines in nature, they are actually curving up and down to touch the vanishing points out of the picture. The perpendicular sides of the building are in the 3rd and 4th point perspective, they curve up and down to the aerial and terrestrial vanishing points. The terrestrial V.P. below is also the nadir V.P. A parallel front of the building reaches out to 180 degrees, these two side vanishing points are out of the picture, the building top and bottom lines curve to the side vanishing points.

If we can see two sides, the 90 degree angle uses up 90 of the 180 degrees. The building sides are heading to two vanishing points 90 degrees apart on the horizon line, not 180 degrees. Here is a drawn example of 90 degrees on a concentric circleing horizon line showing a 90 degree rectangle building in perspective. To see the painting's progression. (new window)


(en plein air)

This is me or you lining up a painting to an image relating to the horizon line.
The horizon line is your eye level. Directly above our canvas support is the bottom of our image.
Looking over the top two corners of your support marks the left and right verticals of your painting view.

Painting a 60 degree image.



I like to think of Ring#5 as a mile out, That's easy to remember. Ring#7 is actually a mile in distance away from you and Ring#10 is 100 miles away. The important thing is changing pigment color for your shadows and highlight colors again after one mile's distance. The distance between the ten concentric rings really starts to increase from there out.

Ring 1, is about 10 yards (9.14 m) distance from you, you should first notice a value difference here, find some objects to mark this distance. Many objects in a row are nice. Within this first ring are the darkest dark shadows, not to be repeated again in any other ring. Magenta and Green make the darkest neutral shadows in the foreground.

Ring 2, 15 to 25 yards (13.70 - 22.86 m) away from you. The darkest shadows may be an ultramarine blue and burnt umber mix depending on the time of day.

Ring 3, is 25 to 55 yards (22.86 - 50.29 m) away from you. These color changes are obvious when you pick your colors at these distances.

Ring#4. Here starts the addition of a minimal portion of the split analogous Green and Purple color mixed 1:1.
Ring#5 is a little less than one mile in distance from you. The shadow and highlight colors are getting tints lighter with the added purple and green mix which makes a bluish distance color.
Ring#6, Ultramarine blue is added to the analogous purple and green mix.
Ring#7 is one mile out there.
Ring#8 is 20 to 50 miles away from you, there is not much color change between 20 and 50 miles.
Ring#9 The tint of ultramarine blue changes to cobalt blue.
Ring#10, is very far away, more than one hundred miles and the mountain colors are very close to the sky color.

The Aerial Palette for 10 Concentric Rings.

Aerial Perspective Palette

Aerial Perspective Palette, hue to dark

All Ring 1 foreground noonday shadow colors change from a 
Magenta-Green to Purple-Green shadow in the middle ground.
Colors change to a tint of Ult.Blue for the far background.
Nine o'clock morning shadows are a neutral dark mix of 
Bt.Umber and Ult.Blue.

A color-in picture and palette to download. (new window)
Full color wheel to download. (new window)
4 Point Lineal Perspective Continued

The horizon line is 25 miles out at sea if you are 6-foot tall standing at sea level.
It's 200 miles out if you're on a 10,000 foot high mountain.

The picture's blue line is the horizon line in front of you in three 60 degree chunks.
The center section is the only un-distorted section of the three.  It can be seen with both eyes at the same time.
This section should be the maximum and normal width of your landscape support.  The dimensions of this support would vary depending on how far away the support is away from you.

Each eye is aimed 30 degrees off center, each eye sees 120 degrees. The full visible horizon in front of you, including all of your peripheral vision of both eyes is 180 degrees. For top accuracy use only one eye and keep your head in the same place and only use that center 60 degrees of overlapped vision.


You won't see both vanishing points of a 90º box on a straight horizon line.
Every square object has a right and left vanishing point 90 degrees apart on a straight 180º horizon line at sea level. Everybody can vision 180º. You must include the peripheral outside of the 55º overlap of both eyes, 125º. You have to turn your head to include more than a 60º view. Close your left eye to view the right maximum view and right to view the left maximum view. 60º is just about your two extended arms in front of you. That's how I judge my paintings left to right view each time. I paint the view directly above my canvas.

The box is where your feet are, directly under your eyes,
the horizon line is where your eye level is.

The horizon line is always at your eye level.

If two sides with one 90 degree angle is in view, the building's top visible sides are angled toward vanishing points ninety actual degrees apart on your horizon. No matter how tall the building is, or how far away it is, the sides are angled to these vanishing points. These points can be shared by other buildings if they're aligned at right angles to the first buildings side. As the buildings recede, the top angles will seem to increase but the angles on and touching the horizon line are decreasing. The total of the three angles will still equal 180 degrees. The three angles are the two vanishing points on the horizon line and the top of the building. The farther away the building is the closer its top angle is to flat, but they still lead to the vanishing points 90 degrees apart on the horizon line and the combined angle total is still 180 degrees.

Have you ever heard there are no straight lines in nature? It's true, if you're standing in the center of the railroad tracts, the lines at your sides are parallel, they curve and join at some point out there in front of you, toward the horizon. The same with a telephone pole, it has straight lines at eye level and curves to a point up there, heading to the astral vanishing point. There's another vanishing point down below, the terrestrial or nadir vanishing point. Any tilted building at any angle would have it's own set of vanishing points.


The "astral" and "terrestrial or nadir" vanishing points are above and below the building,180 degrees apart. Since we're seeing two sides they stay 180 degrees apart. The building starts off at eye level as two parallel lines, than they curve gradually upward toward the vanishing point directly above you.

The terrestrial or nadir vanishing point could be used like this. Your looking obliquely down at a table top with a rectangle lighter on it. With your angle of vision it's 45 degrees below the horizon line, 45 degrees below your eye level. The sides of the lighter are heading down to the terrestrial or nadir vanishing point plum-line down from your eyes.

To find the optical center of any side of a building, in any rotation, join the four corners of one side of the building with an "X". Straight up from the center of the "X" is the top of the gable.

The ground your standing on, if it's level, connects visually to the distant horizon line. Let's say you and your friend are both six feet tall. A hundred yards away, on level ground, his eyes and your eyes would still be level to the horizon line. The line connecting your feet is the variable, it's angled up to the horizon line making him seem smaller.

To use this principle on an object, let's say a canoe is setting sideways in front of you. You want to draw it one hundred yards out there. You need to get the right length to distance ratio to make it appear the same size. This is easy, connect the two end points of the canoe to a vanishing point on the horizon line in the direction you want the canoe to be in, either on or off the center line of your picture. The canoe is correct anywhere between these two lines. The same principle applies to the mast if it were a sailboat.


I made a stick for the horizon line and used it to plot two vanishing points 90 degrees apart, it can extend ten foot for larger paintings. A bar attaches to the back of the painting, level and behind the picture's horizon line. Standing at my painting. I mark on the bar where the buildings V.P. meets the horizontal bar. It has hard arms on pivots that clip onto the bar and lock down on the vanishing point. Sometimes times both vanishing points are off the page in a 60º painting. This tool will adjust for the earth's curvature.

Match up the buildings most extreme top angles with the arms and clip the perspective arm bar on the horizon bar by matching the angles of the arm bar to the image in front of you. I look at the building and point to the extended vanishing point to the left or right of my picture and clip the arm on there. The windows on that wall all have the same vanishing point.


Your reflections are only there for you to see, they come straight toward you, not straight up and down in relation to the sides of your picture.


There is no term to describe why the sky is darker next to the white cloud or lighter next to a dark building.

Light interpretation as it relates to object edges. With the sun overhead and the foreground and background in sunlight, the object behind is darker than the closer objects edge.

Look at the sky as the background, notice any object is darkest next to the light while the sky is lightest next to the dark object.

It's coolest next to the warm, as when a sun lit edge meets the shadow.

The "Culminating Point" is a reflective term, in omni light the closest part of an object is the brightest.

The sky contrasts combine both the earthbound object's contrast rule (it's darker behind the object) and the water contrast rule) it's lighter behind the wave), it can either be lighter or darker behind the closer cloud and a cloud farther behind it.


Have you ever noticed that barometric pressure keeps the cloud bottoms flat? If you made a grid from the center line vanishing point to the top corners of your picture every ten degrees, and added horizontal lines spaced one hundred feet apart toward the horizon line, the variable would be the space between the horizontal lines.

On earth grids, concentric lines touch the horizontal grid lines. On sea grids, use only the center vanishing point lines and wave's horizontal lines.

Earth and Sea Grids will keep objects attached to the ground plane and sea waves in perspective. (new window)

Sky Grids will keep the flat bottoms of the clouds made by the barometric pressure at one altitude.

Chapter 10
Pigment Color Symbols, How & Why the RCW Works


There are 36 colors in the Artists Real Color Wheel. It joins the Light (RGB), Crystal (both) and Pigment (CMYK) color wheel in one color chart. Because of color shifts when printing the RGB, CMYK is used. Darkness in the Yellow to Red and Cyan to Royal Blue ranges have been added to the RGB and CMYK colorwheels, independently to each other. This same Real Color Wheel can be made with 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 or 36 colors

Start with yellow at the top and "Read Red Right," the three R's of color. Play the wheel like a typewriter. There are only twelve basic colors you must remember, forward, backward and opposing across the middle. "across the middle" is what makes the Real Color Wheel different from all the rest still being taught today as of 06-11-01, 7-13-9 (we are gaining ground, 20 universities in one month this year requested this RCW). The RCW is a modified combination RGB/YMC color wheel. Now when an artist wants dark yellow, it's dark yellow on the warm side like Naples Yellow, not the cool side (Yellow-Green). That's artist friendly!

Yellow is represented by "Y," Magenta by "M," and Cyan "C." A three color primary color wheel = YCM.
A six color wheel is YY CC MM. A twelve color wheel is YYYY CCCC MMMM.
A pure unadulterated yellow would be Y, YY or YYYY etc., half yellow and half magenta would be YYMM, or the color red, each color has four characters in the twelve color wheel. Orange is YYYM. Scarlet-crimson is YMMM. The opposite of YYYY is MMCC, Ultramarine Blue.

Making a 6,12, 24, 36 and on up to a 1,000 RCW colors. (new window)


YYYY=Yellow, YYYM=Orange, YYMM=Red, YMMM=Scarlet-Crimson, MMMM=Magenta, MMMC=Purple, MMCC=Ultramarine, MCCC=Cobalt-Azure, CCCC=Cyan, CCCY=Turquoise, CCYY=Green, CYYY=Yellow-green.

Cobalt is a pre-made tertiary pigment paint for the color MCCC, Cobalt Azure, it is opaque. It's in the range of the ancient mineral color Azurite. Cu3[C03]2[0H]2, A copper idiochromatic color. Azure can easily be mixed with the analogous colors copper phthalocyanine blue and a good ultramarine blue or the primary transparent cobalt violet (magenta). In fact with a transparent cobalt violet, (a cool magenta), you don't need a tubed Ultramarine Blue, you can make it. One way or the other, Azure is a beautiful color that nature uses often. Cobalt Blue is common in the mineral Azurite. Azurite includes both transparent and opaque ultramarine blue to cyan colors. The new w/c pigment Magenta ShinHan Opera will mix a perfect blue or cobalt blue with cyan.

Each element can only make its own range and texture of colors. No other element has its similar unique capabilities. By modifying the element we can make its opposite or complementary color, just as the red Cuprite crystal of copper and the sediment of copper do naturally.

By expleining minerals and crystals, you see the elements that make and color compounds. This color wheel joins the element, crystal, chemical, pigment and the light color wheel together as one, and agrees with the nature and your own of eyes "after image." (new window)

To make the light color wheel match the pigment color wheel, replace the RGB dark path of Yellow (which has a Green tinge from Black as light is subtracted,) with the RCW neutral dark path on the warm side to Brown, that's the Red, Orange and Yellow's dark color. Than change Cyan's RGB darkest color to Ultramarine Blue's darkest color. Now all the colors in will have working oppositions, matching the colors you see in nature, and the colors in crystals representing the elements.


Element Colors, Crystal Colors, Chemical Color, Vegetable Colors & Pigment Colors,
they all become dark on the same color paths.

While painting, darks should be made to match nature by mixing in the opposite complementary color and not by adding black pigments. These same pigments are used in all media, the brands below are W/C's but the same pigments are used in all media.

This RCW 36 colorwheel has the brand pigment names and the more important, generic Chemical Class names.
It also includes the pigment chemical name in these Chemical Classes,
and the Color Index Name, and the Color Index Number.

Just what you need to make the most reliable choice among brands in all media.

Each brand name pigment is a chosen color made from one or more Chemical Classes in combination.
Each Chemical Classes color travels on a graduated path changing color and Pigment Color and Color Index number as it moves. The PC number itself also has a graduated path of different related colors. Different brands, different names, same color.. or close. You have to find the right brand color, start with the Chemical Class color. Daniel Smith did a good job, so did Grumbacher.
Example; From the element Copper comes Copper Phthalocyanine as a Chemical Class with a path from green PG7 to cyan PB15. PB15 has a path from cyan PB15:1 to a transparent cobalt/ultramarine blue hue PB15:6. Only PB15.3 is true cyan, Manganese also makes Cyan.
To paint a sky you need the purest PB15.3 cyan near the horizon line and by adding magenta you get the sky's zenith color of ultramarine blue. Manganese is also a Cyan hue.

Manganese Blue PB15 (made of phthalocyan and phthalocyan chlorinated copper) is closer to the pure cyan color and can't be made with PB15.3. Manganese blue can make P15.3 with a little magenta. Grumbacher doesn't sell a Manganese blue hue but they have a great cyan called Thalo blue. Manganese genuine is made by fixing barium manganate on a barium sulfate base. Manganese blue transparent is made by Old Holland.
Blue-Violet is between Cyan and Magenta and is Ultramarine Blue in color. Blue-Violet is a photo industrial color term for the blue filter used to make the yellow printing plate. Blue is opposite yellow. Red, Green and Blue are primary colors on the Light color wheel only.. because light is subtractive and red, green and blue are the more saturated colors.

Red and Blue pigment colors are secondary colors and can be made mixing the pigment primary colors of transparent Yellow and Cyan or Cyan and Magenta. Red is not the opposite of Green, they are both secondary colors capable of being mixed.

As in the RCW, the same brown to yellow color intensity path of yellow is found in both element crystal compounds, (new window) and class chemical compounds. The elements lead and iron have oxides with similar ranges of color from yellow to brown and red to brown as the synthetic chemicals and natural oxides, just like their crystal counterparts. Pigment color oppositions match the natural color elements crystal oppositions. Just as the lead element only makes yellow and blue crystals. The RCW also matches the chemical class colors with their paths to darker color intensities and the full croma colors of the YMC/RGB colorwheel, but in not the subtractive way that it gets dark.

For we pigment artists, pigment color oppositions should match the element's natural or it's crystal opposition.
The titanium crystal color path to darker color intensities moves right across black to the opposing color.

The Pigment Color numbers mark that color's position on that Chemical Class path. Chemical colors and combinations make new brand name colors. Brand color names are still arbitrary, Pigment Color numbers and Color Index numbers are not, but they don't give the pigment's attributes. They are: from transparent to translucent, mono-toned or dual-toned and are never granular.


Yellow and red both darken to brown in crystals, natural oxides, chemical class pigments and vegetable colors.

Yellow to Brown
Elements in Crystal
The Chrysoberle crystal with the element Beryllium is the standard yellow centering to brown transparent crystal.
The Citroen Quartz crystal with the element iron includes from yellow to orange to brown.
The Chalcopyrite crystal with iron will show colors from, yellow, orange, tan, red and brown.

Yellow to Brown Chemical Class Pigments
Diarylide Yellow makes these colors.
Diarylide Yellow AAA,
Diarylide Orange, PO34
Diarylide Red, PR166, Disazo Scarlet
Diarylide Brown, PY12 brown.

Yellow to Brown Chemical Class Pigments
Monoazo-Aceoacety Benzimidazolone makes this path of intensity for yellow colors, just like oxides and crystals.
Benzimidazolone makes these colors from yellow to brown only, like the Chrysoberle crystal and calcimined lead oxides.
Benzimidazolone Yellow H3g, PY154 CI# 11781, yellow to yellow-orange.
Benzimidazolone Yellow PY151. Naples Yellow Hue
Benzimidazolone Orange, PO62, 11775. D.S = Permanent Orange.
Benzimidazolone Orange H5g, PO62. Schmincke = Chrome Orange
Benzimidazolone Orange H5g, PO62, Lukas W/C = Helio Genuine Orange.
Benzimidazolone Orange HL, PO36, 11780.
Benzimidazolone Red, Deep Scarlet, PR175, 12513.
Benzimidazolone Carmine, Hf3c, PR176, 12515.
Benzimidazolone Brown, Permanent Brown, PBr25, 12510.
Benzimidazolone Maroon, Napthamide Maroon, PR171, 12512
Benzimidazolone Bordeaux PV32, 12517

Yellow to Brown Oxide Pigments, Opaque and Translucent
- Mars chemical compound colors colors are synthetic iron oxides and follow the same color color intensity scale getting darker as iron oxides. Both are matched in the Real Color Wheel.
- Old Holland, Iron Oxides, Gold Ocher Light orange side, opaque. Brown Ocher Pale red/side. Brown Ocher darker yellow/side. Red Ocher dark red/side translucent. Brown Ocher Deep is close to Iron Oxide Burnt Umber, translucent.
- Talens, Burnt Umber translucent, PR101, Iron Oxide Brown natural, burnt.
- Blockx, Iron Oxide, Venetian Red natural opaque PR101
- Blockx, Iron Oxide, Italian Earth natural translucent high silica content.
- Schmincke, Grumbacher Iron Oxide Raw Sienna, PBr7, translucent high silica content.
- Old Holland, Iron oxide natural colors, Gold Ocher PY43, Brown Ocher Pale,
- Lefranc Bourgeous, Vandyke Brown, PBr8 Manganese Brown.

Yellow to Orange path in Chemical Class pigments.
Isoindolinone Yellow, PY10, transparent
TC Isoindolinine Orange, PO61, Transparent

Yellow to Magenta and Yellow to brown Chemical Class pigments.
Quinacridone Magenta Y form, RCW36#13.5 mass-tone, PR122, 73915, the main and most light fast magenta, used as the Thalo Green opposition.
Quinacridone Red, RCW36#10.0, PR192, Red translucent with magenta under-tone.
Quinacridone Gold, RCW36#3.5, dual-tone, Yellow Oxide O/s hue in mass-tone, translucent.
Quinacridone Sienna, RCW36#5.6.

ALIZARIN to Red and Brown Chemical Class pigments,
Anthraqinone A Vat Pigment makes these colors.
Alizarin Crimson 1.2 Dinydroxy Anthraqinone, transparent
Pyanthrone, Red Oxide hue, translucent
Perylene Red BL, Red, transparent
Perlene Red, Red-orange. translucent
Pyantrone Red, Red-Burnt Sienna hue

Cyan darkens to ultramarine blue hue in these transparent crystals and class chemical colors... and the sky above us.

Crystal compounds
Cyan to Blue in color depth.
AZURITE crystal, Cu3[CO3]2[0H]2. COPPER, Standard Azure/Cobalt color, RCW36#22ring1, [MCCC]. Includes cyan, azure (cobalt blue) and ultramarine blue hue, transparent, translucent and opaque, shows blue in mass.
CALCITE crystals, CaCO3, trigonal crystals, also aggregate and mass, colorless, transparent and translucent.
CALCITE crystals w/COPPER, "Iceland Spar crystal", Cyan, allochromatic, polarizing filter. In this crystal light cyan turns into dark ultramarine blue, like in the the Real Color Wheel.

Chemical class compound pigments,
Cyan to blue.
The Copper Phthalocyanine chemical class.
PB15 is a primary pigment color. PB15.3 is Senopia's pure cyan. This color range is as the cyan Iceland Spar crystal and many other crystals. The pigment's mass-tone color looks darker than ultramarine blue. Transparent blue is possible in the Azurite crystal.
The chemical class of Ultramarine blue is a complex silicate of sodium and aluminum with sulphur, it makes only slight variations in this blue hue.
Ultramarine Blue PB29, translucent and Phthalocyanine Blue PB15 transparent (Cyan) combined will tint from blue to cyan, depending on the mixture. Holbein, calls it Cobalt Blue Tint. These are handy colors as used it the sky.

True Transparent Test, the under-tone of any tested pigment will not show lighter on a black paper. (new window)

Translucent pigments are semi-transparent or semi-opaque, weak opaque colors. Both strong and weak opaque colors all will lighten a black paper, so they are not transparent.
Aureolin, PY40, Potassium Cobaltinitrite, is not transparent as has always been claimed, it's a translucent, a weak opaque. Chemicals can make a transparent dark brown pigment, oxides can make translucent and opaque pigments.

Here are the transparent yellow chemical pigments. Indian Yellow can be made with these Chemical Class colors;
Dioxine Yellow Nickel Complex which makes Nickel Dioxine Yellow.
Disazo, which makes Dairylide Yellow HR70.
Anthraquinone, which makes Anthrapyrimidine Yellow.
Tetrachloroindolinone, which makes Isoindolinone Yellow R, the brown/side Indian Yellow.

Using Transparent Yellow.
Dual-toned Indian Yellow color images, (new window). Indian Yellow is a set of two colors, transparent yellow-orange to yellow and raw sienna hue to yellow. One is a strong yellow to mix with magenta making orange to crimson rose, including bright red, the other is for lower croma greens. These two transparent duel-toned colors mix a lot of greens and reds.

Golden Artist Colors; New.. On 6-10-06 I received a welcomed new color from Golden. Indian Yellow Hue, made with Arylide Yellow PY7, Nickel Complex Azo PY150 and Quinacridone PR206. This is good Golden Indian yellow Hue. Indian yellow Hue green/side Nickel Azo Yellow and azo methane copper complex PY129 BEST GREEN/SIDE INDIAN YELLOW.

In the printed copy describing this new Historical Fluid Acrylic Color I was happy to see my information which was first put on the internet in 1996 regarding original Indian yellow. My print research turned up the cow urine history of this very important color and this information started spreading in 2002 and Indian yellow hue started appearing. Today, 12-16-12, I'm not as sure the puritan reason of harming the cows with too much mango leaves which is their favorite food was the real reason England stopped importing the raw material, it could have been political.

The internet loves information and Golden used it describing their new Indian Yellow Hue on their Historical Fluid Color Chart. Today, 7-13-9, paint manufactures are making many verities of Indian transparent yellow and just throwing them at the wall to see what sticks. What you need is a transparent yellow to mix with the other two transparent primaries so you can make a darker neutral. Nickel Azo metal complex is the element.

  • Golden Artist Colors. Indian Yellow Golden Hue, made with Arylide Yellow PY7, Nickel Complex Azo PY150 and Quinacridone PR206.
  • Daniel Smith, New Gamboge, Duel toned, Nickel Dioxine Yellow, PY150, CI48545.
  • Daniel Smith, Indian Yellow (hue), Duel toned, Anthrapyrimidine Yellow, Vat Yellow 20, PY108, CI68420. Duel-toned from yellow Brn/s hue to a Raw Sienna hue.
  • Lefranc and Bourgeois, Indian Yellow (Imitation), PY153 Nickel Dioxine Yellow Complex, is a translucent duel-toned yellow-orange in mass-tone to cadmium yellow hue under-tone and top-tone. Makes great reds and warm yellows.
  • Grumbacher Indian Yellow Hue, PY1 Arylide Yellow G / PO1 Hansa Orange, translucent, less dual-toned then Nickel Dioxine Yellow.
  • Talens, Indian Yellow, PY110 Isoindolinone, from yellow-orange-ocher to yellow. Makes clean reds and warm yellows.
  • Talens, Gamboge, PY97 Arylide Yellow Fgl, Duel-toned orange-ocher to yellow.
  • Schmincke, Chrome Yellow Deep (not lead chrome), PY83 Diarylide Hr70, from yellow pale to yellow deep duel-tone. Makes clean reds and warm yellows.
  • Sennelier, Yellow Lake, PY83 Diarylide Hr70 plus PY43 Yellow Ocher Iron Oxide. These are the same pigments as in Old Holland's Indian Yellow Brn/s, oil. Duel-toned translucent.
  • Schmincke, Permanent Yellow Deep, (Indian Yellow Brn/s hue), Pr154 Benzimidazolone Yellow H3g plus PY10 Isoindolinone Yellow R, make clean reds and yellow-orange yellows.
  • Sennelier, Yellow Lake, PY83 Diarylide Hr70 / PY43 Yellow Ocher, is not transparent so it is not really a Lake (transparent) color. It's translucent because of the addition of Yellow Ocher Oxide.
  • Holbein, Greenish-Yellow, duel-toned, a G/s Indian Yellow.
  • Old Holland is shining! They have the most complete set of transparent Indian yellows. New 7-10-9, Dual-toned Indian Yellow color images (new window)

Chapter 10a
Concentric Rings, Aerial Perspective



All concentric ring lines stay at an even distance around you, any distance that is obvious in your scene should form on a concentric ring. Color aerial perspective values in the distance can be recognized from ring to ring. There's a difference between colors 10 yards in front of you and 50 yards in front of you, try it, soon you will see the difference in every ten yards. Don't use one distance's palette colors in another ring.

Colors within the first 10 yards are at they're highest chroma, the lights are brightest and the shadows are the deepest. Here are my basic ring distances away from me, 10 yards, 50 yards, 100 yards, 500 yards, 1/4 mile, 1/2 mile, 1 mile, 10 miles, 50 miles, 100 miles. Each rings colors would not be repeated inside other rings. The foreground rings use the opposition of green and magenta for a neutral dark [CCYY+MMMM], the background uses green and purple [CCYY+CMMM], adding the extra cyan gives more ultramarine blue to the mix.

Aerial Perspective Color Palette.


The color and brightness of objects are effected by the addition of air and moisture in the air, air is a filter of Yellow and adds Reflected White Light, plus Cyan and Magenta.

What this means in paint is a slight difference in color oppositions, instead of the main opposition being Magenta and Green, it's Green and Purple. This filters out the Yellow. The mix of Green and Purple make the cool Blue of the distance.

When Yellow is used in the distance, it's mixed with white. Yellow light and blue light make white light.

Shadows on the foreground object are made by adding the opposite color to the local color, in the background the cooler colors of green plus purple are added to the local color instead of the normal opposite color. This combination has a blue cast to it. There is a point in the distance where this color or cobalt blue is the only color in distant mountains.

Split complementary colors are two colors next to each other called "analogous", one color off exact opposite. Here's an example, Green is opposite Magenta, the split complementary colors of Green are on each side of Magenta, Scarlet and Purple, and vice versa.

Chapter 10b
Light & Pigment Color Wheel are the Same, Conversion of Light to Pigment



Three primary colors for pigments, and the three primaries for light subdivide into the whole range of color that is shared by both systems. Three basic colors, divide to six, twelve, twenty four, thirty six or three-hundred-sixty part color wheels.

The Real Color Wheel is for pigments, it's additive, adding the pigments together makes a darker color. Light as in computers and stage lighting, RGB/YMC, is subtractive, two color mixed together have more light and get lighter.
They each use the same colors differently but are the same color wheel.

I won't agree with what is currently being taught to academic artists in each school grade in the U.S.. The Yellow-Red-Blue (new window) color wheel is incorrect and limiting by not having magenta or cyan. This is the real way the pigment artists color wheel should work.

Three primary colors for pigments, three primaries for light, in each case the primary colors combine and subdivide into the whole range that is shared by both systems. Three basic colors, divide to six, twelve, twenty four, thirty six or three-hundred-sixty part color wheels. The 12RCW is all you need to paint with, the 36RCW divides each section of the 12RCW into three allowing it to match pigments exactly.

Start with yellow at the top of the color wheel, and "Read Red Right", the three R's of the color wheel. We'll play the color wheel like a typewriter. There are only twelve colors to remember, forward backward and across the centering middle dark to the opposite side. Learn to name a color and have that image of that color in your mind.
Here are the details.

In a six color wheel, 6RCW, Yellow is represented by "YY", Red is "YM", Magenta is "MM", Ultramarine Blue is "MC", Cyan is "CC", and "CY" is Green. A pure unadulterated yellow would be YYYY on a 12 color wheel, half yellow and half magenta would be YYMM, or the color red. Orange is YYYM, Scarlet Crimson is YMMM.

The twelve color wheel (12RCW) is enough to paint any picture with pigments. Here, the sixth color away from any color is halfway around the color wheel, making it the opposite color or the complementary color. The opposite of Yellow, YYYY is MMCC, Ultramarine Blue. This is a page shows accurate full color colorwheels and full color paintings using only the  three color transparent primaries. (new window)

Link is to a clickable pigment sample chart of the RCW.

Greater detail about how to use the RCW Color Wheel. (new window)

A thirty-six, 36RCW, Real Color Wheel color uses twelve letters to describe each primary

Analogous colors are two or more colors next to each other.
Split complementary colors are opposite colors in a "Y". Here's an example, Green is opposite Magenta, a split complement (glossary new window) of Green would be Scarlet and Purple. One on each side of the opposite color Magenta.


Y = Yellow, M = Magenta, C = Cyan. Each color is 120 degrees, a primary triad division without oppositions. Any three pigment triad on the RCW will make a neutral dark, and three light primaries equal white light, Y+M+C = YMC. White in light, dark in pigment. Any three of my pigment triads make a neutral dark (battleship Gray and darker), and in light these same three light primaries secondary colors equal white light. White in light, dark in pigment.


YM = Red, MC = Ult.Blue, CY = Green. YM+MC+CY is the same as YYMMCC. The combined triad equal White in light.
In light there are no degrees of black pigment, only degrees of added light.

each color is 60 degrees.
Color #1 = YY and color #4=MMCC are complementary opposite colors on a six color wheel. The formula, YY+MMCC = YYMMCC. This equals Neutral White in light, or Neutral Dark in pigment.
#1, YY = Yellow, #2, YYMM = Red, #3, MM = Magenta, #4, MMCC = Ultramarine, #5, CC = Cyan, #6, CCYY = Green. YYMMCC = YMC.
TWELVE COLOR WHEEL each color has four part symbols representing transparent yellow, magenta and cyan to mix twelve hues.
YYYY=Yellow, YYYM=Orange, YYMM=Red, YMMM=Scarlet-Crimson, MMMM=Magenta, MMMC=Purple, MMCC=Ultramarine, MCCC=Azure or Cobalt Blue, CCCC=Cyan, CCCY=Turquoise, CCYY=Green, CYYY=Yellow-green.


Opposites are 17 colors apart. Each color has 1 part.

YMC, the primary colors in pigment combine into Neutral White in light or Neutral Dark in pigment. Pigment has 100% intensity in its pure state, tube form = mass-tone. Mixing two opaque pigments decreases the new colors intensity.

In light, adding color to color makes it lighter and brighter. Light is additive.

Twice as much added color will make a light twice as intense. In the combination, Red, Ult.Blue and Green (light's primary colors), [4Y+4M]+[4M+4C]+[4C+4Y] equals [8Y+8M+8C] or [8YMC]. This combination is twice as bright as Yellow, Magenta and Cyan, [4Y]+[4M]+[4C] or [4YMC].

100% Red Light plus 100% Green Light equals 100% Yellow light, the Yellow light is twice as bright.

Combining a less brightly lit colored light, 50% of each color Red and Green will equal brown light. The most intensive Yellow light is made from the two less intensive colors, 100% Cadmium Red colored Light and 100% Thalo Green colored light. Light adds to intensity, so it's additive.

Red [4Y+4M]+[4C+4Y], Green equals [4Y+4M+4C]+[4Y] or [4YMC]+[4Y], that's four combined neutrals, plus four extra Yellows, making Yellow Light.

Here is the 36 color RCW palette with an extra warm yellow row to match pigments.
36 is the perfect color wheel to display all colors. The 12 RCW color wheel is enough to paint anything in front of you :)


100%, Green Light plus 100% Red Light, = 100% Yellow Light, twice as bright as the Green and Red Lights by themselves.

50% Green Light plus 50% Blue Light = 50% Cyan, a tint of Thalo Blue. This tint color in the light color wheel has the same green tainted dark that yellow has when it changes to black by subtracting light. That doesn't represent the artists pigment correctly.

The RGB/YMC computer color wheels won't work for pigments because they add black. Don't use the Color Wheel Pro brand color wheel, it doesn't work for artists that don't use black pigment. The natural color progression of any element of color, can be seen in the crystal of that element. This is the basics of the Real Color Wheel. In this pigment color wheel which follows the rules of chemistry in the elements, dark cyan in pigment should stay on the cool ult. blue side. Here are the  hexadecimal codes (new window) to work in the computer's CMYK-RGB color space, they will all print correctly.

Cyan does darken to the green side in the computers RGB color system. Just as yellow darkens to the green/side dark. Those darker areas of the RGB/YMC light and print color wheel are the the areas that are incorrect for the pigment artist.

Now you can use yellows opposite color in either light or pigment color wheel and get a neutral dark mixture. Your yellows will not only make nice greens but you'll have the all the browns you need and were meant to have.

Cyan dark as a pigment has no yellow in it. Cyan dark when represented by print has a high percentage of black and Magenta ink because the thin layer of printing ink prints would print this dark colored transparent ink as a tint. It would take more then one pass through the press to make a dark cyan color if other colors were not used in the addition.

Yellow printing ink is opaque today. It's the first color down on white paper so it need not be transparent to work. Black over Yellow is a green/side dark. Black pigment and Yellow pigment mix to a Yellow-green. We have ink-jet printers today that apply all the colors at once. I made a transparent yellow giclee ink (new window) from Tartrazine PY100. Now, because the three transparent primaries mix to a dark neutral I use more colored ink and less black ink.

Thalo blue. Smear and streak the mass tube color or add water to make an under-tone streak to PB15.3 copper phthalocyanine Blue on white paper and let this dry. Then photograph the results and print it and break it down in an RGB image, you will notice the high amount of Magenta needed to darken the Cyan darker end under-tones in print and light.

The pigment itself does not change hues, the shadow color on a cyan object does.

Here is how that translates into pigments for painting on location. Look at a Cyan colored object. I'm looking at a cyan blue tarp crumpled in a pile, from the hardware store. Looking into the darker shadow folds to match the color by making it with with pigment I see Magenta being used to make the dark. This means adding transparent magenta or transparent Purple or translucent Ultramarine Blue or transparent Anthraquinone PB60 color to the Thalo Blue to make the shadow color. This hue shifts in light as dual-toned pigments shift. I use this transition in the Real Color Wheel for Cyan by using Ultramarine Blues dark as the dark of Cyan, this keeps it cool.

To match pigment to light, Cyan dark uses blue's dark and Yellow's dark. Yellow passes through Brown before black and Cyan passes through Ultramarine Blue before turning black. Simple. The Real Color Wheel for artists really works well. PB60 Anthraquinone is a dark Ultramarine Blue transparent, it will mix with transparent yellow to a (close) neutral dark and with brown to a neutral dark.

New in 2009, I saw a new automobile from Japan painted with a yellow to brown dual-toned color. The sunlit areas were a very bright yellow and the shadows were dark brown. Another car was cyan in the sunlit areas and ultramarine blue in the shadows. For the artist, duel-toned Indian yellow. (new window)

Red graduates to this Brown naturally in light and pigment, while Yellow graduates to Green then Black in light. Neutral colors can be made by mixing the complementary colors in light or pigment. They are the same color wheel.

Here is a page that includes nature photographs showing how the complementary opposite colors orange and cobalt blue mix a neutral dark. Complements of Nature. (new window)

About the Other Color Wheel The Red-Yellow-Blue color wheel (new window)

The transparent three primary RCW color wheel. (new window)

I have my own w/c Indian yellow now, it's a clear transparent yellow.

Order here. RCW Water Color Transparent Primary Palette with Tartrazine yellow Clear. (new window)

Chapter 10c
Crystal Chapter, Light & Color Terms, Color Elements, Color Producing Gasses - Elements, Quantity on Earth, Periodic Table


ALEXANDRITE EFFECT, The chrysoberyl alexandrite is red in candle light and green in daylight.

ALLOCHROMATIC, minerals colored by a foreign element are called allochromatic. Ruby is an aluminum oxide colored by chromium, so it's allochromatic foreign and not written in the symbol AL203.

IDIOCHROMATIC, minerals colored by elements which are a regular part of the chemical composition. The peridot crystal is in the olivine category, it's a magnesium, iron, silicate. The green comes from iron, making this an idiochromatic home color [not foreign] crystal.

ANALOGOUS, colors are side by side on the color wheel rim.

INCIDENT ANGLE, lights entering angle.

REFRACTIVE INDEX, when light enters a cube or amorphous structure the incident ray is slowed by the atoms inside. The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum compared to the speed in the structure is called the refractive index. In crystals other than the cube crystal, the light splits in different directions at different speeds.

REFRACTION, The deviation of a ray of light upon entering a transparent medium, is refraction away from the normal. The emerging ray is separated into the colors of the spectrum. Red refracts most, violet and magenta the least.

DOUBLE REFRACTION, an incident ray enters and splits, each ray traveling at a different speed.

DISPERSION, Diamonds, glass and water give dispersion of light with the proper incident and reflecting angles, thus splitting up white light into its spectrum colors. The water droplets in a rainbow are at the proper angle of refraction to give each color seen by you. Each person sees their own rainbow. The axis from the sun through your eye to the center of the rainbows circle is the basis for the angle of an incidence you see as the rainbows refracted light. Any medium in which the high-frequency light travels more slowly than the lower frequencies are called dispersive.

DIFFRACTION, diffraction is light bending around the edges of a mass.

ISOTROPIC, crystals in which light travels in all directions at the same velocity.

INTERFERENCE COLORS, a thin film of soap or oil will change the direction of the incident ray laterally and cause the prism effect, as the thickness changes the color's change.

LUMINESCENCE or FLUORESCENCE, is stimulated by radiation.

PHOSPHORESCENCE, persisting luminescence after stimulation.

PLEOCHROISM, the change of color when viewed from different directions.



On the ELEMENT PERIODIC TABLE, #22 through #30 are the coloring elements that give color to crystal compounds. Elements color in harmonies.
Analogous, means colors side by side around the rim of the color wheel. Centering, means moving from the high chroma rim to the center's natural dark position. Complementary colors are opposite colors, 180 degrees apart, triadic colors form an equilateral triangle, they're 120 degrees between colors. Split complementary colors are on each side of the opposite, making a "Y". The primary triad is a very wide split complement.

Aluminum- Easily displaced, makes yellow and sometimes blue.

Arsenic- Yellow, orange red and sometimes greenish.

Cadmium- Green, yellow-green, yellow, orange, red to deep red, a substratum dye. Cadmium is not a solid pigment.

Chromium- Analogous system of connected colors. Green [emerald], Yellow-green, Yellow, Orange, and Red [ruby].

Cobalt- Oxides and native, Magenta [MMMM] and cool magenta [MMM1/2C], natural or calcined to Cobalt Blue [MCCC] and Ultramarine Blue [MMCC].

Copper- Green [CCYY] is in the mineral malachite, Cyan-green [CCCY] in turquoise, cyan-blue [CCCC] in azurite, all analogous colors of the copper element.

Iron- Yellow [YYYY] in sapphire, Blue [MMCC] in spinel both opposite colors. Green [CCYY] and Red [YYMM] in sphalerite.

Copperas, green vitriol, or ferrous sulfate.

Lead- White, Yellow, Orange, Red, Brown-Purple Mortuum.

Manganese- Light (tint) Pink-Orange [YYMM] in spessartine and rhodochrosite.

Nickel- Yellow-Green [YYYC] in chrysoprase.

Titanium- White pigment, titanium dioxide. Titanium is a centering element that goes from Yellow to Orange, then Red to Brown and Brown to Blue in the Rutile crystal. It is an element that can cross over the center dark, reaching its complementary color Ultramarine Blue. The Real Color Wheel uses this pattern to darken Yellow instead of using Black as in RGB color wheel.
The "centering" term means the crystal itself has the ability and changes from any full spectrum color to a dark colorless color. This color scale is different in each crystal. The Real Color Wheel follows the crystals lead.

Vanadium- Green [CCYY] in beryl, Yellow [YYYY], Brown [YYMMCC].

Zinc- Yellow-green in sphalerite. 

COLOR PRODUCING GASSES, Symbol Number, S/G (Specific Gravity), Description

Plasma, (working) Colors of gas by adding electricity.
CF4: blue
SF6: white blue
SiF4: light blue
SiCl4: light blue
Cl2: whitish green
CCl4: whitish green
H2: pink
O2: pale yellow
N2: red to yellow
Br2: reddish
He: red to violet
Ne: brick red
Ar: dark red

COLOR PRODUCING ELEMENTS, Symbol Number, S/G (Specific Gravity), Description


SPECIFIC GRAVITY, (S/G) Is the ratio of size to weight by water displacement, Corundum S/G=4, is four times the weight of the same volume of water. Archimedes' Principle, S/G= A/A-W.


Aluminum Al 13 2.7 metallic, ore bauxite.

Antimony Sb 51 4.6 brittle metallic, ore stibnite.

Arsenic As 33 --- poisonous, pentavalent As+5.

Astatine At 85 --- rare element, halogen family, unstable.

Barium Ba 56 3.5 malleable, active, divalent metal, compounds in barite.

Beryllium Be 4 1.8 hard, light, divalent, steel-gray metallic element,

Idiochromatic Primary and Secondary Colors.

Boron B 5 --- ore of Borax.

Bromine Br 35 3.1 liquid, dark-red fuming, resembling chlorine and iodine.

Cadmium Cd 48 8.6 divalent metallic element, allied to zinc, Pigment in 1842.

Calcium Ca 20 --- divalent metal, compounds limestone, chalk, gypsum.

Carbon C 6 --- Diamond and graphite are organic, polymorphs of carbon, graphites two dimensional atomic structure is flat, and is soft graphite, black. The three- dimensional tetrahedrally-oriented covalent bond of diamonds is strong, hard and clear, the opposite of carbon. Diamonds can receive the full range of colors from other elements, they are allochromatic. The opposite color to black is clear, not white.

Chlorine Cl 17 --- Gaseous, combined in salt.

Chromium Cr 24 --- Brittle metallic, source of red in allochromatic compounds.

Cobalt Co 27 --- Metallic silver pink element.

Copper Cu 29 8.92 Malleable, red-brown metal element.

Fluorine F 9 --- Non-metallic corrosive pale yellow gas, combined in fluorite.

Gold Au 19.3 Yellow malleable metal.

Hydrogen H 1 --- Colorless inflammable gas, lightest element.

Iodine I 53 4.93 dark-gray crystalline solid, heats to a dense violet vapor.

Iron Fe 26 7.86 Malleable metallic, silver element. A full spectrum element.

Lead Pb 82 11.34 Malleable, blue-gray metal.

Lithium Li 03 .53 Silver-white. Soft, lightest metallic.

Magnesium Mg 12 1.74 Silver-white metallic, burns white hot.

Manganese Mn 25 7.2 Brittle, gray-white element, allochromatic.

Mercury Hg 80 13.55 Fluid silver-white metallic element.

Molybdenum Mo 42 10.2 Hard, silver-white high melting, metalloid.

Nickel Ni 28 8.9 Hard silver-white, malleable, allochromatic element.

Oxygen O 8 --- Colorless gas, converts elements into oxide compounds.

Phosphorus P 15 1.82 Solid non-metallic element in two allotropic forms, yellow, poisonous, inflammable and luminous. Red, now rare, is less potent, (S/G) 2.20.

Platinum Pt 78 2.5 Malleable, gray metallic element.

Potassium K 19 .86 Silver-white metallic, oxidizes rapidly.

Selenium Se 34 4.8 Gray, non-metallic allotropic element, resembles sulfur.

Selenium Se 34 4.5 Red, similar to gray.

Silicon Si 14 2.4 Non-metallic element, amorphous and crystalline forms.

Silver Ag 47 10.5 Malleable silver element.

Sodium Na 11 .97 Soft silver-white metallic element, oxidizes in moist air.

Strontium Sr 38 2.6 Bi-valent metallic element found only in a combined state.

Sulfur S 16 2.07 Nonmetallic solid element, used to form sulfates as white lead pigment, and sulfides, burns blue.

Titanium Ti 22 4.5 Dark gray powdered metallic element

Tin Sn 50 7.31 Malleable, low melting silver colored metal.

Tungsten W 74 19.3 Bright-gray, metallic.

Uranium U 92 18.7 White, radioactive, metallic.

Vanadium V 23 5.96 Gray powder metallic, rare.

Zirconium Zr 40 6.4 Metallic, resembles titanium.

Zinc Zn 30 7,14 Blue-white metallic element.




Silicon 27.72
Aluminum 8.13
Iron 5.
Calcium 3.63
Sodium 2.9
Potassium 2.59
Magnesium 2.09
Titanium .44
Manganese .1
Chromium .02
Zirconium .02
Nickel .008
Zinc .007
Copper .005
Cobalt .002
Lead .002
Arsenic .0005
Molybdenum .0001
Tin .0003
Mercury .00005
Antimony .00002
Silver .00001
Platinum .0000005
Gold .0000005

Oxygen 46.00
Hydrogen .14
Phosphorus .12
Fluorine .07
Sulfur .05
Selenium .05
Strontium .05
Barium .04
Carbon .03
Chlorine .02

Chapter 11
Pigment - Paint Locations

Real Color Wheel for pigments

RCW36#1.01.1 Lemon Yellow Chromate
RCW36#1.01.2 Nickel Titanate Yellow, Nickel Titanate, PY53, 77788
RCW36#1.00.1 Zinc yellow, opaque
RCW36#1.00.3 Hansa Yellow Light, Arylide Yellow 10g, PY3, 11710
RCW36#1.0.5 Aureolin, Cobalt, PY40, 77357, translucent, non staining yellow
RCW36#1.00.5 Cadmium Yellow Light, opaque, PR35, 77205
RCW36#1.00.3 Hansa Yellow Light, translucent
RCW36#1.0.1 Cadmium Barium Yellow Pale, opaque
RCW36#1.0.2 Bismuth Vanadate PY184, opaque
RCW36#1.0.3 Indian Yellow, top-tone, Anthrapyrimidine Yellow, transparent, PY108, 68420, duel-toned from ocher mass-tone hue to yellow, Brn/s
RCW36#1.0.6 Gamboge Lake, top-tone, translucent, synthetic
RCW36#1.3.6 Gamboge Lake, mass-tone, translucent, synthetic,
RCW36#1.6.6 Nickel Azo, mass-tone, Yellow, translucent, PY150, O/s
RCW36#1.8.3 Indian Yellow, mass-tone, Anthrapyrimidine Yellow, PY108, 68420, dual-toned from Raw Sienna mass-tone hue to yellow, Brn/s
RCW36#1.10.1 Burnt Umber, translucent, PBr7, 77492

RCW36#2.05.1 Rembrandt Nickel Titan, Yellow Light Opaque (New 2011)
RCW36#2.01.2 Naples Yellow Light, opaque
RCW36#2.0.3 Hansa Yellow Medium, translucent, 5gx, PR3, 11710
RCW36#2.0.5 Cadmium Yellow Medium, opaque, PY35, 77205
RCW36#2.3.7 French Ocher R/s, opaque, PY43, 77491
RCW36#2.4.2 Yellow Oxide/Ocher Br/s, opaque, PY43, 77491
RCW36#2.10.1 Burnt Umber, translucent, PBr7, 77492

RCW36#3.01 Naples Yellow Deep, opaque
RCW36#3.0 New Gamboge, D.S. mass-tone, Nickel Dioxine Yellow, transparent, PY150, CI# 48545, Vat Yellow 20, similar to PY153, dual-toned from a mass-tone of yellow-orange to a bright yellow tint, makes great reds and greens. Similar to Indian Yellow Original.
RCW36#3.0 Cadmium Yellow Deep, opaque, 77202
RCW36#3.3 Raw Sienna, translucent, PBr7, 77492
RCW36#3.4 Goethite, Deep Yellow Ocher R/s hue, opaque, granular
RCW36#3.4 Italian Deep Yellow Ocher R/s hue, opaque
RCW36#3.6 Quinacridone Deep Gold, mass-tone, Quinacridone Gold, transparent Org/s burnt sienna, PO48, PO49, 73900/73920, mixes with Thalo Green to mix Sap Green.
RCW36#3.7 Transparent Brown Oxide, translucent, PR101, CI# 77491
RCW36#3.10 Burnt Umber, translucent, PBr7, 77492

RCW36#4.0 Permanent Yellow Deep, transparent orange, Isoindolinone.Yellow R, PY110, CI# 56280
RCW36#4.0 Permanent Orange, D.S. Benizimidazolone Orange, PO62, 11775, translucent.
RCW36#4.0 Cadmium Orange, PO20, CI# 77202, opaque.
RCW36#4.6 Burnt Sienna, translucent
RCW36#4.10 Burnt Umber, translucent, PBr7, 77492

RCW36#5.7 Italian Burnt Sienna, translucent, PBr7, 77492
RCW36#5.10 Burnt Umber, translucent, PBr7, 77492

RCW36#6.0 Organic Vermilion, Chinese Vermilion, translucent, PR188, Napthol Red AS, 12467
RCW36#6.10 Burnt Umber, translucent, PBr7, 77492

RCW36#7.0 Cadmium Red Light/Medium, opaque warm red, PR108, 77202
RCW36#7.0 Cadmium Red Scarlet, opaque, PR108
RCW36#7.5 Italian Venetian Red, opaque, PR101, CI# 77491
RCW36#7.6 Transparent Red Oxide, translucent, PR101, CI# 77491
RCW36#7.9 Permanent Brown, Benizimidazolone Brown, transparent, PBr25, 12510,
RCW36#7.10 Burnt Umber, translucent, PBr7, 77492

RCW36#12.10 Quinacridone Rose, Rembrandt Rose, Translucent, PV19, 73900

RCW36#13.0 Quinacridone Magenta, top-tone, Primary Transparent Warm Magenta is opposite Secondary Pathalo Green B/s. PR122
RCW36#13.6 Quinacridone Magenta, mass-tone, Primary Transparent Warm Magenta is opposite Secondary Pathalo Green B/s. PR122

RCW36#14.0 Cobalt Violet, Primary Opaque Cool Magenta, opaque top-tone tint mass-tone only. PV49, 77362 or PV14, 77360

RCW36#16.0 Carbazole Violet, transparent, Dioxazine Purple, top-tone, PV23 (Rs), 51319
RCW36#15ring6 Carbazole Violet, transparent, Dioxazine Purple, mass-tone, PV23 (Rs), 51319

RCW36#18.0, Ultramarine Violet, top-tone, translucent, weak tinting strength PV15, 77007
RCW36#18.6, Ultramarine Violet, mass-tone, translucent, weak tinting strength PV15, 77007

RCW36#19.0 French Ultramarine Blue, translucent, PB29, 77007
RCW36#19.2 Ultramarine Blue Light translucent, PB29, CI# 77007
RCW36#19.3 Ultramarine Blue translucent, PB29, CI# 77007

RCW36#22.0 Cobalt Blue, opaque, PB28, CI# 77346
RCW36#22ring0 Azurite, D.S. transparent, top-tone, PB28, CI# 77346
RCW36#22ring6 Azurite, D.S. transparent, mass-tone, PB28, CI# 77346

RCW36#25.0, Phthalocyanine Blue, top-tone, transparent, G/s is Cyan and R/s is toward magenta, PB15:3, CI# 74160, Cyan Primary as is Manganese blue hue made by fixing barium manganate on a barium sulfate base.
RCW36#25.6, Phthalocyanine Blue, mass-tone, transparent, G/s is Cyan and R/s is toward magenta, PB15.3, CI# 74160, Cyan Primary.

RCW36#27.0, PhthaloTurquiose top-tone, Pathalo Blue plus Pathalo Green, transparent, PB15&PG36, CI# 74160 & CI# 74265
RCW36#27.6, PhthaloTurquiose mass-tone, Pathalo Blue plus Pathalo Green, transparent, PB15.3&PG36, CI# 74160 & CI# 74265

RCW36#29.3, Opaque Green Light

RCW36#31.0, Thalo Green (B/s), Phthalocyanine Green, top-tone, transparent, PG7, CI# 74260, Secondary Color
RCW36#31.6, Thalo Green (Y/s), Phthalocyanine Green, mass-tone, transparent, PG36, Secondary Color

RCW36#33.0, Permanent Green Light, Arylide Yellow 10g, PY3, CI# 11710 and Phthalocyanine Green, PG7, CI# 74260
RCW36#33.6, Hooker's Green, translucent, Phthalocyanine Green, PG36. Arylide Yellow 10g, PY3. Quin. Deep Gold, PO49

RCW36#34.6, Chromium Green oxide, opaque, PG17, CI# 77288

RCW36#35.0, Lime Green, Arylide Yellow PY97 FGL, Phthalocyanine Green, PG7, Y/s top-tone, translucent
RCW36#35.0, Permanent Green Light, Martin F. Weber, Binney-Smith, Phthalocyanine Green, PG7 and Cadmium Yellow Light, PY35, opaque

RCW36#36.0, Phthalo Yellow Green, Arylide Yellow 1og PY3 and Phthalo Green PG36
RCW36#36.0, Brilliant Yellow Green, mass-tone, translucent and opaque
RCW36#36.3, Rich Green Gold, translucent, mass-tone, Nickel Chelated Azo, PG10, CI# 12775, pale yellow G/s under-tone
RCW36#36.7, Green Gold, translucent, mass-tone, Azomethine Metal Complex Yellow 5g, PY129, CI# 48042, dual-tone green-brown to yellow, transparent
RCW36#36.10.9 Raw Umber, mass-tone, translucent

RGB RCW (not to print)
Real Color Wheel

The Opera pigment by ShinHan and Holbine (new window) is more permanent than the old alizarine and very magenta bright. This magenta color mixes all colors beautifully, reds brighter than cadmiums and excellent blues. You will still need PR:122 for a dark magenta color. PV19 is not permanent but it is a warm magenta, it makes a bright red but dirty blues.

Chapter 11a
Watercolor Pigments - Palettes



I hope water colors will be your first medium to work in like it was for me. At least get the primary colors making the whole range of colors, including the darkest dark's. For this you need the right pigmented colors. Here is my palette after painting "what was in front of me", for thirty years without black pigment.

The palette is two rows of fourteen wells, Yellow to Warm Magenta on the top, Cool Magenta to Yellow-Green on the bottom. Some wells have two colors in them to aid in the mixing. I like to keep the colors clean, cleanliness is number one. Starting in the top left #1 well. I squeezed in enough Talens Ultramarine Deep to fill the top half, under it in the same well I added Liquitex Burnt Sienna. Brand names are important, they are rarely the same color.

#01-WELL, Talens Ultramarine Blue Deep and Liquitex Burnt Sienna, these make a warm or cool Burnt Umber.
#02, Talens Ultramarine Blue Deep and Bocour Venetian Red, a very opaque neutral dark, warm or cool.
#03, Grumbacher Thalo Purple on top and Grumbacher Thalo Green below, a cool neutral for the background distances.
#4, Grumbacher Thalo Crimson for the Warm Magenta on top and Grumbacher Thalo Green below. This is the warm, or cool neutral opposition dark for strong foreground dark's.
#05, MMMM, Grumbacher Thalo Crimson, warm Magenta.
#06, MMYY, Grumbacher Finest Red.
#07, Liquitex Burnt Sienna.
#08, Grumbacher Vermilion Light.
#09, YYYM, Grumbacher Cadmium Orange.
#10, Grumbacher Cadmium Yellow Deep,
#11, Winsor and Newton Cadmium Yellow.
#12, Grumbacher Cadmium Yellow Middle.
#13, YYYY, Winsor and Newton Yellow, warm,
#14, Liquitex Lemon Yellow, cool.

The second row also goes from dark to light, since the paper's white, paint from light to dark. Out line your whites in pencil before you start. Don't paint over the pencil lines or they will become black pigment and permanent. Paint up to the line, let it dry, erase the line, don't damage the paper, then paint in the adjacent color.

#15, MMMM, Liquitex Acra Violet, the neutral cool Magenta to mix with blues. I don't find use for the warm PV19.
#16, MMMC, Grumbacher Finest Thalo Purple.
#17, CCCC, Grumbacher Thalo Blue.
#18, Talens Ultramarine Light on top, and Liquitex Ultramarine Blue on the bottom.
#19, MMCC, Winsor and Newton French Ultramarine Blue,
#20, Grumbacher Cobalt Blue on top, Liquitex Cobalt Blue on the bottom.
#21, CCCY, Talens Turquoise Blue.
#22, CCYY, Grumbacher Finest Thalo Green.
#23, Grumbacher Finest Emerald Green.
#24, Liquitex Permanent Green Light on top, and Bocour Emerald Green on the bottom, opaque warm and cool.
#25, Bocour Olive Green.
#26, YYMM, Grumbacher Cadmium Orange.
#27, Bocour Cadmium Yellow Medium.
#28, Grumbacher Academy Yellow-Green. It has more yellow in it than Grumbacher Yellow-Green.
There was no transparent yellow when I first made this palette, since then first I made my own, then many brands appeared. None were as brilliant or pure as my current Tartrazine mix. I also made a water soluble yellow ink (new window) for my plotter from Tartrazine. It made a nice colored acrylic paint (new window) but it bled through the acrylic medium. I discovered the problem while washing the first day's work on a new location painting, June 2013, it lost a major battle in the paint wars.

A note on ammonia: Ammonia is the solvent for latex masking fluid. I use ammonia to clean acrylic brushes. Latex thinned this way makes very precise lines possible. Isopropyl alcohol is an excellent acrylic brush cleaner also. Even on kolinsky sable brushes.


 * D.S. New Gamboge is equal to the hue of Original Transparent Indian Yellow Brown Side but they call it New Gamboge. It is PY150, a Nickel Azo complex. PY100 is also equal to the Original Transparent Indian Yellow Brown Side and it is only soluble in water. Nickel dissolves better in oil. The Old Holland Indian Yellow Brown Side synthetic made in 1900 is an oil based pigment.
Two tubes, one color. Indian yellow original was in two parts, the normal brown and purified yellow-orange. Old holland makes both colors in oil.
 * Indian Yellow hue, PY108, Anthrapyrimidine Yellow is also equal in color to the Original Indian Yellow Br/s. I like the nickel complex for oil and PY100 Tartrazine for watercolors. 6-6-2006, Golden Acrylics has some new colors in this range. Indian Yellow Golden Hue, Arylide Yellow PY7, Nickel Complex Azo PY150 and Quinacridone PR206, this new pigment to be released in the fall of 2006, Quinacridone/Nickel Azo Gold. Also for the brown side Indian yellow they have Nickel Azo yellow, PY150, a very good transparent yellow pigment.

If I could have only 3 tubes of color to paint a full color, water color painting;

3RCW color watercolor palette.
 * Indian yellow Br/s, PY100 (the denser it is the browner it is) or PY150 are very important, they tint to a Cadmium Yellow hue and make good greens.
 * Quinacridone Magenta PR122, a medium magenta.
 * Pathalo Cyan PB15, PB16 & PB17, or Thalo Cyan PB15 are all phthalocyanine blue but that is also a misnomer also, referring to the incorrect red-yellow-blue as primary colors. Manganese blue transparent is made by fixing barium manganate on a barium sulfate base is also a cyan color. Today it is also made from phthalocyanine by some companies and called a hue.

5RCW color watercolor palette.
Indian yellow, PY150, nickel azo complex Yellow is the brown/side. PY108, PY153 or PY100 are Orange/side Indian yellows.
Burnt Sienna natural, PBr7
Magenta, PR122
Ultramarine Blue, PB29
Cyan, PB15

6RCW color watercolor palette.
Indian yellow, PY150, nickel azo complex Yellow (with or without) PR108, Anthrapyrimidine
Burnt Sienna natural,  PBr7
Magenta, PR122
Dioxazine Purple, PV23 R/s
Ultramarine Blue, PB29
Cyan, PB15

12RCW color watercolor palette.
Indian yellow, PY150, nickel azo complex Yellow (with or without) PR108, Anthrapyrimidine
Cad Yellow Light opaque, PY35
Burnt Sienna natural,  PBr7
Venetian Red Oxide, PR101
Quinacridone Magenta, PR122
Carbazole Violet, PV23 R/s
Ultramarine Blue, PB29
Cobalt Blue, PB28
Pathalo Cyan, PB15.3 or manganese blue, a similar hue.
Turquoise, PB15 / PG36
Green Yellow/side, PG7
Yellow Green
New Green Gold has got to be next.

See the Top-tone and Under-tone of pigments (new window)

Making PRIMARY Watercolors (new window)

Making Soft Pastels At Home (new window)

Prismacolor pencils mounted on the Real Color Wheel, (new window)

Chapter 11b
Mastic Medium, Oil Media, Make Your Own Oil Media, Table of Mixed Oil & Balsam Media



THE MOST PAINTERLY MEDIUM OF ALL is this, 75% damar and 25% Beeswax paste. Dissolve the beeswax 1:1, in warm turpentine to make the paste and store it. This medium will not yellow. Add 2% drier (yellows) and it will be dry in twelve hours. If you want a gloss, use a damar varnish finishing coat. The Romans mixed this medium and pigments to make their "wax cakes" which were like our tube paints, except they could be redissolved with turpentine. This medium is a big loose paint, you can change your work in progress, great for murals. damar gives wax the smooth slippery stroke and allows a buildup of paint.

Too much wax will cause the lifting of wet under-strokes, Wax will dry-brush without drag, turpentine will keep the "soup" flowing. In the B.C. old day's of painting, Sandraca was used as an intermediate isolating and hard final finish glaze, because it was alcohol based, today, since sandarac (sandracca) is not widely available, get it at Shellac can be used as an intermediate glaze but not a final finishing varnish. Damar will do that job, or the harder sandarac.


#1, MY PAINTING MEDIUM, USED TO MAKE THE PAINT FLUID 4 parts Stand Oil, 2 parts Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil, 2 parts Venetian Turpentine, 1 part Turpentine, 1/2 part Wax, 2% Drier.

#2, PAINTING MEDIUM, USED BY MANY ARTIST'S 4 parts Stand Oil, 3 parts Sun Dried Linseed Oil, 1 part Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil, 1 part damar, 2% Drier.

#3, PAINTING MEDIUM, THE HARD WORKING GLAZE 3 parts Venetian Turpentine, 2 parts Sun Thickened Linseed Oil, 1/2 part Turpentine, it should just drip off the palette knife. Add 2% COBALT DRIER if you must, 5 DROPS DRIER PER 2 1/2 OZ. OF MEDIUM dries in 12 to 15 hours. Driers yellow the paint in time.

For the artist.

% Stand Oil  Sun Thickened Linseed Oil Cold Pressed Linseed Oil  Balsam Resin Turpentine. Dorland's or Beeswax Drying Mark, Comments
1 part Stand Oil               Wrinkles and skins, add: turpentine, raw cold pressed, balsam, or mastic.
1 part Stand Oil    1/4 part
Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 
    Needs no turpentine.   No drier. Three days dry.  A
1 part Stand Oil  1 part Sun Thickened Linseed Oil          1/4 part, Dorland's Wax  Dry in 24 hours A+
1 part Stand Oil  3/4 part Sun Thickened Linseed Oil  1/4 part, Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil      1/8 part Turpentine 1/8 part Wax   2% drier, No tack, smooth blend, nice. My current medium until I use it up. A+
Stand Oil 1 part,  Sun Dried Linseed Oil 1/2 part, 1/2 part Raw Cold Linseed oil        1/8 part Wax  Add 2% Cobalt Drier to dry in 18 hours or get a fifth day light tack. A+  I used this formula for all  my 1995 paintings.  Sun dried linseed oil settles strokes. 
1 part Stand Oil,    1/2 part Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil,  1/2 part
Venetian Balsam,
  1/4 part Turpentine, 1/8 part Wax, 2% Drier. A+ Maybe the best medium. 
1 part Stand Oil  1/4 part Sun Dried Linseed Oil  1/4 part Cold Pressed Linseed Oil  1/2 part Venetian          A beautiful balanced paint and glaze. A+
1 part Stand Oil      1 part Venetian Balsam    The turpentine evaporates quickly and needs constant replenishing,   No drier, tacky 8 days. Cobalt Drier 2% dry in 12 hours. This mix has an edge bleeding problem.  A-
1 part
Stand Oil 
    1/2 part Venetian          A little edge bleeding, some pick up. B
1 part Stand Oil      1/4 part Venetian          More pick up, wet 16 hours. C
1 part Stand Oil        1/5 part damar    1/4 part Wax    Stayed thick, doubled paint. A+
    Cold Pressed Linseed Oil Adding Venetian Balsam makes a great blending glaze.   Turpentine isn't needed to thin it out. - Nice glaze with turpentine.    Three days dry.  The drier is always optional. An all round good medium used by itself. Cold pressed oil adds slippery to Stand Oil. It has no flow-out problem. A
  Sun Dried Linseed Oil 1 part,  Cold Pressed Oil 1 part, Venetian 1/2  part,   Turpentine 1/4 part,   2% Cobalt Drier optional. A+
        3/4 damar   1/4 Wax   Smooth and shows brush strokes, very painterly. Best for murals. A+
Alkyd Oil Paint,
It's made of long oil, modified alkyd resin.
        The new alkyd is fast drying and has no solvent action on dried layers   Without added oil,
alkyd oil dries in 3
hours, non-yellowing.
Dried oil paint can chip off dried successive layers of oil paint unless a sticky medium like an alkyd resin is used, or stand oil, balsam or resin. A.

Turpentine in paint gives the most control but removes body.

Linseed Oil wrinkles and skins by itself, it has no solvent action and no adhesion qualities.
Linseed Oil yellows, layers must be dry between coats or they can chip off.
*Half Oil = Stand Oil 50%, Turpentine 50%. A+ medium. You have to replace the evaporating turpentine often.
Boiled Oil = 200 degrees C for several hours, no siccatives (an old technique to speed drying) Yellows more than sun dried oil.
Sun Thickened Linseed Oil = Three sunny days in a shallow lead pan 1/8 deep or less.

Alkyd Oil Paint,
Alkyd is fast drying, has no solvent action on dried layers. It's made of long oil, modified alkyd resin. Alkyd resins are sticky and has no problem adhering to under layers. All oils yellow in time.

Resin Mastic Paint, won't dissolve in mineral sprits, non-yellowing.
*Oil-less paint. Mastic and turpentine dissolves and redissolves itself so it's joined layers are a complete film. Mix it with up to 50% bees wax. A+. Bees wax emulsified with ammonia called cera colla also doesn't yellow as the Egyptian Grave Paintings show.

When making a big blend of sky and water;
Stand Oil, 1=10/10 parts, Cold Pressed Linseed Oil, 2/5= 4/10 part, Wax 1/5=2/10 part, damar 1/10 part. This medium stays very wet, very good blending, smooth and workable, no drier 2 1/2 days wet. Work and pickup with Turpentine, glazes well.

Cobalt Drier 2% solution = dipping the palette knife 1/8 inch into the drier and mixing it with 1/4 inch of paint. Or when making a 2 1/2 oz. bottle of medium, add 5 drops drier, dries in 12 to 15 hours. Four drops dries in 20 hours. Cobalt drier yellows more than oil.

Damar and Venice turpentine are both self flowing.
Damar by itself takes 2 days to dry.
Damar dries differently than Oil, the whole paint film dries and dissolves as one, this is called solvent action.
*Damar and wax = A+, non-yellowing.
*Damar and Wax and turpentine make a juicy soupier medium. Very painterly - smooth easy blend.
*This has a big loose technique to change and change again - fast setting to over paint easily - Matt finish. Adds control to solvent action. Fast juicy strokes cover 100%, damar gives wax the smooth slippery soupier stroke and allows the buildup. Wax increases solvency, too much Wax dissolves and lifts under-strokes quickly. Wax will dry-brush without drag. Turpentine keeps the soup flowing - dry in two days. Add Cobalt Drier to dry in 12-15 hours. Damar dries faster without Wax. More damar gives more gloss. A+
Turpentine and Chios resin together are as old as Sandarac "B.C." Wax was added in the early A/D. It's smooth and shows brush strokes in a painterly way. Roman Wax Cakes were made like this. It's easy to pickup when you want to lift an under coat. Best for mural work, permanent and not as yellowing as oil.

Wax and paint, 50/50, strokes just slide along, no grab or bite, dry two days, wax is non-yellowing. B

Melt the wax in a double boiler or a pan in the center of a another pan of water. This will keep the wax from getting too hot and smoking or catching fire. Heat turpentine the same way and mix them 50-50. This covered mix will never harden so much that it won't break down farther with oil or damar with turpentine. This basic mix is used in Moroger's, wax and damar and wax and oil media. I made up my basic mix over ten years ago and still have it, 2-5-7.
Wax and turpentine, no drier, dry 4 days.
Wax, turpentine and 2% Cobalt drier, dry in 12 hours.
*Wax and damar, no drier, dry in 30 hours without drier. A+
Wax and Venetian turpentine, no drier, too slippery, wet 8 days.

Cold Pressed Linseed oil, dry in 3 days, good alone.
Cold Pressed Linseed Oil and 2% Cobalt Drier, dry in 12 hours.
Cold Pressed Linseed Oil - down to earth good painting medium - slippery - adds slippery to Stand Oil - no flow out - no turpentine needed - nice glaze with turpentine. Three days dry. A
Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 1 part, damar 1 part, adds bite to the oil - adds self flow to oil - needs wax - Three days dry. B+

Sun Dried Linseed Oil and Turpentine, very smooth for a long time, strokes and marks fall out. It breaks down quickly with turpentine and will run.
Sun Dried Linseed Oil and Stand Oil paints too slippery.
*Sun Dried Linseed Oil 1 part, Cold Pressed Oil 1 part, Venetian 1/2 part, Turpentine 1/4 part, 2% Cobalt Drier. A+

Stand Oil does yellow, less than cold pressed linseed oil.
Stand Oil and Turpentine, no drier, dry in 5 days.
Stand Oil and Cobalt Drier, dry 24 hours, wrinkled skin.
Stand oil by itself dries with wrinkled skin, you must add mastic or cold pressed oil.
Stand oil crawls with cobalt drier.
Stand Oil - too thick to work with, greasy and self flowing - lifts under stroke - four day dry.
Stand Oil and turpentine, dissolve the stand Oil to a consistency thicker than Raw Linseed but thinner than Sun dried. Sets very rapidly, dissolves layers quickly, lifts under layer and it is difficult to maintain painting consistency with just turpentine.
Stand Oil and turpentine, smooth - blend-able - strokes flow out by themselves in an uncontrolled manner - Bleed over - needs Linseed Oil - two day dry.
Stand Oil 1 part, Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 1/4 part, needs no turpentine. No drier. Three days dry. A
*Stand Oil 1 part, Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 3/8 part, Wax 1/4 part, damar 1/10 part = Stayed thick, doubled paint. A+
*Stand Oil 1 part, Venetian Balsam 1/2 part, Sun Dried Linseed Oil 1/4 part, Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 1/4 part, A beautiful balanced paint and glaze. A+
*Stand Oil 1 part, Sun Dried Linseed Oil 3/4, Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 1/4 part = No tack, smooth blend, nice. A+
**Stand Oil 1 part, Sun Dried Linseed Oil 1/2 part, Raw Cold Linseed oil 1/2 part, Wax 1/8 part, Fifth day light tack, add 2% Cobalt Drier to dry in 18 hours. - I used this formula for all my 1995 oil paintings. Sun Dried Linseed Oil settles strokes. A+
*Stand Oil 1 part, Sun Dried Thickened Linseed Oil 1/2 part, Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 1/2 part, Venetian Balsam Turpentine 1/4 part, Turpentine 1/4 part, Wax 1/8 part, drier 2%. Maybe the best oil medium. A+
*Stand Oil 1 part, Sun Thickened Linseed Oil 1 part, Dorland's Wax 1/4 part, dry in 24 hours. A+
*Stand Oil 1 part, Sun Thickened Linseed Oil 3/4 part, Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 1/4 part, Wax 1/8, Turpentine 1/8, and 2% drier, my current medium until I use it up. A+
Stand Oil 1 part, Venetian Balsam 1 part, plus Turpentine. The turpentine evaporates quickly and needs constant replenishing, this mix has an edge bleeding problem. No drier, tacky 8 days. Cobalt Drier 2% dry in 12 hours. A
Stand Oil 1 part, Venetian 1/2 part, a little edge bleeding, some pick up. B
Stand Oil 1 part, Venetian 1/4 part, more pick up, wet 16 hours. C

Boiled Linseed Oil paints very smoothly, it's fast drying, but runs and puddles when you add turpentine. It is better than Cold Pressed by itself and smoother than Grumbacher III.

*Maroger's Medium, Linseed oil cooked with red lead and added mastic, a great and proven painting medium, very smooth. A

Poppy Oil, nice, like a soft wax, day to day work wet in wet, soaks into ground. Apply a coat of thin shellac or egg white to the ground to prevent this. Three days dry.

Venetian Turpentine flows like Sun-thickened Linseed and Stand Oil, sticky, flows out long after the stroke. Heavy tacky drag, smooth with turpentine.
Venetian Balsam Turpentine, smooth with enough turpentine, fast setting, hard to maintain consistency, lifts under layer, dry in 15 hours.
Venetian Balsam Turpentine and Cobalt Drier, heavy flow, separates and puddles. Dry in 12 hours.
*Venetian Balsam Resin Turpentine 1 part, Raw Cold Pressed Linseed Oil 4/5 part, 2% Cobalt Drier, dries hard and glossy, best blending medium. Controllable light wash. = best glaze. A+

Grumbacher Gel - nice wax and oil feeling - no flow out like Venetian - after four days it was still 5% wet, thin with turpentine, dry in 3 days with 2% drier.
Grumbacher Gel stays thick like Zec.
Grumbacher III - Thinner than Cold Pressed Linseed - gives paint a nice bite and feel to the strokes, like Poppy Oil w/o the Wax feel. Good to use as the thinner instead of turpentine. Two days dry. A
Grumbacher Gel and Grumbacher III have thick and thin covered. The Grumbacher Gel yellows more than the Grumbacher III.

Archival Lean, fast drying. A
Archival Fat, Liquin properties. B

Liquin reduces the length of your strokes and separates them. Fast drier. B

Walnut oil plus Alkyd oil is slower drying.

*Windburg Painting Medium - needs 50% turpentine to flow - slight bite - great control. The best pre-made painterly medium I found. It does yellow slightly, like Maroger's medium, two days dry. A+ (discontinued)

Windsor Newton WinGel dries Very fast, One hour. Alkyd and drier medium.

Zec is waxy smooth, a very fast setter, holds all strokes, extends paint 100%, dry in 30 hours.
Zec and Mastic sets too fast, non yellowing, dry in 12 hours.
Zec and Cold Pressed Linseed Oil slows drying. Too much drag. C

Copal with drier drags, it dries in one day by itself. Some copals flow paint too much for location painting, good glazing for portraits, lifts lower layer.
Copal sets up fast, dries glossy, redissolves easily. Garrett Copal is the best I found, and I tried them all.
Garrett Copal 50%, Venetian Balsam 25%, Cold Pressed Linseed 25%, painted very well, A.

Linseed oil and Stand Oil wrinkle and skin by themselves.

Cold Pressed Linseed Oil - A down to earth good painting medium

Stand Oil and turpentine, dissolve the Stand Oil to a consistency thicker than Raw Linseed but thinner than Sun Dried oil. Sets very rapidly, dissolves under layers quickly, lifts under layers, it is difficult to maintain painting consistency. Smooth - blend-able - strokes flow out by themselves in an uncontrolled manner - Bleed over - needs Linseed Oil - two day dry.

Stand Oil is greasy and self flowing and lifts the under strokes. Stand Oil by itself is the slowest drying oil of all, with turpentine to keep it fluid it paints well. Stand oil does not react well with any drier. Stand oil and Venetian Turpentine, 1:1:1 with turpentine makes the best of both world's combining tacky with slick, it still has an edge bleeding problem though, balsam or resin will inhibit stand oil's tendency to wrinkle, and oil mixed in will correct the edge bleeding.

All mastic and balsam resins dry differently than oil. Their film dries as a whole, throughout, without a skin, and can be dissolved with a solvent. Because of this fact, stand, balsam or resin layers can be applied over any stage of drying paint. Oil only, may chip off an under layer if it's not completely dry and it shrinks, as oil is not a good binder by itself but stand oil and alkyd oil mediums are.

Venetian Balsam Turpentine can be re-dissolved, it imparts a high glaze and is a good binder. It flows like sun-thickened linseed oil and stand oil. By itself it has a sticky, heavy tacky drag that lifts the undercoat as you paint, turpentine will make it slick and smooth. Venetian and Stand Oil together melt the paint too much, they need Raw Linseed Oil added to make a medium worth painting with.

Damar and Mastic Varnish will dissolve with turpentine or alcohol and will disintegrate in less than one hundred years. In that sense it is not permanent. When there is damar in your paint layers the paint dries as a whole throughout, not in separate layers as oil does, and it is permanent. Mussini has the right idea in making oil paint. Don't ever use mineral sprits as a thinner.

Damar does not absorb dirt but a wax buffing will go a long way by deterring oxygenation. Water is always bad to clean with. Fresh coats of damar can be added anytime. As damar and mastic disintegrate in time they must be re-applied or melted.

Damar, Mastic and wax are the least yellowing painting mediums, less yellowing than stand oil or any other oil or balsam. Venetian also yellows less then stand oil. Raw oil is the worst yellowing, cold pressed is not nearly as bad, it's similar to Venetian. Driers are in a category by themselves, absolutely the worst yellowing agent.
Here is an oil 5 year yellowing test page link (new window).

The reason it is said to wait until a painting is dried before adding a finish is because of shrinking. Oil is the tender trap. It does not mix with under layers that are already set and does not really stick well to flat dry oil paint. Each oil painting layer dries on it's own at it's own rate. Because oil is not a sticky medium, this causes cracking. Two similar layers of oil paint, one dry over the other will not crack but can chip because it's not glued well.

Since new oil paint over dried oil paint will stick but oil is not a very sticky medium, a little stand oil, balsam or damar should be added. Glaze balsams like Venetian or Canadian stick well as does stand oil. Now if you applied damar over the undried coat of oil and glaze, the damar would dry first blocking the oxygen from reaching the oil, causing another cracking problem. The dry damar on top will hamper the oil drying underneath.

Alla prima is really the way to go in oil paints. Using a slow drying oil like poppy oil is a way to extend alla prima painting time. Damar over wet or dried oil paint works well. Yes, damar can be removed completely from an oil only painting, to apply a new coat. Or a new coat can just be applied after you wipe it down with turpentine if the gloss has gone.

If you use damar in your medium (which won't yellow like oil does) you won't have to wait at all to apply the final finish of more damar. You won't have to wait because it will bond to the damar in the painting, wet or dry. Damar varnish does not yellow, it disintegrates, oil varnish does yellow.

Here is when you don't want to wipe and remove an old damar finish because it is damar or mastic paint also.
Clean it with bread crumbs or a kneaded eraser. You fuse a disintegrating final varnish and paint with alcohol and copaiva vapor or just rub on a thin vail of copaiva balsam oil and it's as good as new. Alcohol will also dissolve resins and copals. Copaiva balsam with wood alcohol and turpentine are the cleaners, 1:1:0.5 is weak. Adding ammonia in the later stages is done also. Poppy oil is also dissolved by alcohol. Copaiva balsam helps in removing the yellow of oil varnishes as well as fusing resin varnishes.
The new varnish by GamVar by Gamblin is also removable and doesn't seem to yellow at all. But if you don't use it soon after it is mixed (it comes in two parts), it will take a long time to dry, weeks.

All mastics and balsams dry differently than oil. Their film dries as a whole, without a skin, and can re-dissolve with a solvent. Because of this fact, stand, balsam or resin layers can be applied over any stage of drying paint. Oil only, may chip off an under layer if it's not completely dry, as oil is not a good binder by itself but stand oil and alkyd oil mediums are.

Venetian Balsam Turpentine can be re-disolved, it imparts a high glaze and is a good binder. It flows like sun-thickened linseed oil and stand oil. By itself it has a sticky, heavy tacky drag that lifts the undercoat as you paint, turpentine will make it slick and smooth. Venetian and Stand Oil together melt the paint too much, they need Raw Linseed Oil to make a medium worth painting with.


Windburg Medium, pre-made, IT'S REALLY A GREAT PAINTING MEDIUM, get it before they stop making it, (Oops, they stopped already in Feb. '99, I still have my stash, I hope you have yours.) mixes 1:1 with turpentine.



Any mastic or balsam dries differently than oil, the film dries as a whole, without a skin, and can be redissolved with a solvent. Because of this fact, layers can be applied over any stage of drying paint. Oil only, may chip off an under layer if it's not completely dry, as oil is not a good binder by itself but stand oil is.

Venetian Balsam Turpentine, can be redissolved, imparts a high glaze and is a mostly non yellowing and good binder. It flows like sun-thickened linseed oil and stand oil. By itself it has a sticky, heavy tacky drag that lifts the undercoat as you paint, turpentine will make it slick and smooth. Venetian and Stand Oil together melt the paint too much, they need Linseed Oil to make a medium worth painting with.

Stand Oil is greasy and self-flowing and lifts the under-strokes. Stand Oil by itself is the slowest drying oil of all, with turpentine to keep it fluid it paints well. Stand oil does not react well with any drier, it does yellow. Stand oil and Venetian Turpentine, 1:1:1 with turpentine makes the best of both world's combining tacky with slick, it still has an edge bleeding problem though, Venetian Turpentine or damar will inhibit Stand Oil's tendency to wrinkle, and oil mixed in will correct the edge bleeding caused by the balsam.

Linseed oil and Stand Oil wrinkle by themselves, add damar or balsam for better drying and adhesive qualities.

Cold Pressed Linseed Oil is an all round good medium used by itself. It has no flow-out and turpentine isn't needed to thin it out. Adding Venetian turpentine and drier make it a great blending glaze. Without the drier this medium still yellows, unlike Venetian balsam, damar and Poppy oil.

Poppy Oil paints like soft wax, very nice, it yellow's the least of the oils and is very slow drying so it can be painted into for days, great for portraits. Most pigments are ground in poppy oil with a small addition of wax to retard drying in the tube.

Alkyd Oil Paint is made of long oil, it's fast drying and has no solvent action on dried paint, so successive layers can chip off the shrinking drying under paint. Unless the under coat is completely dry. Mix in a sticky medium like stand oil, Balsam, Alkyd Resin or Liquin.

I made my own Maroger's Medium, it's truly a great medium.
Here is my web page guide to all media, plus how to make Maroger's at home. (new window)

Chapter 11c

Jan. 20th, 2012, The history of art is trying to be re-written.

My colorwheel page was dropped by Google in 2011, it's still can't be found as a link on a Google search in 2013. I keep all the logs and screen shots of Google's searches to show it was sudden. This site, the main page for the Real Color Wheel colorwheel.htm (new window) since 2000 (10 years) had been number one for the terms "colorwheel" or "color wheel". First in the Links and than in the Images when that was introduced. This is the second time it was dropped "blacked-out" and not show on Google's first fifty pages. It took several months to come back the first time. This time I have seen two false images on different sites showing that they had the correct primary colors in a triad before I did.

Good News! I expleined how this color wheel works on wikiHow and it made it to the first page of the Google search. How to Use the Real Color Wheel (new window) has been read 25,843 times (4-14-13). But the "Like" counter dropped back to 10 and won't go up any higher.

This one is the search image for colorwheel on Google today (1-21-12), the first image is claiming to be made in 1908, notice how it mimics the 1766 colorwheel. The image of the search is here. (new window)

Wikipedia on Color Wheel

The problem is three-fold, The colors didn't exist back then and pigment wouldn't survive from 1908 like in this image. The third discrepancy is the two colorwheel theories before and after this 1908 fake colorwheel. Where is the Department of Justice when you need them?

Moses Harris fake

This sample above is supposed to be the original Moses Harris colorwheel of 1766. They are saying magenta (madder lake back then and it was only close to magenta) is in a primary triad as is a cyan color that wasn't available either, they had an iron element Prussian blue which had a greenish black tint. Below is the colorwheel's layout copy with the names matching the faked 1776 colorwheel except for "scarlet red and crimson names which were taken from my site. Those names didn't exist at that time and "magenta" was not a named color yet. The Color from the Italian town of Magenta's bloody war was the color of blood, red, not magenta. I also checked with the Princeton Library (new window) where the D. Van Nostrand Co. files are kept, they had nothing. Here are the color theories before and after this alleged 1908 colorwheel.

1905, THEORY, Albert Munsell. He made a five color wheel with no triad. The principle colors he did have were, red, yellow, green, blue, and purple. No Magenta or cyan unless you conceder purple as the magenta and put cyan between green and blue. In a 5, 8 or 10 color wheel there is no triad possible. Next he darkened the colors with Black, mixed them with Gray, and tinted them with White, than numbered them all. An eight or five or ten color wheel will not work. It has to be a 3, 6, 12, 24 or 36 color wheel to have a triad and correct opposite secondaries. In the element color wheel, colors do not darken with black like in the RGB color wheel and the Munsell color wheel. This theory is still taught today in 2000.

1916, THEORY, The last color wheel (square) of college record was by Church-Ostwald. It has Yellow, Red, Sea Green and Ult. Blue at the corners. It made way for the new coal-tar colors, all pigments were replaced by their top-tone matching colors. Naples Yellow, Rubins favorite, artist's favorite for two thousand years, was replaced by a mixture of Zinc and Ocher, it is not as opaque. Pigments were moving from the Iron Age to the Oil Age. Ostwald had no regard for opacity, or raw pigment content. Only the final dried color.

Moses Harris fake (new window)

and this same one on this site's page. (new window)

Here is the original I got before 2000.
Moses Harris

As you can see a lot was copied and a lot was changed to match the Real Color Wheel.
Here is the latest search, 12-15-12, for "color wheel and colorwheel" 4 of the 5 images are the red-yellow-blue color theory, but the RCW color wheel has moved up to 4th place.
12-15-12 New Google Search colorwheel

How they made paints in 1881, PAINTS AND COLORS from the "Household Cylopedia" (new window)

PAINTS AND COLORS from the "Household Cylopedia, 1881" (305 Kb, A separate window. How to make house paints, artists paints, varnishes-and-inks in 1881).
This was put on this page to show what was happening on 1-20-12 on our internet.

The English entomologist Moses Harris (1731-1785) published an especially elegant color wheel in his slim Natural System of Colours (1766), dedicated to the Royal Academy's Sir Joshua Reynolds (and reprinted in 1811 with a dedication to Benjamin West). The color wheels of Moses Harris (1766) a 20th century reconstruction of (left) the Harris color wheel of mixtures between two "primitive" colors red, yellow and blue; (right) the Harris color wheel of mixtures between two "compound" colors orange, green and purple; note the imbalanced color distributions caused by the weak tinting strength of the blue pigment  

Harris's book briefly summarizes the established dogma of material trichromacy as a kind of commentary to his color wheels, presented as full page, hand tinted engravings. Harris is notable for his explicit recommendation of complementary color contrast, which was a subject of keen interest to late 18th century color theorists:
"If a contrast is wanting to any colour or teint, look for the colour or teint in the system [wheel], and directly opposite you will find the contrast wanted. Suppose it is required what colour is most opposite, or contrary in hue to red, look directly opposite to that colour in the system and it will be found to be green, the most contrary to blue is orange, and opposite to yellow is purple."

The Harris wheel became quite influential it was studied and used by many 19th century English painters, including Joseph Turner and it spawned many related color wheel systems: by English naturalist James Sowerby in 1809, colormaker George Field in 1817, and artist Charles Hayter in 1826.

Many of these practical problems were solved in the third statement of material trichromacy, by the entrepreneurial German printer Jakob Christoffel Le Blon (1667-1741), in his Coloritto: or the Harmony of Coloring in Painting Reduced to Mechanical Practice (1725).
Le Blon is one of those many fascinating 18th century characters who focused a deep intellectual curiosity on an unexplored capitalist opportunity. He was an artisan who had read and actually understood Newton's Opticks, and credited Newton for the idea of describing color mixtures as a circle. A decade before, while in Holland, Le Blon innovated a system for using three separate printing plates, each inked with one of the painter's primary colors red, yellow or blue (and sometimes a fourth plate inked with black) to create full color mezzotint prints (right) the practical basis for today's multicolor process printing. But his key innovation was to join Newton's hue circle with the three primaries of material trichromacy, red, yellow, and blue. That was wrong but he was among the first color writers to state explicitly the difference.

Chapter 11d
Tartrazine Acrylic Paint Didn't Work


AND AN OPERA ACRYLIC. (new window)

But they both lost, Tartrazine made a nice colored acrylic paint but it bled through an acrylic medium.
I discovered the problem while washing the first day's work, it lost a major battle in the acrylic paint wars.

first acrylic palette

I made this transparent Indian yellow PY153 from the only supplier in the world, (in 2001) a museum fresco supplier, Zecchi in Florence. It's not the original Indian Yellow and it breaks down better in turpentine than water but it worked.

Tartrazine breaks down only in water, I thought it would be the best but they both bled through the acrylic medium. It's still the greatest for water colors.

Chapter 11e


My Acrylics final finish is a Urethane Resin Acrylic, high or satin gloss, of 30% Acrylic emulsion and 70% Polyurethane emulsion. Get it an any commercial paint store, after 28 years (since 1989) of my testing, it's still perfectly clear. Some say the final should be removable for cleaning purposes. I say if it doesn't yellow it doesn't need to come off.

5-24-99. Here is an art supplier I have found that has this outstanding product for outdoor billboards, for 20 years now I have had to buy this finish from furniture finishing paint suppliers. This is what he wrote me yesterday,"Regarding the ClearFlex; the resin system we use in this product has such a high resistance to water that it was tested by a roofing tile manufacture in Mexico; they now buy a thousand gallons a month (without the UV inhibitors)."
For a long time now, paintings (oil) have needed a protective coating, this layer has always turned brown and had to be removed at some point. Now, with this and other acrylic-polyurethane emulsions we do not have to ever change or remove it. Alcohol will remove it. 1 mil thick will block 99% transmission of ultraviolet light. (If you use wax in your paint, you can't use a water based finish.)
Thanks Gary! Triangle Coating, 1930 Fairway Dr., San Leandro, California 94577-5631
Here's your Email connection to Triangle Coating.

Synthetic paints were invented in 1900 by a German chemist named Dr. Otto Rohm who invented the first synthetic acrylic resin which became the roots of modern day acrylics.
In the 1930s this acrylic resin was brought to America by the company named Rohm & Haas and is now know as Dupont. Plexiglas is solid acrylic. Water based acrylics are made by polymerizing the acrylic monomer by emulsification. Acrylics are plastic, they can be made water soluble or as hard as plexi glass. They won't yellow and as water based media acrylic paint, and won't harden and chip.
These are great paints that dry insoluble to water, smooth blends are easier made with thin washes over dried paint. Mistakes are corrected by over painting with white, twice, to get back to pure white, before repainting. This must be done because the new acrylic colors are not very opaque and show under colors. Pencil lines will also show through, it is better to draw with a non-waxy chalk and brush off the residue with a feather duster. Then, paint in the outlines with a light ultramarine blue, or yellow where appropriate. Remember, the outline belongs to the object behind. Contrast of color and value separate the objects, not their outlines.
In 1931, Golden Artist Colors (the company then known as Bocour Artist Color) introduced their version of acrylics but in only a few colors. These paints were mixed with turpentine and could be combined with oils.

Latex and acrylics and turpentine based acrylics were in a battle for supremacy in the 1950's, they did not mix.
That is when Liquitex introduced their acrylic paint. Today there is a complete set of media to alter the handling properties in many brands. Acrylics can be painted in thin layers or thickly without cracking. Acrylics have transparent, translucent and opaque color pigments and new colors are being added faster then in any other medium.

Here is a complete acrylic palette. Click to see it. (new window) Most of them are Liquitex acrylics because I liked the soft plastic tubes. Winsor and Newton's colors are stronger more pigmented colors.

01, Cadmium Yellow Lemon Light
02. Cadmium Yellow Medium
03. Cadmium Red Light
04. Cadmium Red Medium
05. Naphthol Crimson,
06. Acra Violet, warm Magenta
07. Yellow Oxide
08. Red Oxide
09. Burnt Sienna, Winsor Newton
10. Burnt Umber
11. Dioxazine Purple
12. Ultramarine Blue, Winsor Newton
13. Thalo Blue
14. Turquoise Deep
15. Thalo Green
16. Brilliant Yellow Green
17. Light Emerald Green
18. Permanent Green Light
19. Vivid Lime Green
20. Green Gold

There are 42 Liquitex colors in all, nice. (new window)

Acrylic photo pigment chart of opposite colors to make neutral darks and browns. (new window)

Start Painting Tips Here. (new window)

All my acrylic paintings. (new window)

Alkyd oil medium (new window)

End Page, links my latest painting with tips, all pages link forward and backward. (new window)

Chapter 11f
Painting Sun Light, Night Painting, Colors of Water, Water Grids, Water Diamonds



1, Direct Incident Light is parallel and from the sun.
2. Indirect, omni, fog and Clear Light are shadowless.
3. Shadows have warmer interiors. Warm shadows cool light, cool shadows warm light.
4. Highlights reflect the sun or sky.
5. Reflected Light, sparkles, are the angle of incidence with the sun.
6. Local Color is the main basic color of each object.
7. Chiaroscuro is contrast caused by a single light source.
8. Aerial Perspective, (new window) the color of air is cyan, cyan deepens to Ultramarine Blue.


Converging and Expanding Shadows.

Cross-calibrate the position of the sun by finding it's vertical elevation above the horizon line in minutes. In front of you the horizon line is at 00Vertical minutes. Behind you the horizon line is at 30Vertical minutes. 15Vertical minutes is the azimuth (vertical top center). Find the sun's position left to right of the center line of your painting by laying the clock horizontally on the ground (30 min.=180º). Straight ahead is 00H minutes, to your right, behind you is 30H minutes. Directly above you is 15V00H. Above you a little to the right would be, 15V05HR. Above you a little to the left would be 15V05HL. The sun rises 5 minutes later each day.

The sun's light is parallel, our perception of it can change.
Standing to view a row of front lit trees from the front, the shadows will seem to converge inward.

Standing to view the front of back lit trees will seem to make the shadows seem to expand outward.
Viewing trees from below makes them seem to converge at the top.
Viewing trees from above makes them seem to converge at the bottom.

In the morning the main color oppositions are Cadmium Yellow light and Ultramarine Blue, afternoon colors tend more to Magenta and Thalo Green, evening colors are Thalo Blue and Cadmium Red shadows.

Diffraction enhances a painting rule, "It's darkest next to the light and lightest next to the dark". Diffraction also is the only way to project the light color magenta in its pure state. Next is painting at night and painting water.


Notice How Your Eye Compensates Color While the Photograph Doesn't.

Painting at night, (new window).

A painting about waves. (new window)

On water, the area behind a wave is lighter than the wave because of the reflection of the sky. That is opposite to a rock on land, where behind it is darker.

Here are the different colors of light I look for on water;
1. The sun's reflections, which happen on the incident angle.
2. Sky and Cloud Reflections.
3. Transparent or Opaque water's color.
4. Transparent water bottom's color.
5. Shadows from the top of the water, under the water.

WATER GRIDS (new window)

On the ocean water grid's start from the horizons center line of your picture and radiate outward toward the foreground. In flowing water these lines will bend to show the direction and movement of the flow. On the ocean, crossing grid lines show both the diminishing distance and stop the action at the peak of the waves.


A water diamond can have a sparkle at the incident angle, if there is one. It is peaked at the top and rounded on the bottom, they form with their ends on the concentric rings around you. You are seeing directly into the water's depth, at a 90º angle of incidence. If the sun were directly overhead these diamonds would sparkle with the sun's reflection all around you instead of being dark objects with or without points of light. Paint them with a flat brush to make pointed ends.

Stop the action of waves at these five distinct points and time the rhythm to position the succeeding wave patterns, they have to be logical.
1, Flat.
2, Face.
3, Fall.
4, Explosion, higher than the face was.
5, After Tumbles.
6, Beach Wash incoming is lead by foam.
7, Beach wash receding leaves dark sand and shiny rocks.

Chapter 11g



To reach a dark neutral use the darkest form of yellow, orange or red (all of which are burnt umber) to mix with its opposite color.
Burnt umber and blue, cobalt blue or cyan will mix neutral darks with umber.
Darken an orange object by first adding red, then add raw sienna or burnt sienna or burnt umber depending on the color needed.
Burnt Sienna is dark orange. Burnt umber is a darker orange.
Burnt Sienna and cobalt blue will make burnt umber.
Cad Orange has twice as much opaque yellow as red does so you have to mix it with yellows darker form (which is burnt umber) to reach a neutral dark.
Cad Orange and cobalt blue will only make a neutral gray because orange is opaque with 3/4 yellow and 1/4 magenta, that amount of yellow will prevent it from mixing to a really dark neutral, it makes a neutral gray instead.
Burnt umber is the darkest orange, burnt umber and cobalt blue will mix neutral dark which can be lightened to a neutral gray, all neutral darks can be lightened to neutral gray.
Red Light will mix a red oxide hue and a burnt umber hue with cyan.
Red Light will mix a neutral dark with cyan.

Darken a yellow object first with graduated color oxides like yellow ocher light, medium or dark.
Adding blue to any yellow color less then raw or burnt umber brings the color to a green side which is not normally natural looking.
Brown with a varying amount of blue works best. Add that mixture to any yellow oxide color to darken it.
Orange will darken farther with the addition of its opposite color cobalt blue which will make a brown.
Orange darkens first with the addition of red. Red lightens with the addition of orange.
Red darkens with its opposite color cyan and mixes the color red oxide, more cyan will mix a neutral dark.

Cyan first darkens to blue, like the sky.
Cyan and red darken neutral.
Blue and red oxide or brown (both are dark reds) make a dark neutral.

The rest of this color wheels colors will darken by adding the opposite color until it reaches neutral dark.
All Greens darken with magenta, all magentas darken with green.
All yellow-greens darken with blue-purple, all blue-purples darken with transparent yellow-green.
Transparent Indian yellow Org/s can be an orange hue in its mass-tone or a cad yellow light hue in its tint.
Transparent Indian yellow Br/s can be a yellow oxide hue in its mass tone or a cad yellow light hue in its tint.

Therefore, anyone working with pigments can reliably find truly opposite colors, which will always mix to a neutral dark without using black pigment.
An artist can create the shadowed areas of any colored object by combining that color with its opposite as found on this color wheel.
This mixture will match nature every time, unlike the results obtained using other color wheels.
It works with both pigment and light, the first color wheel ever to do that.

Chapter 11h


First let's make a list of all descriptive color words.
After Image Colors, (new window)
The involuntary complementary color shift retained in your memory after viewing any hue.

Any number of adjacent colors on the color wheel.

Brightness refers to high key colors.

Another name for color or it could be the pureness or intensity of any color.

Complimentary colors
In the Real Color Wheel red is opposite cyan. Cyan is between green and blue.
Albert Munsell, made an eight color wheel with the wrong oppositions, his triad was lopsided, and he had no Cyan. Next he darkened the colors with Black, mixed them with Gray, and tinted them with White, and numbered them all. This is still taught today :( Red is opposite cyan not blue-green. Eight will not make a correct color wheel, it has no opposites. Here is how to make a color wheel with opposite colors. (new window)

Gray scale
A value scale from black to white, in steps ranging from 0 to 10 or 1 to 9 or even 1 to 6, but showing gradual changes of an equal measure from one to the next.
See color wheels in a gray scale format. (new window)

High Key
Paintings with predominately lighter values are said to be "high key".

Accent, usually reflected illusion of the light source, such as a glimmer on the side of a glass vase caused by the fluorescent lights or a window illuminating the object.
A culminating (nearest) point often contains a highlight. Caused by a direct angle of incidence, a bright point.

The name of any color in any color wheel, another name for color.

Luminance is brightness on the gray scale. In photography, Pan film will show red as gray, in Ortho film, red is black. Newspapers use ortho film.

The wet color right out of the tube.

Mid-tone, halfway between the light and shadow colors.

Optical Mixtures
Colors that are juxtaposed and at a distance are perceived as a mixture. In painting it's called Pointillism or Divisionism as exemplified by Seurat's technique.

Primary Colors
The colors that make all other colors. Yellow, Magenta and Cyan.

Saturation relates to the purity of the hue.

A hue compromised with black to reduce its value and intensity or two opposite colors mixed to make a shadow color.
The shade by sunlight is different. Any color can become darker by adding it's opposite/complementary color. This gives the same dark effect as adding black only the colors don't die a gray death in my opinion.

Successive Contrast - After Image
The complementary after image that appears when you look at a color for a while and then look away.

Any hue that has been mixed with white or a clear medium.

Grays added to any color, or neutral tints which can also gray, added to any color. Natural changes and transitions of one color to another.

Adding white to a color.

Adding a clear medium to any color.

Gray scale Values and Aerial Perspective Values
Value is defined as the relative lightness or darkness of a color. Lightness and darkness are color modifier terms.
White is 100% value, black or a neutral dark is 0% value. Lightness is than describing adding white and thus a higher value. Adding air/distance to a color also lightens a colors value.
Yellow is innately lighter in value than blue.
Matching colors on a gray scale set of values. Aerial perspective values are different and should be related to the reduction of the local hue because of distance. I don't think the gray scale value scale has much painterly use in a color painting.. Here is a  gray scale of value. (new window)

If I were to make a gray value scale of color I would use Ortho negative film. This recognizes red to be black, this film is used in black and white print processing. Ortho film would not make red and green the same value. Pan negative film recognizes red and green to be mid-gray, both the same value.
Value is the inherent lightness or darkness of a color hue.

Warm colors
Range from yellow-green to purple.

Cool colors
Range from blue to green.
Cyan darkens into Ultramarine Blue.

Opaque pigment is a dense solid, like a rock.

Transparent pigment
Transparent you can see through, like glass, water, dye or stain. A Tyndall beam of light will pass through a transparent solution unseen.
Wax, oil, balsom and mastic are transparent turpentine based vehicles to hold pigments, mastic and balsom will not yellow.
Aluminum hydroxide, is a mix of potash and alum precipitated together in solutions, it will sponificate clear in oil.

Translucent, is a colloidal solid, particles of solid so small there continually suspended but not dissolved. Milk is a colloidal, solid fat dispersed in clear water, add more water and it becomes more translucent. It can always be more translucent but never transparent, the beam of light will always show the colloidal particles. Vapor can be a colloidal transparent.

Clay, is hydrated aluminum silicate, and ranges from transparent to opaque. It is decomposed feldspar.
Pigments that contain clay are Ultramarine Blue, Ochers and Burnt Ochers, Umbers, Raw and Burnt Sienna, Green Umbers, Venetian Red, not Naples Yellow.

Opaque, Chalk, calcium carbonate, converts to Plaster of Paris when heated. It's best in pastels.

Barite, is an oil paint translucent Mineral White extender.
Barite, is heavy spar, mineral white, barium sulphate, it's translucent in oil and used to extend the Cadmium Red substratum dye pigment. Barite is a translucent Mineral White in oil paint.

Gypsum, is a hydrated calcium sulphate called light spar, it ranges from transparent to a calcined White that will sponificate clear in oils and is used in cements when calcined. It contains some sulfur that will effect some pigments.


Ultramarine Blue is colloidal sulfur in a substratum form deposited on a base. A translucent pigment on a translucent base of Barium Sulfate or Aluminum Hydroxide.

Cadmium Yellow is a substratum colloidal color precipitated on a filler or base such as clay or barium. Cadmium Lemon is also a vat pigment precipitated on Titanium White as a base, it's an opaque sulfur color.

Cadmium Yellow and Ultramarine Blue mix into a green opaque color is they are both substratum colors and the yellow is precipitated on an opaque base. What you get from this mix is the first step in neutralizing yellow or blue. In contrast, if you mix dark yellow transparent Indian Yellow Br/S and Ultramarine Blue, they would make only an adequate dark because the Ultramarine Blue coloring is on a translucent or opaque base. However.. if you mix two permanent transparent colors like; PB60 anthraquinone = Transparent Blue Deep and transparent yellow PY150 to PY153 dioxine nickel complex + Isoindolin = Indian Yellow, you will almost get to a neutral dark. I'll use the burnt umber and ultramarine for the darks and Indian yellow for the medium and light colors.

Green Ocher, Yellow Ocher, Sienna, Red Ocher and Brown ocher are the iron particles precipitated on clay, they can never be transparent, only degrees of translucent or opaque. Sienna is close to transparent because it's iron in a silica clay base.

When three primary transparent pigment colors are combined they will form a neutral dark. Use the Spectra PR122 or Sennelier PR122 transparent Quinacridone Magenta added to a Cyan Ferric-ferrocyanide (Iron) or a Cyan Phthalocyanine (Copper), they would make the secondary color ultramarine blue. Than add the (Nickel) yellow for the complete triad.

Staining, coats an opaque solid with a transparent or colloidal dye, both colors are seen in combination on the solid opaque, The more dispersed the solid the more translucent the liquid.

Bleeding, colors happen when the dye separates from the solid or the colloidal color moves within the drying medium.

Yellow will mix either analogously around the rim of the color wheel, making Yellow-Green or Green with Cyan, or Orange and Red with Magenta. Or it can move toward the center of the color wheel and be a warm tan or brown as in the iron crystals.

Chapter 11i


Picture of a complete palette layout to paint anything in front of you, quickly. (new window)

There is a space for each of these colors on my 27 RCW COLOR OIL PALETTE although I may not fill them all every time I paint.

White is in the middle of the palette. The top of the palette on the left is Dioxazine Purple, Ultramarine Blue, Cobalt Blue, Thalo Blue or O.H. transparent Manganese blue, Turquoise, Opaque Green and Thalo Green on the right. 

The left side goes from Dioxazine Purple to Burnt Umber, Bt. Sienna, Red Oxide, Yellow Ochre, Naples Yellow (or lead-tin Yellow) to Quinacridone Magenta at the bottom. 

The bottom row of colors is Quinacridone Magenta, Rembrandt Rose, Cad Red, Cadmium Orange, Indian Yellow Golden, Cadmium Yellow Medium, Gamboge, Cadmium Yellow Light, Cadmium Yellow Pale, Lead Yellow Lemon is in the bottom left corner of the palette. 

The right side is from Thalo Green on the top, then , Permanent Green Light, Green Gold, Yellow Green Opaque with Lead Yellow Light at the bottom. 

I keep a space for 27 pigments on my palette.
Below are 37 colors I keep on hand.
The TOP-TONE is adding White to the color.
The UNDER-TONE is adding clear medium.
The MASS-TONE is thick out of the tube.

I keep all 37 of these oil pigments below on hand with me, they all have their special color and pigment properties.

00. Mussini Zinc Yellow,   01. Bellini Lemon Yellow,   02. YYYY, Grumbacher Cadmium Barium Yellow Pale,   02a. YYYY, Mussini Cadmium Yellow Lemon,   04. Old Holland Gamboge Lake Extra,   05. Schmincke Mussini Cadmium Yellow Middle,   06, Old Holland Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra,   06a. Old Holland Indian Yellow Brown Lake Extra,   07. YYYM, Mussini Cadmium Orange,   08. Rembrandt Chinese Vermilion Extra,   09. YYMM, Cadmium Red Medium,   10, YMMM, Rembrandt Rose,   11. MMMM, Daniel Smith Quinacridone Magenta,   12. MMMM, Bocour, New York, Cobalt Violet Phosphate,   13. MMMC, Liquitex Carbazole Dioxazine Purple,   14. Grumbacher Dioxazine Purple,   15. Ultramarine Violet,   16. MMCC, Blocks French Ultramarine Blue,   17. Mussini Ultramarine Light,   18. Mussini Cobalt Blue Light,   19. CCCC, Grumbacher Thalo Blue,   20. CCCY, Rembrandt Blue Green,   21. CCYY, Mussini Phthalo Green,   22. Mussini Opaque Green Light,   23. Grumbacher Thalo Green Yellow/Side,   24. Mussini Permanent Green Light,   25. Winsor and Newton Sap Green permanent,   26. CYYY, Old Holland Yellow-Green Organic Opaque,   27. Mussini Naples Yellow Light,   27a. Mussini Naples Yellow Deep,   28. Mussini Yellow Raw Ocher,   29. Mussini Translucent Yellow Oxide,   30. Rembrandt or Mussini Asphaltum,   31. Mussini Raw Umber,   32. Mussini Burnt Umber,   33. Mussini Burnt Sienna,   34. Blocks Venetian Red,   35, Rembrandt Chromium Green Oxide,   36. Grumbacher Green Earth,   37. Mussini Genuine Golden Green, 

Chapter 11j
Color in Elements Match the Real Color Wheel, Pigments In Oil Paint & Acrylic Paint, Acrylics Win the Paint War


Chemical Classes, (new window), like Arylide, Pigment Names like PB15, Color Index Names and Natural Pigments, all located on the Real Color Wheel. A complete lineup of pigments.

Crystals, will show Brown, Yellow and Red are different hues of the same coloring element. They will also show that elements stay within their color boundaries. The painting properties of a pigment depends on the element making that pigment. The copper element could never be yellow, each element has its own limited range. Copper is an example, with its limited range going straight across the board. The Cuprite crystal [Cu2O], is a transparent Red-YYMM, 6RCW#3 on my Standard Color Index. The ore of copper [Cu] is an opaque Orange-Red-Brown, off the full chroma rim, 6RCW#5.2. It's opposite color on the other side of center is Cyan, from Copper's dissolved sediment color.

Turquoise is a transparent phosphate crystal of copper, Cyan, on the Standard Color Index.

Red-Scarlet, plus its complement, Cyan-Turquoise or Cyan Yellow/side, all oppositions equal Neutral White light or neutral dark on the RCW pigment color wheel. The transparent Mercury sulfide crystal, [HgS], is the Standard Color for Scarlet. Cinnabar also forms as an opaque mass, and makes the perfect opaque Red Vermilion, it also makes colors ranging toward the center, through the color brown. Mercury won't cross over the center, as most elements won't.

The transparent Yellow-Green crystal, Sphalerite, [Zn,Fe]S, is RCW#11. Sphalerite is the ore of zinc. It has an analogous color range from Green to Red, when it becomes allochromatic with the addition of the foreign element iron to the compound. Some elements like carbon, iron, fluorine, and zirconium can produce the entire color circle.

Transparent yellow moves to brown in the elements Iron, [Fe], and Titanium, [Ti], as in the allochromatic Citron crystal, Quartz, and the idiochromatic Sphene, which has Titanium already in the compound.

Transparent yellow can also turn red with the element iron, as in the Sphalerite crystal, and Titanium dioxide turns red or brown in the Anatase crystal.


Acrylic paints may well be the all time winner in the Paint Wars. It doesn't scratch off, dissolve, smudge, yellow, crack, chip or peel off. The medium doesn't smell and costs less, there are more colors available in acrylic paints. Some will say oil paints easier but thats just inexperience. That sounds like a winner to me.

PIGMENTS, are transparent, translucent or opaque, some need added bulk and are precipitated on transparent, translucent or opaque bases.

BARYTA WHITE, This is a heavy spar with very little coloring power, usually it's a pigment additive. Barite is crystal of barium sulfate, called heavy spar. Barite is a non-metallic mineral crystal mined in England, filling the cavities in limestone. As barium it's an extender in lead based and cadmium paints.

HYDRATE OF ALUMINA, alumina, the oxide of aluminum present in clay, transparent to translucent


New 2003, Liquitex Acra Gold brown to yellow Qinacridone, and Van Dyke Red Hue brown to red.

With the introduction of the Pyrrole family of pigments in 1988, there appear to be good offsets for cadmiums in terms of these identified criteria, for the orange to medium red range. Additional products utilizing this chemistry, currently under development by the industry, will extend this range into the darker reds. The pyrrole family of pigments is currently represented by three colors, Pyrrole Orange, Pyrrole Red Light, and Pyrrole Red. These are strong tinting, high chroma colors with excellent light fastness but without a deep mass tone. They are perfect opaque colors.

The Bismuth Vanadate family offers the attributes being sought, heavy metals (bismuth and vanadium) assure opaqueness. The arylide yellows contain no metals and are translucent.

Although the properties of these new organic pigments are in many ways similar to cadmium colors, they are not identical in every respect. They are translucent not opaque. Why aren't they adding them to clay to make them opaque? Cadmiums are very poisonous

We as artists have lost opaque lead antimony yellow and a great transparent magnesium euxanthate yellow that was called Indian Yellow because we had no champion. Today we have three dual-toned chemical pigments for Indian Yellow, Isoindolinone Yellow, Nickel Dioxine Yellow and Arylide Yellow and only Bismuth as the opaque pigment yellow.

As you can see, we as artists may have to contend with another set of pigment color properties. They don't relate to the color properties we had at the turn of the century.

More great news, 2003, Liquitex has a new great medium for acrylics. It's called, Blending and Painting Medium. It extends drying time a little and makes blending edges a lot easier. It's clear and fluid like water.

BROWN IS DARK YELLOW IN PIGMENT. Yellow is the warmest color and the fastest to turn cool with the pigment Black turning it Green, never brown. So by using black pigment, Yellow is disabled except for the muddier and grayer green spectrum. Don't use the pigment Black in landscapes, period. Any dark neutral is is easy to mix with five different sets of opposition colors. Six including Cadmium Orange and Cobalt Blue, but they won't make a black, only an eight on the grayscale. (new window)

Here is a full color wheel of pre-made commercial pigments. The color wheel is like a clock face, Yellow on top and "Read Red Right", 12:00=Yellow, 4:00=Magenta, and 8:00=Cyan, these are the primaries of pigment.

Chapter 11k


01. Lemon Yellow, 02. Indian Yellow Orange/side , 03. Cadmium Orange, 04.Cadmium Red Medium Light, 05. Naples Yellow Light, 06. Yellow Brown Lake Extra, 07. Yellow Ocher, 08. Venetian Red, 09. Burnt Sienna, 10. Raw Umber, 11. Ultramarine Blue, 12. Thalo Blue, 13. Purple, 14. Magenta Quinacridone PR122, 15. Cobalt Violet Phosphate, 16. Thalo Green, 17. Burnt Umber, 18. Indian yellow Brown/side

These 18 colors are a very complete oil palette, not every one is used every time. Some of these colors can be replaced internally. For instance, Indian yellow PY150, PY100, Thalo Blue PB15 and Quinacridone Magenta PR122 can make all colors. They will make a neutral Dark, so you can paint a complete full color painting with only three oil or water based paints.

PR122 Magenta plus Thalo Green make the perfect Neutral Dark for the foreground.

Ultramarine Blue plus Burnt Umber makes another perfectly neutral dark, it has a big range of warm and colors on each side of neutral.

Thalo Blue with Cadmium Red Medium, a perfect dark to light, neutral gray. This mixture has a very short range of neutral however because of the opaque red.

Cobalt Blue and Cadmium Orange make a wide range of grays.

Purple and Orange will make an opaque Burnt Sienna.

Cadmium Orange, Cadmium Red Medium and Bt. Sienna will all make a good opaque Venetian Red.

Cadmium Lemon Yellow and Bt. Sienna will make Yellow Ocher.

Ultramarine Blue and Bt. Sienna will make Bt. Umber.

Cobalt Violet Light Phosphate transparent, (Cool Magenta), and Thalo Blue will make Violet, Purple, Ultramarine Blue, or Azure/Cobalt Blue.

A photo pigment chip chart of opposite colors to make neutral dark. (new window)
A photo pigment chip chart matching the Real Color Wheel in pigment. (new window)


A full oil palette with only 3 oil pigments. Indian Yellow Br/side makes a good dark and orange to red but Orange/side makes the brightest warm red.
Indian Yellow Orange/Side makes the best orange and red.
Indian Yellow Brown/Side makes general color mixing easier.

Full palette, 3 original colors.

The three colors used to make this color line on top were:
Old Holland Indian Yellow Br/side, PY:150 which is brown to yellow.
Grumbacher Thalo Blue PB:15.3
Daniel Smith, Old Holland and W.N. all (plus many more) use PR:122 Magenta.

01. Old Holland, Indian Yellow Lake Extra, Transparent Yellow to brown dual-toned and O.H. orange to yellow dual-toned.
02. Grumbacher Thalo Blue.
03. Quinacridone Magenta PR:122.
04. Blocks French Ultramarine Blue Light, the dark has more Magenta in it so it's a different color.
05. Grumbacher Bt. Sienna
06. Grumbacher Thalo Green.
07. Rembrandt Chinese Vermilion Extra, a translucent Red Medium. Extra means synthetic.
08. Grumbacher Cadmium Barium Yellow Pale.
09. Grumbacher Burnt Umber,
10. Grumbacher Dioxazine Purple
11. Mussini Cadmium Orange
12. Cobalt Violet Phosphate transparent, a dual-color from an almost warm Magenta to a cool pink magenta that matches the lithographic printer's magenta and mixes ultramarine blue with cyan, oil only. (Discontinued). Today 1-1-13 we have an emulsified oil-acrylic mono Opera color which will do the same thing.
13. Yellow Ocher.
14. Venetian Red.
15. Naples Yellow Light. The Antimony Lead version has not been widely produced since WW1. Kremer (new window) still supplies it though.
17. Mussini Transparent Yellow Oxide, a translucent dark tan to yellow.
18. Mussini Raw umber, a warm translucent Brown to Yellow-Brown that cools with White.
19. Mussini Green-Gold Transparent dual-tone warning up to a transparent light Yellow-Green from a mass-tone green-oxide color.
20. Grumbacher Green Earth, a translucent pigment that mixes with Rembrandt's Chinese Vermilion Extra translucent. They mix warm or cool in the flesh range, use Naples Yellow Light for the Yellow.
21. Rembrandt Chromium Green Oxide opaque.

Start with "1 yellow at the top" and "read red right" around the circle.
These oil colors make painting very easy indeed.

Chapter 11L

This clickable map (new window) shows the true opposition pigment colors for mixing neutral darks.
It will be the new "basic" color wheel because the color oppositions are accurate.
The revolution of the color wheel, replace you're old color wheel now. The old Red-Blue-Yellow color wheel is inaccurate. It doesn't contain 2 of the 3 primaries, magenta and cyan.


This image below does not have links, it's for the Ebook which does not support them.
Click the image to open a working image map (new window).

Pigment Map Image only

Chapter 11m



These are the three real primary color elements using transparent chemical pigment names that will make the three pigments to paint a full color painting in any medium including fresco. Click here to see a mixed red brighter than cad red light and a mixed blue as clean as ultramarine blue by mixing from just these three correct transparent primary pigment colors from the palette or with a printer. (new window)  This was using the pigment Opera, it's a primary color but you still need PR122 to make the darker full magenta.

I have my own w/c Indian yellow now, it's a clear transparent yellow.
Order here. (new window) RCW w/c Transparent Primary Palette with Tartrazine yellow Clear.

Ceramic w/c palette
I changed the transparent yellow to a transparent darker brown to reflect it's duel-tone properties.
Now you have a very warm yellow and by using just a little tartrazine you can make a bright yellow

Chapter 12
Chemical Pigments: Permanent Transparent Yellows, Yellow Pigment Compounds that work with Transparent Triads for Full Color Neutral Dark Opposition Painting.
Transparent Chemical Pigments, Translucent to Opaque Pigments


Here are some permanent chemical pigments used in oil, water, fresco and acrylic paints today.
Note that Transparent Indian Yellow and translucent Gamboge are hue/color names, these colors as "genuine" are not available or used today.


PY150 azo nickel complex = Indian yellow Br/s, BEST
PY153 dioxine nickel complex = Indian Yellow Golden, BEST
PY3 stable di-arylide = Yellow Lemon opaque on barium sulfate, Gamboge, Indian Yellow
PY83 stable di-arylide = Yellow Deep, Madder Lake, Alizarin Crimson, Italian Brown Pink Lake.
PY83 stable di-arylide HR = Indian Yellow
PY97 arylide Yellow FGL = Indian yellow
PY108 anthrapyrimidine = Indian yellow B/s
PY153 dioxine nickel complex = Indian Yellow Golden and Brown with PY42 iron oxide added, it's also in Gamboge, Indian Red-gold, Sap Green, Indian Yellow Green
PO69 isoindolinone = in Indian Yellow Orange side additive to PY153
PR260 isoindolinone = Indian Yellow Golden, also in Vermilion to Red Scarlet dual-toned
PY110 isoindolinone R = Indian Yellow org/s addition to PY153 (by themselves isoindolins are not dual-tone)
PY129 methin copper complex = Golden Green, Indian Yellow Green with PY153
PR101 synthetic iron oxide = Translucent Yellow to Brown
PR177 Irganzin Yellow, translucent green/brown to yellow
Benzimidazolone, makes from yellow to red to brown only
Quinacridone, from yellow to magenta to brown only


Oil Transparent colors are precipitated on alumina, the oxide of aluminum present in clay. Other bases for these colors could be cyclohexanone, wax, an acrylic polymer emulsion or gum arabic for w/c's.

PY150 azo nickel complex = Indian yellow Br/s, BEST
PY153 dioxine nickel complex = Indian Yellow Golden, BEST
PY153 dioxine nickel complex + PR260 isoindolinone = Indian Yellow Golden.
PY150 azo nickel complex + PY42 synthetic iron oxide = Indian Yellow Brown.
PY153 dioxine nickel complex + PY3 stable di-arylide on alumina, = Gamboge Synthetic.
PY97 arylide Yellow FGL = Indian yellow mass-tone hue.
PY83 stable di-arylide + PR101 synthetic iron oxide = Italian Brown Pink Lake.


PY150 azo nickel complex = Indian yellow Br/s, BEST
PY153 dioxine nickel complex = Indian Yellow Golden, BEST
PY153, dioxine nickel complex + PR 260 isoindolindon = Indian Yellow Golden.
PY153, dioxine nickel complex + PO61 isoindolor orange = Indian yellow orange
PY153 dioxine nickel complex + PY3 stable di-arylide = Gamboge
PR 170:F5rk naphthol carbamide = Scarlet Pink
PV19 quinacridone = Rose
PR122 quinacridone = Magenta
PV23:1r carbazole dioxazine = Purple
PV23 dioxine nickel complex = Permanent Violet Bluish transparent secondary blue, tints to Ult. Blue.
PB60 anthraquinone = Blue Deep
PB15.3 copper phthalocyanine = Cyan (Thalo Blue), manganese also makes a cyan hue.
PG7 Chlorinated copper phthalocyanine = Green
PG36 chlorinated copper phthalocyanine = Y/s Green
PY83 stable di-arylide + PG7 chlorinated copper phthalocyanine = Sap Green Y/S
PY83 stable di-arylide HR + PG7 chlorinated copper phthalocyanine + PO43 perinone orange = Sap Green O/S
PY129 methin copper complex = Green Gold
PY129 azomethine = Genuine Green Gold, BEST
PY129 Irgazine yellow light, greenish-gold
PY129 Irgazine yellow light, greenish-gold
Benzimidazolone, from yellow to red to brown

needed for their opaqueness and brilliance.

PY35 cadmium Zinc sulfide = Cadmium Yellow Lemon
PY37 cadmium sulfide = Cadmium Yellow Light, Medium
PO20 cadmium sulfo-selenide = Cadmium Orange
PR108 cadmium seleno-sulfide = Cadmium Red Light, Medium
PR88 Thioindagoid Red, a perfect red.
PR101 synthetic red iron oxide = Red Oxide
PY42 synthetic yellow iron oxide = Yellow Oxide
PBr7 natural iron oxide, raw and calcined = Sienna and Umber
PB29 silica, aluminium, sulphur complex = Ultramarine Blue
PB28 oxides of cobalt and aluminium = Cobalt Blue
PG17 anhydrous chromium senquioxide = Chromium oxide Green
PY129 irgazine green = dual-toned green to yellow-green
PV14 cobalt violet opaque

Chapter 13
Head, Body, Stick Figure, Bend Line, Childs' Proportions, Life Drawing, Elizabeth Vigee-LeBrun


More information on Human Proportions. (new window)

The marking points on a normal twenty year old.

The skull is the basic division of the human body which is eight heads high. The parting between the legs is one quarter head below the middle of the body and is the widest part of the body. The bending line is in the "top to bottom" middle of the body.



Divide the head like this:
From the top of the skull.
The pupils are in the middle of the head.
The bottom of the nose is between the pupils and bottom of the chin.
1/3 below the nose is between the lips, the bottom of the top teeth.
1/3 below the nose is the chin crease.
I started with an oval that fit on my skull's front view.
My horizontal center line of the skull dividing the top to bottom is in the pupil. My head is 5 eyes wide not including my ears. When drawing the head I consider the horizontal eye line the center of the head. I believe the ear gets longer with age. The ear connects to the head on the horizontal center line. The nose also gets larger with age. There is an equilateral triangle with points in the pupils and between the closed lips which is the center-bottom of my front teeth.


The head sideways is one head length high and one head length wide. The top of the ear is on line with the top of my eyes.

The ear hole is in line with bottom of the nose, and the backbone/skull pivot point.

The bottom of the ear varies with the individual and age.


The face triangle is from the center of each pupil, through the nostrils of the nose to the point between the top front teeth. To me this is an important trait, every bodies triangle is a little different.
The smiling mouth lines up under the pupils, the two iris usually equal the maximum smiling width of the mouth.

This charcoal self portrait drawing is on a white background.
It was then painted with only two colors, Red Oxide and Ultramarine Blue.
A Burnt Sienna glaze was then used for warmth where it was needed.
The classic pigments that Rembrandt used are lead white, vermilion, vine black and Naples yellow.

Five eye widths span the center of the forward facing skull, everybody is a little different. The space between the pupils is an average of two and a half inches. The width of one eye is usually equal to the space between the eyes.


A perfect body is 8 heads high, total.

The neck space is 1/4 of one head length, under the chin of the top first head.
I start the second head under this neck space.
One quarter of one head down on this second head is the shoulder line and clavicle. This leaves space for the for the neck support muscles.

The shoulder line on a male is two head lengths (not widths) wide and is the top line of the torso triangle that extends down to the top of the hip triangle.
The chin to the shoulder line is 1/2 of one heads length. That is, 1/4 of a head for the neck space and 1/4 head down on the second head.
The nipple line equals one head length, at the bottom of the second head, the younger the higher. Males stay higher.
The nipples to the belly button equals one head length.
From the belly button to the space between the legs is one head length, that's the bottom of the third trunk head. This between the leg space is actually 4 1/4 heads down from the top, including the 1/4 head neck space. It's 3 and 3/4 heads up from the bottom of the feet, for a total of 8 heads high. The two center heads overlap by 1/4 head, the top of the bend line triangle is 4 heads up from the base. The top three torso heads were lowered 1/4 head because of the empty neck space.
The width of the waist at the belly button is one head length wide.
From the top line of the hip/trunk triangle to the space between the legs is 3/4's of one head, and is two head widths wide. Not more.

The center of the body is the bend line, which forms the top line of this small, third, bend line triangle. Its top line is 1/4 head above the space between the legs and two head widths wide. Not more.
This bend line can also be measured as four heads up from the base, which has no added 1/4 head space for the neck as happened in the top 4 heads.

In other words..
The big torso triangle is from the shoulder line to the top of the hip/trunk triangle. The second triangle is the trunk triangle, the hip bones down to the space between the legs. The third triangle, the bend line triangle is a quarter head high, within the trunk triangle, starting at the space between the legs.

The rib cage can be represented by an oval two heads high, starting at the top of the (lowered) second head to the bottom of the third head.
The bottom of the forth head from the top plus the neck space is the space between the legs.
The upper arm, from the shoulder triangles outside edge, is one and one half heads long.
The lower arm is one and one quarter heads long.
The hand is 3/4 of a head long, equal to the average face up to the hair line.
The chest side view is one head, width wide, at the nipples.
The upper arm, which is one and one half head lengths long, connects from the center of the shoulder ball which is a quarter head circle.
Just below the leg space, the legs and the body are the widest.
Two egg shaped heads, side by side, upside down, will fit in the trunk area.

From the outside point of the bend line triangle down to the bottom of the knee cap is two head lengths.
The bend line is always the center of the body.
The knee cap is a 1/4 head length circle.
The calf muscle is higher on the outside.
From the center of the knee cap to the ground is two head lengths.
The ankle is 1/4 head high off the ground.
The foot is one head length long.
The ankle bone is higher on the inside.


1. Start with the center vertical balance line from top to bottom.
2. Divide it in half showing the top of the bend line triangle.
3. Define the head, legs, shoulder line and arm lines.
4. Finish the torso triangle and the bend line triangle.
5. Now add the hands and feet.

That's it, these simple steps include the lines that can catch any action, fast!

Now, to finish the form, put the trunk triangle in, the shoulder balls, some include to where the arm starts, knee caps and rib cage.

From the bottom of the bend line triangle, the space between the legs, connect a line to the bottom of the knee cap for the inside of the leg. Connect another line from the outsides of the top of the bend line triangle to the bottom of the knee caps. The bottom of the knee caps are two heads up from the bottom of the feet.

Add the calf lines and the stick figure is finished. It's accurate, balanced, and ready to add the muscles.

Accurate 8-head-high human figure for artists.
This drawing is a male, the width of the shoulders is two heads hight,
a female's shoulders are narrower at two heads wide.
draw figure ani

Accurate 8-head-high 7 year old female human figure for artists.
This 7 year olds head is 1/4 of one head larger than the 7 heads used to make the rest of her body.
The rest of the body has the same divisions as an adult body.
A 17 year old would have 8 full sized heads making up the divisions their body.
It's an age to head size ratio.

Here is da Vinci's figure, devided in half at the space between the legs.
The center of the human form should be at the bend line, 1/4 head above the space between the legs.
Check it out on yourself, Michelangelo is right.

Michelangelo's David matches my chart.

Fantasy Portrait of Kiana and Breea, two little Hawaiian girls that live in Lahaina right under the "Lady in the Mountain" (new window)

My notes and the painting's progression. (new window)

2 hour session
2 hour session

I conceder Elizabeth Vigee-LeBrun (1755-1842) one of if not the greatest portrait painter ever.
She was the beginning Realist painter while still in the Romantic period and spanned both periods, Courbet (1819-1877) and Bouguereau (1825-1905) ended the Realist period when the wars started.


Excerpted from the memoirs of portrait painter Elizabeth Vigee-LeBrun (1755-1842)
"I have decided to add here at the end of my memoirs the advice that I wrote my niece,
Mme J. Tripier Le Franc, thinking that it might also be of interest to others."


You should always be ready half an hour before the model arrives. This helps to gather your thoughts and is essential for several reasons:
1 You should never keep anyone waiting.
2 The palette must be prepared.
3 People or business should not interfere with your concentration.

You must sit your model down, but at a higher level than yourself. Make sure that the women are comfortable, that they have something to lean against, and a stool beneath their feet.

You should be as far away from your model as possible; this is the only way to catch the true proportion of the features and their correct alignment, as well as the sitter's bearing and particular mannerisms which it is essential to note; the same applies when trying to achieve an overall likeness. Do we not recognize people we know from behind, even when we cannot see their face?

When painting a man's portrait, especially that of a young man, he should stand up for a moment before you begin so that you can sketch the general outline of the body. If you were to sketch him sitting down, the body would not appear as elegant and the head would appear too close to the shoulders. This is particularly necessary for men since we are more used to seeing them standing than seated.

Do not paint the head too high on the canvas since it makes the model look too tall, though if you draw the head too low, the model will become too small; when drawing the body, take care to allow more space on the side to which the body is turned.

You should also have a mirror positioned behind you so that you can see both the model and your painting at the same time, and it should be in a place where you can refer to it all the time; it is the best guide and will show up faults clearly.

Before you begin, talk to your model. Try several different poses. Choose not only the most comfortable but also the most fitting for the person's age and character, so that the pose will only add to the likeness. Likewise for the head, which should either be facing forward or at a three-quarter turn; this adds to the resemblance, especially for the public; the mirror might also help you decide upon this point.

You should try and complete the head, or at least the basic stages, in three or four sittings; allow an hour and a half for each sitting, two hours at the most, or the models will grow bored and impatient and their expression will change noticeably, a situation to be avoided at all costs; this is why you should allow models to rest and aim to keep their attention for as long as possible. My experience with women has led me to believe the following: you must flatter them, say they are beautiful, that they have fresh complexions etc. This puts them in a good humor and they will hold their position more willingly. The reverse will result in a visible difference. You must also tell them that they are marvelous at posing; they will then try harder to hold their pose. Tell them not to bring their friends to the sitting, for they all want to give advice and will spoil everything, although you may consult artists and people of taste. Do not be discouraged if some people cannot find any likeness in your portraits; there are a great many people who do not know how to look at a painting.

While you are working on the head of a woman dressed in white, drape her in a neutral colored fabric like grey or light green, so that your gaze does not wander from the model's head; if however you wish to paint her in white, keep a little white fabric to drape around the head, for it too should receive some of the reflected light.

The background to the sitter should in general be a subtle and uniform tone, neither too light nor too dark; if the background is sky than the rules are different and you should put something blue behind the head.

Whether you are painting in pastels or oils, you should build up from the darkest colour, then paint the mid-tones and finally the highlights.

Always thicken the highlights and always make them golden. Between the highlights and the mid-tones there is another tone not be overlooked, which has tints of violet, blue and green. Study van Dyck. The mid-tones should be broken up and less thick than the highlights, and the highlighting on the head should emphasis the bone and muscle, the latter being weaker than the former.

Immediately after the first layer comes the flesh tone, chosen according to the complexion of the sitter; this will eventually blend with the mingling, shifting mid-tones.

Shadow must be strong but transparent at the same time, that is to say not a thick but a ripe tone, accompanied by a strong reddish touch in the cavities, such as the eye socket, the nostrils and the darker, interior parts of the ear etc. The colour of the cheeks, if they are unpowdered, should have a peach tone in the hollows and a golden rose colour on the more fleshy parts, the two colours merging imperceptibly with the highlights to emphasis the facial bones which should be golden. There should always be highlights on the brow bone, the cheek bone near the nose, above the upper lip, in the corner of the lower lip and at the top of the chin and they should always blend in with the surrounding tones.

You should take care that the highlights diminish gradually and that the most salient and consequently the brightest part is always the most luminous. On the head, the sparkling lights, both sharp and diffuse, are either in the pupil or in the white of the eye, depending upon the position of the head and the eye; these two highlights often give way to others less golden in the middle of the upper eyelid, in the middle of the lower eyelid, or at least along some part of it, according to the way light falls upon the head, than on the middle of the nose, on the bridge and the lower lip. The sharper the nose, the finer the light should be.

Never use a heavy consistency of paint on the pupils: they will look more real if they have a transparent quality. You should paint in as much detail as possible, take care not to give the sitter an ambiguous gaze, and ensure that you make the pupils round. Some people have large pupils and others small, but they are always perfectly round. The upper half of the pupil is always intercepted by the upper eyelid, but if the person is angry you will often see the whole pupil. When the eye smiles, the lower half of the pupil is intercepted and covered by the lower eyelid. The white of the eye in shadow should be a pure and pristine tone, and the mid-tones, although they are not quite the natural colour (this is so with any object you paint), should never look grey or dirty. Sometimes the eye should reflect light from the nose and share some of its shadow. The eyelashes in the shaded part are clear and stand out bright and this is why you should use ultramarine when painting a light part that is in shadow.

Observe the eye socket, which should be darker or lighter depending on its shape. It is made up of shadow and highlights, mid-tones and reflections from the nose. The eyebrow should be prepared in warm tones and one should be able to see the flesh beneath the gleam of the hairs which should be light and delicate.

The setting of the eye is always painted in delicate bluish or violet tones, depending upon the whiteness and delicacy of the skin. Take care not to be too heavy with the latter or the eye will look as though it's full of tears. For this reason one should sometimes break into the blue tones with gold, but always cautiously.

Observe the forehead well; it is vital for a true likeness and is a very important key to the personality. When the forehead has a square but prominent bone, such as in the self portraits of Raphael, Rubens or van Dyck, there is a definite concentration of light on these prominent areas. The first is at the top of the forehead, just beneath the hairline. It is then interrupted and reappears near the eyebrow. This in turn gives way to the colour of the temple where there will often be a blue vein visible, especially if the sitter's skin is very fine. In between these highlights is the natural flesh tone which fades into the center.

The light returns, if more feebly, on the same bone on the other side. This mid-tone mingles softly with all the other mid-tones, eventually becoming the shadow that defines the shape of the brow bone. After this shadow, there is a slightly golden reflection, depending upon the colour of the hair. Above the eyebrow, the tone should become a little warmer: the accumulation of these hairs has the same effect as a mass of curls falling onto a well lit forehead. The shadow is warm. Look at the heads of Greuze and study the way in which your model's hair grows, this will add to the likeness and the painting will be more truthful. You should observe the part where the hair falls next to the skin so that you will be able to render it as realistically as possible; there should never be a hard line between the two; the hair and the skin should mingle slightly, in form and colour; this way the hair will not look like a wig, an inevitable error if one does not follow the method I have just described.

The hair should be drawn in a body and should remain as such for the most part; it is probably better to use a glaze, otherwise the colours may bleed into the shadow and the main flesh tones of the face. The highlights on the hair are only visible on the prominent parts of the head; curls reflect light in the center and a few stray hairs break the uniformity. The edge of the hair should, like metal, have something of the background colour, for this helps to accentuate the turn of the head.

It is also essential to study the ear and to place it in the correct position, understanding that it is a link between the head and the neck; you should make the shape as beautiful as you can; study the art of antiquity or beautiful examples in nature. For example, you might notice how in general the German, and especially the Austrian race, have ears that are situated a little too high according to perfect proportion. Likewise, the way the neck sits upon the shoulders is different from that of other peoples: it is wide, thick and rises high behind the ear.

These people also have very strong temple bones. So if you happen to be painting a German, you should conserve this characteristic trait, along with the prominent forehead and the usually flat, sunken cheeks. As far as possible, try and paint the complete ear and study its cartilage formation well, even if you are going to paint hair over it. The colour that determines its shape should be warm and transparent, apart from the ear hole which should always be dark and opaque.

Its flesh tones, even when highlighted, should in general be less luminous than the cheek, which is more prominent. The shadow thrown on the neck by the ear is very warm in daylight; the jaw should be drawn in subtle tints with delicate mid-tones in order to obtain the depth between jaw and neck. If the head belongs to a woman, the base of the jaw should have warmer tones than that of a man, whose beard absorbs the naturally warm flesh tones beneath. The shadow on the neck should also be very subtle and less ruddy than the face. It is essential to observe the proportion of the collarbones relative to the position of the head, as well as the way they reflect light; the chest area becomes a little deeper in colour towards the point where the collar bones meet; in general the articulations, such as the elbow, the kneecap, the heel and the knuckles are always darker than the rest of the body.

If you have to paint breasts, put the model in a position where they are well lit; the best conditions for painting breasts occur when the light is direct and the colour should grow gradually stronger towards the nipple; the mid-tones which curve around the breast should be as light and fresh as possible; the shadow between the breasts should be warm and transparent.

There are rules for the gradation of light, such as I have described for the head, for the rest of the body. If the figure is seated, the light focuses strongly upon the thighs and will gradually fade towards the heel." Elizabeth Vigee-LeBrun (1755-1842)


Eakin's "line of action drawing".
This is an on line link drawing lesson (new window) that references Eakins, Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudran, and Sargent. By Dan Gheno. Email Dan Gheno

Chapter 14
About Light: Terms, Rainbows & Spectroscopes, Prisms, Sundogs & Halos


14-07, PRISMS,
14-08, TOP VIEW,
14-09, TOP-SIDE,
14-16, RAINBOWS,
14-19, SUMMERY


YYYY=Yellow, YYYM=Orange, YYMM=Red, YMM=Scarlet/Crimson, MM=Magenta, MMC=Purple, MMCC=Ultramarine Blue, MCC=Azure, CC=Cyan, CCY=Turquoise, CCYY=Green, CYY=Yellow-green,

The top and bottom of a spectral analysis will show Red, YYMM, on top and Ultramarine Blue, MMCC, on the bottom. Combine them like this, [YYMM+MMCC] is the same as [YMC+YMC+MM], YMC stands for one Yellow, one Magenta and one Cyan, they combine and equal white light. Combine the two white lights and magenta light and you get a higher intensity magenta light. Ultramarine blue light and red light combined to make the higher intensity magenta light. We're exchanging chroma for intensity, there isn't enough chroma in light's secondary colors to make a primary color, but there's enough chroma in the primaries to make a secondary.

Thomas Young and von Heimholtz developed the wave theory of light in 1890.

The visible spectrum minus magenta, violet and purple, is measured by a spectroscope in wavelengths. Light travels 300,000 kilometers per second, each visible color has a different wavelength distance between peaks. Very small distances are measured in angstroms, a trillionth of a millimeter. Visible light ranges from 3,800 angstroms for Violet to 7,700 angstroms for Red light. 4,100 angstroms = Ultramarine Blue, 4,500 = Cyan, 5,000 = Green, 5,700 = Yellow, 6,000 = Orange, 7,000 = Red, 7,600 = Red. This system expleins the progression of colors in the rainbow.

Another measurement system measures light waves in nanometers, red being 7x10 [-7]m or 760 nanometers, the longest waves. The three primaries of light are Red, Green and Blue. That means those three colors comprise the entire spectrum, the other colors are percentages of those three colors. The pigment color wheel, except for Magenta which isn't seen in a Electromagnetic Spectrum, would be at these nanometers.

Red begins at 760nm, it's strongest and most intense at 624nm and ends at 540nm, just before the green is pure.
Orange is at 593 nanometers
Yellow is at 578.5 nanometers, Red and Green are at equal percentages here making Yellow. The Yellow wavelength is half as intense as red or green. We know light is additive in that adding all colors of the spectrum equals white light, but here in the EM spectrum, two primaries, red and green make a less intense subtractive yellow. In pigment two secondary colors, red and green make a less intense, subtractive, brown. What we can say is that brown is a less intense yellow as in the orpiment and iron crystals and the Indian Yellow pigment. Both the light's yellow and the pigment's brown can be increased in intensity to make a bright pure yellow.

So additive and subtractive is not really a good way to define light and pigment colors because here mixing colors in the EM wave spectrum and there in the pigment physical mixing spectrum both make subtractive colors. By adding light or white pigment, both will make a brighter yellow. So much for additive and subtractive, I don't know where those terms came from in the first place.

Yellow-Yellow-Yellow-Green is at 575 nanometers
Yellow-Green is at 574 nanometers
Green is at 539 nanometers, there is no red here. It reaches from 440 nm to 620 nm.
Turquoise is at 505 nanometers
Cyan is at 490 nanometers
An equal mix of green and blue is seen as the less intense cyan, at 490.5 nanometers.
Cobalt blue is a 477 nanometers
Blue ends at 380nm, it's strongest at 437 nm and starts at 538 nm.
Purple is at 400 nanometers.
Violet is at 390 nanometers.
Magenta, can not be seen but 350 nanometers can be distinguished and will turn on an appropriate switch.

This system measures wavelengths and emits colors in light, such as a TV or the sun. These light dots from a TV or spectrum colors from the sun combine optically to produce white or the full range of colors. Pigments reflect color and do the same reflecting as the elements making crystals of color. Both make the same colors that white light emitting sources do.


PULSES of emitted light are like packages shipping off energy, the next one won't leave until the proton supply is built up again.

INCIDENT light rays are parallel from the sun.

The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.

NORMAL is adjacent to the surface or horizon line. Normal is also perpendicular to the earth. Normal is straight up.

OBLIQUE is not normal.

Newton said light had particles going in a straight line, I agree. He didn't notice the diffraction, the missing magenta color or have a name for cyan, but he did notice separated colors could be recombined back into white light.

DIFFRACTION is a light ray angling around a solid object, the ray is white, the shortest wave to angle out of white is sometimes green, the "green flash" seen on the ocean horizon at the moment of sunset. Yellow and orange angle a little but red, the longest wave, bends the most. Warm Magenta is outside the red on the rainbow, and is the last color seen before the dark of night. This is color diffracting, in real time, focusing on a spot inside the shadow's void behind the earth, the center of diffraction.

Diffraction enhances a painting rule, "It's darkest next to the light and lightest next to the dark". Diffraction also is the only way to see the light color magenta in its pure state.

Diffraction is what happens to a ray at its light stopping edge, an object. The longest wavelength color can make the greatest diffracted angle. Magenta waves are still angling out of the straight white light already passed the stopping edge, it will bend last. There spending more time in the reflecting atmosphere, on there way to a principal focus point on the center line's axis, deep in the heart of the shadow. The longest red rays refract with the greatest angle out of a prism, than yellow and green rays.

Magenta is the color in the center of an interferometer's white test for principal focus of diffracting dispersed light and making INTERFERENCE colored light bands. Yellow is the combination of red and green light.

The interferometer combines and separates magenta and green light with a clear band of no light, yellow and cyan are in the green light, red and blue are in the magenta light. The whole spectrum is represented by four bands, magenta, white, green, and clear.

Magenta is in the center of a diffraction record, made on an interferometer. First magenta, white, green and than a dark space, magenta, white, green, dark, etc.

White light from the sun comes in transparent vibrating waves or rays, they're parallel, pulsed and diffracting, not bending, but emitting from the wave peaks. Red peaks out a little farther and reaches greater angles.

A LASER'S beam is a continuous mono-frequency, monochromatic, and parallel light. It's a light that will only go in a straight line, it does not diffract and lose color. A laser produces this beam, and turns it on and off, making "bits" of light, carrying coded information. This light is internally reflecting, never leaving a straight glass fiber cable.

Total INTERNAL REFLECTION will keep an obliquely angled ray from leaving the reflecting skin of a substance. Light under water aimed with a narrower than 45 degree angle of reflection, will not leave the surface of the water but stay internally reflecting. A beam of light at 46 degrees will break the water surface at 1 degree, 44 degrees will stay internal.

The REFRACTION ANGLE doesn't change inside the transparent substance, but at the skin of the substance.

CENTER OF CURVATURE, is the focusing point of a sphere or concave mirror. Lens's are converging, diverging or flat. Converging lens's are thicker in the center, a sphere focuses in its center, as a droplet of water or a crystal ball.

DISPERSION of wavelengths and rays happen when the spectrum is divided in two by a substance. Red and yellow on one side, cyan and ultramarine blue on the other.

INTERNAL PRISM SPECTRUMS happen in the transparent phases of the prism, looking through a prisms two planes angled at 45 degrees to each other. You can't see through two 90 degree planes, because the second plane is a perfect mirror.

EXTERNAL SPECTRUMS happen with sunlight off a plane in the 46 degree or over reflecting phase, or through two transparent planes at a 45 degree angle.


Take a right triangle prism made of glass, plastic or diamond, and it will have one "right angle", or 90 degree angle, and two 45 degree angles, or, one hypotenuse and two inclined planes at 45 degree each. The left and right sides of the top view.

A right angled prism's ratio is 3:4:3, two sides and the hypotenuse. The side to height ratio is, height three, side four. The hypotenuse divided by two equals the prisms height.

The top view is over the hypotenuse, the bottom view is through it. All three pleins are transparent in the top view over the hypotenuse until the line of demarcation at forty-five degrees from top, exactly 90 degrees perpendicular to the inclined plane, changes the hypotenuse into a mirror. Spectrum edge lights are seen through transparent phases.

Red is on the compressed edge of transparency, blue is on the expanded side.

Polarized edge spectrums happen on vertical or horizontal image edges, not both at the same time, they are opposites.

Refracting angles happen inside the prism each time light passes through the surface skin.


Draw a line on paper and center the prism's bottom hypotenuse and top 90 degree angle line on it looking straight down on the prism perpendicular to the hypotenuse, notice there are two lines, not one, 30 degrees apart. You are looking down into the two 45 degree inclines, from a 90 degree perpendicular to the hypotenuse. The left side's image size has increased 15 degrees past center into the right, and vice versa, they overlap. The full vertical view through the side plane has increased from 100 degrees to 120 degrees, the total area is compressed and includes the overlap.

Divide the hypotenuse area into three equal spaces and the prism's top view will increase it to four, by refraction.

There is no distortion from a top 90 degree, entry. From the top you see through two transparent 45 degree planes. The hypotenuse plane is also transparent. This entry and exit is transparent and will be for forty-four and a half more degrees, compression left, by mirror entry right. This top position is good for seeing internal spectrums and producing two external spectrums at the same time, each projected 7 1/2 degrees off the hypotenuse, to the left and right.

Perfect symmetry of double spectrums occurs from perfect angles of incidence, from the top straight down [+-] 7 1/2 degree, from the bottom, parallel to the sides [+] 7 1/2 degree.

Top-vertical view, there's only this one degree of no distortion, compression starts immediately, there's 7 1/2 degrees of condensed spectrum before the mirrored line of demarcation removes it. The compression ratio equals twice the distance at half the compression.


Now rotate the prism so a short side is vertical and touching the drawn line, you're looking down on the long hypotenuse side at a 45 degree incline. Continue the line around the prism and add two more parallel lines inside, dividing the outline into three equal spaces. The three spaces appear to have become four, by adding +15 degrees of refraction. This forth space is the vertical short side being refracted, adding 33% into the condensed view. The three thirds are condensed to four fourths to fit. The added fourth side is not transparent, it's a 15 degree refracted image, refracted through the skin of the 45 degree inclined hypotenuse, and it's an internal mirror. It will stay a mirror for the next 44 degrees of rotation.

The top-side, right angle view of the 45 degree incline, shows the line of demarcation. The lower transparent half stops with the spectrum on its leading edge. This is the prism angle. Two mirror image's start on the next degree and move the transparent section out of view in 7 1/2 degrees, they share the plane progressively till the 0 degree.

Top-side view, a 37 1/2 degree incident light on a 45 degree plane, that's 7 1/2 degrees short of perpendicular to the side plane, transparent compression has made a window for a spectrum to project through, it emits through the bottom hypotenuse at a 7 1/2 degree angle, compressed and shining.


Looking through a prism's hypotenuse, bottom first. Both sides are mirrors for 7 1/2 degrees of tilt off dead center. Upon tilting one side or the other will start a line of transparency, the mirror will be like a window shade going up with transparent compression under it, the spectrum is on that decompressing transparent line.

The reflection portion of the plane doesn't compress, it forces compression on the transparent section from the line of demarcation onward. Compress the two opposing and trailing half spectrum edges of transparency by squeezing out the middle light with the line of demarcation's mirror edge, and the white light will become the green center. By compression, the two half prism lit edges form a complete spectrum. This compressed 1 degree span can emit a projected spectrum.

Position; the prism is standing on its end with the hypotenuse on the sun side. The sun's light enters from 90 degrees to 97 1/2 degrees, 7 1/2 degrees to the right of center, into the hypotenuse plane. The right underside plane stays a mirror at 7 1/2 degrees, the left underside becomes transparent. Two 7 1/2 degree spectrums are leaving the left side's plane simultaneously, both only 7 1/2 degrees off the plane's 45 degree angle to the hypotenuse and 180 degrees opposite each other. The left spectrum is reflected off the right mirror. The right spectrum is direct, with the sun going through two transparent planes.

So, the sun enters 7 1/2 degrees off perpendicular, and exits 135 degrees later with a 7 1/2 degree spectrum. The light has changed course 135 degrees, with two refractions and one 45 degree angle.

There are only two degrees where both visible sides are reflecting mirrors, and that's looking 90 degrees adjacent to and perpendicular through the hypotenuse on top. With the hypotenuse on the bottom, and the light perpendicular, it would be going down through two transparent planes. There are two crossing emitted spectrums leaving at 7 1/2 degrees out of the hypotenuse in this configuration.


Start with the prism in a right angle down position, the other right angle vertical facing the sun, and the hypotenuse parallel and equal to the light's angle of incidence. Entrance refraction is 7 1/2 degree making the effective angle 37 1/2 degrees. The total reflection is 105 degrees, making the internal exit angle 142 1/2 degrees, or 37 1/2 degrees the same as the entering refracting angle. Subtract 7 1/2 degrees for the refraction leaving tax, and you're left with a 30 degree emerging angle for this stream of light that's been, intensified by reflection off an internal surface mirror, color dispersed by the substance and spectrum united by transparent compression. These activated parallel pulsing protons are having a ball. Light enters at 45 degrees and exits at 30 degrees, with a spectrum. This spectrum only happens reflected off the mirrored first half of the condensed base.


Magenta and cyan, edge polarized spectrum colors, will light up a dark line object that's not thick enough to show a dark in its center. Diffraction's intensity merges the two edges so they touch, yellow and Ultramarine Blue are eliminated from this spectrum by diffraction. As long as there's a dark center for Ultramarine Blue to form in, Yellow will also form, they are opposites.

The second "brighter light" image, is separate from the opaque curtain mirror reflection and is ever present over the transparency phase. Here's an example, you are looking through the prism, listening to some ol' hoot owl by the campfire. The hypotenuse is down and you're going to exercise your left eye through prisms left side. You're watching the fire and marveling over the perfect spectrum when two white dots appear from nowhere in the middle of the view, you're worried about your sanity when you hear your girlfriend coming from 7 1/2 degrees left. That's way off to your left side in the first seven and a half degrees of image.

??RIDDLE?? What were the white dots? A. Her headlights.

The brighter light effect will override transparency and turn the hypotenuse into a mirror. The prism is a trinity and this is the third effect, the brighter light, ghost effect.

There is never transparency in the mirror but there's a bright light mirror effect in the transparency. The ghost.

Look through the top position's, left transparent plane, two different opposing edge angles light up with half the spectrum each, Yellow and Red left and Cyan and Ultramarine Blue right. The right side plane reverses the color stations. These four colors are opposite, just like the Real Color Wheel.


White light is dispersed by entering the substance, it shows up on the leading edges of two groups of edge angles in the prism, the horizontal and the vertical. With the hypotenuse on the bottom and the prism horizontal, the light spectrum is on horizontal edges, not vertical. Turning the prism to vertical lights up the vertical edges, only. Spinning the prism 90 degrees reverses the spectrum's color order. The station change happens on the beam reach, where the radius lines are neutral and not polarized.

Viewing the prism in the top, vertical, position, looking through the plane left of center and through the hypotenuse, the red and yellow half of the spectrum appear on the right side of the darker object's edges. Red touching dark and yellow merging white. There is no distortion by compression in the transparent view from this top dead center position, only refraction and dispersion.

From the top vertical position, look through the inclined right plane, Ultramarine Blue is touching the right side's dark edge and Cyan fades to White. Just the opposite of the left planes stations of Red and Yellow, this is color polarization.

The internal prism's spectrum is two reversing half circles. This color division is "color polarizing" at 90 degrees to the length of the prism, or, at right angle's to the length of the prism.

Horizontal to vertical, minimum to maximum colored light edges in 90 degrees of rotation. While the vertical position lights up the vertical edge, the horizontal radius lines or dark edges are normal looking, they are changing polarized light stations. With the polarized rotation, while vertical is in the maximum colored light phase, yellow and magenta change stations from the bottom horizontal edge to the top horizontal edge of a dark square. Starting at 1 degree with a no color unpolarized edge, to 90 degrees with a fully polarized spectrum. Any white sun spot surrounded by dark shadow will show great complete spectrums with one degree missing along prism's beam axis. It will look like two crescent moons touching points. Indoor rainbows!

There is no green in the center of the transmitted pattern from a strong light prism spectrum, white light takes its place, there is no magenta at the outsides, because red and yellow enter at the same time on the same side. Further dispersion can drop out the yellow and Ultramarine Blue of an internal spectrum by reducing the width of the edge to a line.

The prisms internal spectrum color-polarizes opposite every 180 degrees of rotation.


The external projected spectrum uses the compressed two lit edges with the white in the middle to make the projected spectrum. The infringing mirrored line of demarcation forces the compression until there's nothing left but the spectrum colors. In that degree, transmitted by incident light, is the projected full spectrum.

May I suggest a simple experiment that you might find informative? Submitted by Leslie Walden, 8-18-9.
At a time when sunlight shines directly into a window, place a prism in the sunbeam and adjust it so that it casts a rainbow spectrum onto something white that is not in the sunbeam. Notice that magenta isn't there. (But you knew that.) Now place a second prism so that its projected rainbow crosses the first one. At each place where the red end of either spectrum crosses the blue end of the other you will see a magenta patch.

Try as you might, you won't find a wavelength for magenta. It is a psychological color, produced in your mind when the eye receives blue and red light in the same area.
It is not bending the meaning of words too sharply to say that magenta is a pigment of your imagination.

The EM spectrum has wavelengths in a line, red and blue at the two ends, they never overlap to see the color magenta. In an oil slick the the prism is distorted and merges to show the magenta color.


The light you see from a particular droplet in a rainbow has been refracted and converged once on entering the outer convex spherical shape of the droplet. It converges to a focus point at the center of curvature where the image inverts. The rays are reflected and converged the second time off the concave rear and inverted again at the focus point. The ray is then refracted and expanded by leaving the convex lens. Some of the rays are viewed at 135 degrees, 45 degrees off center, the spectrum angle. Presto! A dispersion prism refracting mirror. Check it out, put water in a curved bottom glass, start with the sun behind you and find the color. It will be at the sides of the glass.


Some say, sundogs are rainbows off high atmospheric ice crystals, with the sun at the center and red on the inside. There's a darker area to the inside of these sundogs and a lighter area beyond. This is an opposite polarized rainbow.

Others say a sundog is a sun ray made by clouds below the horizon line, blocking part of the sun's direct light in the upper atmosphere, the defracting long spectrum waves of the warm magenta and red bands. We're seeing diffraction in real time. Light is passing overhead and bending around a solid object, the earth, and heading down into the dark void left by the earth's shadow.

Still others say sundogs are two areas of color next to the sun, magenta and green.



Rainbow Chart


You are between the sun and the rainbow, the sun's at your back. A normal rainbow has a lighter area of sky under it, white is the reflected color under the rainbow, dark, or no added reflected light is over the top, over the red. Yellow light is in the middle. Yellow and red, and warm magenta is barely visible on top of the red.

When you see two rainbows, it's darkest between them, slightly darker just above them, and whitest below them.

If you make your own rainbow, with a small spray of water, you won't see the green, white will take its place.

Red is on the outside of the main rainbow and on the inside of the second outside rainbow, the second rainbow is separated by 15 degrees actual. It refracts light to you from the start of the other 180 degrees of polarized light, like rotating the prism. That's why it's reversed in color. The third rainbow is inside the lower 180 degrees, and its color progression is the same as the first, ad infinitum.

White light is reflected in the inside area of a complete circle rainbow and under a half circle rainbow. A rainbow has depth to it, all along the radius refraction angle.

A halo around the moon on clouds has red and magenta on the outside, the yellow is minor, green and cyan are the inside colors. The lighter area is to the inside.

A moon bow is magenta, white, green, and rare.

The opposite of white is clear, not black, both are without color. Black is a hypothetical dark, best seen without light :)

Use the main rainbow's perpendicular drop line as the protracted zero angle, the second rainbow is at a 45 degrees closer angle to you, reversed. This condenses the 15 degrees actual, to 7.5 degrees, from your viewpoint.

The shadow of your head is the center of the rainbow, if you ever happen upon "The Specter of Haleakala" you see your shadow on a valley of clouds with a rainbow around yourself. Extend this line from your heads shadow through your head and directly back to the sun. Each eye sees a different rainbow, use your right eye and call this the rainbow's "connecting center axis line". The rainbow's plane is perpendicular to this line, the circumference and width of the rainbow are relative to its distance away from you.

Have you ever seen a bright rainbow with a clear sky behind it and the rain long gone? A colloidal rainbow, the water's almost a vapor.

Move the droplet a few degrees above or below the spectrum angle (the angle of incidence at the back of the droplet for that color) on the rainbows plane and receive each individual wavelengths color.

Find the radius path where the mirror can be moved toward you and away from you keeping the same 45 degree reflection angle to the sun. If your distance from the mirror stays constant and the reflection angle along the line of sight radius line stays constant, it will constantly reflect the sun back to you, that's the path of the rainbow, the arc of constant reflection.

The second rainbow is reversed because we're seeing the condensed spectrum of the other polarized half at its weaker end. This other spectrum angle of the droplet is also "color-polarized" by dispersion and compression.
IT'S LIKE WE'RE IN THE CENTER OF A GAS-LIQUID-SOLID CRYSTAL. From your viewing position the distance is 7 1/2 degrees between rainbows, this darker area is the axis neutral zone between the polarized halves of the atmosphere "crystal". The main rainbow's reflection angle to you is 45 degrees on the sun's center axis line. The rainbow itself is 90 degrees off the sun's center axis line.

If the sun is overhead and you spray a homemade rainbow-halo around yourself, the main halo is 45 degrees below the horizon line and second halo is 15 degrees distance from the main halo, 30 degrees below the horizon line.

The same ratio works for the real rainbow above the horizon line. Use the main rainbow's perpendicular drop line as the protracted zero angle, the second rainbow is at a 45 degree closer angle to you, polarized and reversed. Your viewing angle compresses the distance to 7 1/2 degrees. This is an unpolarized zone.

The second rainbow is reversed and less bright because we're seeing the rainbows polarized version at its weakest end.

A rainbow moves with you, as can be seen when your plane's shadow on the clouds has a rainbow around it, or you drive in your car seeing the rainbow.

One particularly beautiful rainbow is called the "King's Rainbow" here on Maui. Because we're on an island, the sun can be at eye level on the horizon line. The sun on the horizon line will put the rainbow directly overhead and off to the sides of you, 90 degrees from you to the sun. Looking to the rainbow touching the earth it appears to go straight up, no curve, straight up. The King's Rainbow.


Compare the earth's atmosphere to a crystal, think of the air as a real soft crystal in the Tourmaline group, able to make rainbows with the greatest of ease, create electrical charges with heat, and compress polarized light. Amazing similarities don't you think?

Chapter 15


This is the first computer color-in page, one of thirty-two available. (new window) It's a scene I drew and painted on location at Maui's Iao Valley Stream. This is the drawing before I painted it as are all the color book drawings. All the patterns are completely enclosed like a water color drawing. Included is the crystal color palette, the real color wheel and an aerial perspective color palette for computer artists.

The water is rushing over the rocks, coming from high in the mountains. Copy the image to any paint program. I have used Paint Shop Pro and Photo Shop

Also available are twenty finished 11x14 drawings in a hard copy book that can be mounted and painted with pastels, watercolor, acrylics or oil paint.
The cover is a handmade dot serigraph limited edition.

Change the Page Background Color to a Pigment Color, (new window).
Example: #1.01.1, Rembrandt Nickel Titan Yellow Light, a cool opaque mass-tone tint pigment. #"F1F0A7", R=241 G=240 B=167.
Opposite color = RCW#19.0.5, Blockx French Ultramarine Blue, translucent. #"150036", R=21, G=0, B=36 To mix a dark neutral, use the darkest form of opaque yellow.
RCW#1.10.1, Mussini Raw Umber and mix it 1:1 with its opposite color, Ultramarine Blue Light.

Chapter 16
Technique, Brushes, Skies, Water Color Papers A+ Only, Oil on Paper

Go to the first of five painting galleries with tips on techniques, 250 paintings. (new window)

I start painting at the top left and work my way to my signature three times. When I have the first 100% coverage I consider myself 1/2 way done. In this first 100% coverage the lighting of that one hour of the day is captured, more than anything else, capture the light. Note the time the light is perfect, it gets earlier by 5 minutes everyday.

See what is in front of you as brush-strokes, what brush will fill in the patterns the fastest, are there sharp corners? long lines? big blends? heavy textures or many changes of color to contend with? Maybe there is a repeated pattern like water diamonds, eucalyptus leaves or grass to which you could match up to a stroke of a particular brush. Maybe you're going to change colors with a glaze. Each of the recommended brushes has a special pattern or a job it's best suited for.

The strokes of a "fan brush" here. (new window)

See 304 brushes with their descriptions and usefulness. (new window)


ACRYLICS. Pre-paint the light cloud color in acrylics and let it dry. Since it's Ultramarine Blue in overhead color and Cyan at the horizon line and Ultramarine is granular in W/C's and hard to blend in oil and acrylics. I use a Thalo Blue Cyan and Dioxine Purple to blend the whole blue sky then wipe out the clouds with a paper towel square and add the darker colors of the cloud by mixing a neutral combination like Burnt Umber with Ultramarine Blue.

OIL. Wipe out the clouds and add the right colors. A very thin pre-oiling of the gesso surface will make paint flow smoother and wipe out cleaner.


WATER COLOR. Draw with a pencil harder than a normal 2B, outline the whites and high lights. Wash the #300 paper with a 5" elephant ear sponge, while there's still a slight sheen add colors, paint until the paper is dry. There is no need to tape down #300 paper, hold the corners down with closespins. When it's completely dry, re-spray it with water and start again, the dried colors won't move and can be painted over. Paint all the way to the edges, load the brush accurately, two strokes from one load plus enough left in the puddle for one more stroke. A dry brush will pick up or exchange wet colors. Don't paint with the wrong color, don't leave accidental white spots, outline white areas before hand and don't get the lead wet because it will become black pigment, soften at least one edge of each stroke, start at the top left and pull, don't push the brush.


These are to a five year test, 1995 to 2000, no extra linseed oil was added to the tube color. This bleeding stain shows the extent oil will impregnate good rag paper. Front and back view. This causes the paper to oxidize with the oil and it become brittle. The paper must be glued to a rigid support. A water based gesso should also be applied first in my opinion. To be sure, no white spaces should be left on any unprimed paper.. or it could turn from white to yellow in time.

Front view of oil stain.Oil stain, back of paper.


Waterford 300#, Rough and Hot Pressed. A truly great paper.

Twinrocker 300#, Rough, large deckle, light tub size, pre-wash needed, moderate rough texture. Cold Pressed.

Strathmore Gemini 300#, Rough and Cold Pressed.

Strathmore Excalibur 80#, 25% cotton, 75% fiberglass. You must erase pencil lines before painting, hard to brush erase. Fun to paint on.

Fabriano Esport, Rough and Cold Pressed.

Fabriano Classico, 300#, excellent, hard.

Arches, 300# and 400#, Pre-wash off the exterior size, the paper won't stain on the first painting wash, great texture, erases anything.

Acrylics are easier than oils or water colors. One reason is because two coats of white can fix anything and the high lighting can be adjusted. Highlights are not added last or worked up to slowly, they're more a part of the whole picture.

Painting Galleries with painting tips (new window)
Night w/c painting (new window)
A list of w/c paintings (new window)
Pictures of w/c paper test results. (new window)

Chapter 17
Pictura Translucida, Cera Colla, Fine Artists, New Colors, High Art, Color Theory, Crushed Glass in Paint, Artists' Tools of Technique



*Theophilus Presbyter, the monk of Paderborn, (Westphalia), talks of past paintings on a tin plate with mastic and the new experiments with oils. He say's the local color is painted in with a fast drying water based paint like egg or casein, or a cherry, fig, or arabic gum. They all mix together well. When they're dry, turpentine, mastic and oil won't effect or lift them. The local object is then shaded and formed with mastic glaze leaving halos and anything bright clear to shine light, this technique is called "pictura translucita". (new window)


The "Mappae Clavicula", describes wax soap (cera colla) and glue with a final sandracca-castor oil (sandarac-castor oil) varnish.

1200 A.D COLOR,

"Hermeneia of Dionysius", The Painter's Handbook from Mount Athos, Greece, describes the 2nd Dark Age's Byzantine methods for white gypsum-glue grounds, and glue, wax and lime painting, mixed 1:1:1. A detailed description of flesh painting using Translucent green and opaque red earths.

With the addition of indispensable Naples Yellow natural, a person can paint an adequate range of flesh tones. Ochers, vermilion, burnt sienna, caput mortuum, and white lead were other colors noted, also the wax paint cera colla. (new window) Technique was talked about.

Red oxide is a dark red, a natural opaque iron red [YYMM]+[10% CCCC], a red can be cooled off by the addition of 10% cyan, its opposite color. Cyan color as it becomes darker in crystals looks rather like ultramarine blue, which will also mix with red oxide into a neutral dark. Red oxide will get a lot more brown in color before it becomes cool, on the other side of the Real Color Wheels center.

Translucent Green Earth is a clay like ocher or umber with a lot of silica in composition, (ferrous hydroxide and silicic acid). Bohemian and Tirolean Green Earth's are warmer glazing colors than the cooler Veronese Green Earth, this system had a range of colors. Green earth was the first down, it mixed with all the flesh tones and under tones throughout the painting or fresco, this was the most used and important color.

It was this combination of the two iron pigments and the very opaque Naples yellow antimony lead pigment that did the work. Vermilion or a high calcined burnt sienna was the next color added.

1250, Cimabue, 1240-1302, Duecento in Florence, he had Byzantine teachers and worked in mosaic, fresco, and panel painting.

1300, Giotto, 1266-1337, Classic Rome in the Middle Ages, a new cycle of artists was beginning.


Cennini says, in his "Trattato della Pittura" book, Painting on walls in oil paint in Germany is a very common practice. By the 1500's oil on canvas was the way to go.

Sometimes the canvas was glued to the wall with casein, sometimes the casein was the medium also.

Venetian turpentine balsam, mastic and turpentine, with or without wax, and with or without ammonia in the wax, were two choices,.. added to that, thin hide glue will emulsify with egg, vegetable rice paste, nut oil, or gum. Lime and casein were the other choice water based mediums available.

Wax emulsion is ammonia and wax, called soap, soap plus cherry sap gum is the Byzantine choice up to this time and Giotto's favorite, so say's Cennini.

The support panel was coated with glue than canvas. Glue, gypsum or clay and lead white was the ground, another medium was egg with fig juice and water, a basic tempera.

The drawing was applied in Green Veronese Earth (iron), leaving white to be modeled both warm and cool. A darker green was made with burnt green earth, also Lamp Black and Yellow Ocher mixed. Sinopis and Cinabrese were the red earths.

Three graded tones to dark rounded and modeled everything. They also had boiled and sun dried linseed oil for glazing over the tempera. Sandarac (sandracca), was a final glaze. Giotto sometimes glazed in mastic over egg but he didn't mix them together. More mastic or oil than egg would make it turpentine based, a less advantageous mix.

If oil was used, sandracca (sandarac) couldn't be, they wouldn't mix or stick to each other. That's a major front in the Paint Wars. Which medium was best for the artist?

Egg or casein mediums were used to paint over dried plaster in the "a secco" technique, "a bueno" is fresco on wet lime, they were both used as wall murals. The lime water medium used to mix pigment for buon fresco may be the Paint Wars media winner in the end, at least it never changed so it's up there with acrylics in permanence.

1300, Duccio 1260-1318, Trecento in Siena. Byzantine style egg medium distemper painting with gold backgrounds, stained glass was a new media.

1330, Simone Martini, 1284-1344, Siena, fresco reigns around the Mediterranean. Simone paints some buildings with a single vanishing point, the second vanishing point had never been adequately expleined, because the horizon line was never divided into degrees of image.

1345-1400, Bohemia is the center for International Gothic and "courtly commissioned paintings". Tapestries, stained-glass, painted statues, and lots of illuminations, fresco was developed here, later. John the Good, a Valois King had 239 tapestries made for his castle. Prague Cathedral had over sixty altarpieces.

1350, The first easel painting were done in the Paris School, following the altarpiece wing panel. These included the first pure landscapes.

HERE IN TIME, High Art is attained again after 1000 years of learning without wars.

1400, Claus Sluter, 1375-1405, French sculptor, High Art in marble "Well of Moses".

1400, Theophanes, the last of a long line of Greeks, worked in Moscow while it was becoming the most important art center for the icon.

1400, Gentile De Fabriano, 1360-1427, Umbrian, International Gothic, his work was just too charming, I could almost hear birds in the background, but he was gaining on the realistic approach.

1400, Sassetta, 1392-1450, Quattrocento in Siena, his eye could see the second point of perspective, sometimes, but he never dreamed there could be a third and forth point.

1400, Fra Angelico 1387-1445, Quattrocento in Florence. TECHNIQUE, He used the most expensive colors in the old style, his bright yellow halos were painted with the new tin-lead yellow, maybe he was the best of the old school, the last best. He avoided gray or brown in colors, instead his shadows were of the same deeper color. His main medium was egg tempera.

1400, Tomaso Masaccio, 1401-1428, Florence. The brightest shooting star that ever was. The first artist to reach the "high art" of painting for over a thousand years, others would not be far behind but he would never see them, he died when he was twenty seven. Masaccio had a new conception of reality, life wasn't staged in his fresco, it was happening!

1410, Andrei Rublev ?1360-1430? is the most famous of the Moscow artists. Icons persisted for the next eight centuries in Russia, never getting very realistic.

1450, Piero Della Francesca, 1416-1492, painted in fresco, studied and taught Geometry and perspective. He influenced Jacopo Bellini, 1400-1470, Mantegna's father-in-law. Gentile Bellini, 1429-1507.

1475, Giovanni Bellini, 1430-1516, Quattrocento in Viennese, he followed Mantegna's style of tonal atmosphere, art has reached the peak. Giovanni went from egg to oil medium in his lifetime.

*Filarete, 1400-1469, TECHNIQUE, of the German School.

1450, Hubert Van Eyck, 1390-1441, mixed up boiled linseed or nut oil and mastic medium, and glazed over an egg-oil-water tempera under paintings, done in white on a colored "imprimatura" ground. A similar technique as described by Theophilus two hundred years earlier.

1500, "Marciana Library" manuscript discribes newly learned art techniques.

TECHNIQUE, Under painting white made from half oil white and half tempera white, became very hard, very opaque, and was very fast drying. It could be laid into wet or dry varnish mastic, balsam or oil. Corrections were made in white, glazes colored the picture.

1500, Flippino Lippi, 1457-1504, Quattrocento in Florence, son of Fra Filippo Lippi and a better painter by one generation.

1500, Signorelli, 1441-1506, Quattrocento in Umbrea. The First Shining Star, shaded with black, perfect figures with lots of action, fresco.

1500, Andrea Del Sarto, 1486-1531, High Renaissance Italy. Started in fresco in Florence, switched to oil and became one of the greats.

1500, Giovanni Bellini, 1477-1576, Giorgione and Titian were fellow pupils of his in 1508.

1500, Giorgione, 1478-1510, The High Renaissance in Italy, the classical era of Venetian painting began with Giorgione.

1500, Bottichelli, 1444-1510, Florence.

1500, Hieronymus Bosch, 1444-1516, Netherlands, the first "comic book" painter, his world belongs to Satan, oil, alla prima.

1500, COLOR, Gamboge, a transparent yellow resin gum is being used in oil and water color.

1500, Da Vinci, 1452-1519, He tried everything in paint, liked nut oil, and suggested "rock oil" which was local crude oil. His one biggest mistake we all remember, the Milan wall painting in the German oil technique. The Atlas describes Germany as in a cold moist belt and Milan in a warm and rainy belt. I think the wall was wet when he painted it. He studied under Verrocchio. Leonardo as born in village of Anchiano near town of Vinci near Florence to Caterina and Ser Piero as an illegitimate son. He died 67 years later in Cloux (France).

LIGHT. Up to this period, light was from the sky, it rarely produced shadows. The Germans were adding some in the 1480's but they were minor, most paintings were done in the "clear light" without shadows. You can always tell a portrait painted inside with an outside background, like the Mona Lisa, it doesn't fit. Light from a definite, logical source started happening about 1525. Da Vinci's unnatural light pointed out the obvious.

THEORY. Four colors, Red, Blue, Green, Yellow, plus white and black. The same as Hering in 1880,

1500, Correggio, 1489-1534, Parma. It seems he had no teachers but his work has a Da Vinci feeling. Don't confuse him with the better artist a hundred years later, Caravaggio, 1573-1610.

1500, Albrecht Durer, 1471-1528, German Renaissance. It's said that Titian visited him to see the brushes that painted such fine hair. He said they were made from hairs off the back of his hand and painted in egg tempera.

TECHNIQUE, Durer drew in black egg tempera and just glazed over a clean ground with mastic and color, then used an egg and nut oil tempera for details and under painting, then more glazes. Tempera white doesn't sponificate as oil lead white does and nut oil doesn't yellow as badly as linseed.

1534, NEW INFORMATION, March 12, 2005 (well it was new when I inserted it)
Science News, by Alexandra Goho

Louisa Matthew found a 1534 inventory of artists' materials from a sales color house in Venice.

Louisa Matthew, an art historian at Union College in Schenectady, NY, and Barbara Berrie, a conservation scientist at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., electron scanned more then 100 items from that list. Azurite (transparent cyan in this case), vermillion (opaque red), orpiment (transparent yellow), red lakes (transparent magenta), antimony (opaque yellow lead). Manganese Native made opaque white and opaque black, raw and burnt brown, red, magenta, purple and violet. Blue, green and violet are good driers. Manganese was an important pigment as it should be today.

Than re-analyzed previous paint samples of Titian, Lotto (who also kept a pigment list in 1522), Tintoretto, Perugino and Raphael.

Barbara found glass particles mixed with their oil media's fine transparent glazes.
That sheds light on how the Venetians of the Italian Renaissance got such depth and translucency into their paintings. They painted with transparent pigments, added glass to make paints fuller and use less yellowing oil.

Venice was the glass making capitol of the world. Crystal (cristallo) was the finest colorless glass made from quartzite silica which was obtained from along the Tinico River in Northern Italy.

I have never tested glass as a drier, but I do know that the lesser oil amount will yellow least. Adding bulk to the oil glaze means the original amount of oil used was less. This can cut your oil down 50% in volume and add light and depth to the paint while reducing future yellowing.

Glass Frits covered the opaque color spectrum, opaque lead-tin yellow, opaque cobalt blue smalt, opaque copper cyan (Egyptian) with the full range of greens as iron was added to cobalt blue. Antimony was calcined to make yellow and orange hues in frit, probably red also. I don't think the lakes could take the heat of molten glass so ground glass was added to the medium instead of making a frit out of magenta. This is Lauisa Matthew's great contribution to lost knowledge.

NOTICE: Ground glass, 4 to 8 microns wide, hastens the drying time of oil as well as adding transparency and solidity to magenta transparent dye, that was Rose Madder Lake at the time.

The High Rennaissance had a full set of transparent colors and we never knew how they got it until now.

By adding finely crushed clear glass to linseed, stand oil and balsams, the medium itself will than redirect light back to you. You will see deeper into the thickness of the oil media.

These are the best transparent primary colors in history.
PY153 Nickel Dioxine Yellow Complex and Isoindolinone Yellow R are the Indian Yellows.
Phthalocyanine Blue, PB15.3 transparent (Cyan)
Quinacridone Magenta Y form PR122

1550, Bruegel the Elder, 1525-1569, Netherlands. Painted in resin-oil paint.

1550, Michelangelo, 1475-1564, High Renaissance Italy. He was in a class by himself, He didn't like Da Vinci, fought with Raphael, and took no students. He was a sculptor until 1503 when he first picked up a brush, already the most famous artist alive. He made his own gilded frames and always did prefer sculpting.

THEORY. Although he never professed it, his first painting "The Holy Family" when he was 28 years old divided into three colors, Yellow, Cyan, and Magenta. The cyan could have been Azurite, Blue Vitriol or Pompiian Blue Lake, a Ferris-cyan, Indigo, or Bremen Blue or a native Cobalt Blue. It wasn't Ultramarine Blue. Whatever it was he had the primary colors right.

*Goethe, 1749-1832,

TECHNIQUE, "Italian Journeys", Speaks on Tintoretto, "He painted directly alla prima with full color on a red bolus ground, sometimes only the highlights survived". It was a very fast technique called "fa presto!". He was really good and really fast.

1550, Tintoretto, 1518-1594, Italian High Renaissance. LIGHT. An artist finally showing the outside sun with shadows playing on the figures.

1550, Titian, 1477-1576, Venice, High Renaissance. Resin oil over tempera.

LIGHT. Titian paints "Bacchus and Ariadne" at dusk. TECHNIQUE,

*Armenini, Italy

*Vasari, said egg and oil started in Germany, and that Titian started working tight, he loosened up in old age because of his eyesight. He let his fingers do the blending, usually. Titian and the Venetian School, painted on a bolus ground of dark gray, brown or dark red. The drawing was done with white chalk, layout and modeling was done in the mixed-white impasto under paintings, the "blackboard effect". El Greco, Titian's student painted with the same techniques. No extra color was used in the white under painting, so middle areas were scumbled on into half-tones, and shadows received enough white to except and show color with glazes.
Today with the finer ground lead, zinc and titanium oxide pigments it takes two coats of white to cover a dark color, that makes it not so "impasto" but a labor of love.

1575, El Greco, 1541-1614, A Cretan living in Toledo, Spain. He studied under Titian.

LIGHT. El Greco paints a city in a storm, "View of Toledo". He laid a blue-green final glaze over the dried painting for the night effect.


Gauze, stretched on a frame and drawn on, shows fore shortening and accurate layouts.

Retical, a string grid on a movable frame held in one spot to relate size proportions.

Mirror, to see in reverse, placed to see the model and picture simultaneously.

Black mirror, to check faults in tonality.

The Claude Glass, was named to honor the landscape artist, Claude Lorraine. He did not invent it though. Gainsborough was associated with this device also.
Claude Glass was a compact fold up mirror that was slightly convex with a black backing. The overall effect for the artist's purpose was to allow the subtlety of the middle values to emerge, while suppressing the overwhelming highlights. The darks were still preserved with detail.

Reducing glass, sees the whole picture without standing back.

Colored glass, cyan will show the strength of warm colors, yellow will expose contrasts.

Plummet, a weighted string to check against vertical.

Pantograph, enlarges images mechanically.

Measuring stick, size relationships measured from an arm's length.

Some of Bouguereau's drawings were rendered with the aid of an optical device known as the chambre claire. This instrument, by means of prisms, allowed the tracing of a subject's outlines, as observed by the artist, directly onto a drawing board. Used as an artist might use a photograph today, the chambre claire permitted the artist to readily and quickly reproduce certain details of nature which could be used later in the studio as details in a painting.

Real color wheel, to show opposition's when mixing neutral dark colors in pigment, (opposites) instead of using black pigment.

1998 Perspective Bar Tool

This piece of equipment is used to plot two vanishing points 90 degrees apart and can extend to ten foot for larger paintings. A bar attaches to the back of the painting, level and behind the picture's horizon line. It has hard arms on pivots that clip onto the bar and lock down on the vanishing point. Sometimes times both vanishing points are off the page in a 60 degree picture

I just match up the buildings most extreme top angle with the arm and clip it on the horizon bar by matching the angles of the arm bar to the image. Look at the building and point to the extended vanishing point to the left or right of my picture, that where I clip the arm on and where that square building's vanishing point goes to. That position works now for any building in my picture with those compass angles.

Acrylics, are thinner in basic use-ability, the perfect consistency of paint for stroking is thinner with acrylics than in oils. Acrylics, as egg tempera, wax-water emulsion, and casein have no dragging properties, smoother than smooth you might say.

Chapter 18


Electromagnetic Spectrum Color Chart (EM)
Real Color Wheel Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum Color Chart is very accurate and measured in Nanometers, 1,000,000,000 nm to 1 meter.
Here is how to check it for color accuracy. Open the downloaded 600 ppi EM spectrum chart and enlarge it 200%, (that's really big) and read the color just above or below the color's dot with your color picker. Read this color in an RGB color wheel like Adobe's or the Real Color Wheel. For the less saturated colors like yellow and orange move the slide to the full hue. This small 72 dpi web image has a Twentieth Anniversary Macintosh profile. The download 600 ppi tif has an sRGB IEC61966-2.1 profile.

Real Color Wheel Electromagnetic Spectrum (EM) color chart

If you would like the link to this large 600 dpi tif EM image in a Zip file ask for one by Email.

Electromagnetic Spectrum Chart 600 ppi by Real Color Wheel - Email
Here is a sample of what the downloaded image will look like.
Real Color Wheel Electromagnetic Spectrum (EM) color chart sample

If you want more information about the electromagnetic spectrum it's here on my rainbow page. (new window)

Chapter 19



30,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C., Palaeolithic Culture, Euro-African finger painting on mud and rock cave walls. Animal fat mixed with native pigments, yellow, brown and red clay with bone and charcoal soot black. Just like Rembrandt's colors.

These caves were located from Central Africa to the coasts Spain, France and England. The most famous are in the Lascaux area of France and Altamira Spain, where a hollow reed was used to blow the pigment on the walls. The first airbrush.

Flint was mined and chipped for weapons in Central Africa, Tanzania, Egypt and England, also obsidian, a black native volcanic glass found in chalk. In an English mine a chipped obsidian figurine was found of a pregnant woman in the back of a limestone cave.

5000 B.C., Egypt's first capitol was in Memphis, the oldest civilization on earth. Art and sculpture were highly prized by these people.

4000 B.C., Egyptian's are painting on bas-relief murals of plaster in gum water color or maybe lime water. Important people were buried in mastabas. Ordinary people lived in clay and mud houses, poured into papyrus forms. Columns were made in this manner and the style was copied in stone, everything was painted, the adobe homes were whitewashed with lime paint and mineral pigments like blue and green copper sediment, and yellow to red earths of iron. The early alphabet was story telling pictures, like in China about this time with the ancient Hisa people. Pigment mediums were water based tree gums, wheat paste glue and lime. Crushed limestone white was baked into quicklime plaster of Paris, adding alum would make cement. Wheat shafts and hemp were added to the mix with sand for strength in building.

3000 B.C., Potash glass frit was made with copper. This was a solid cyan pigment that could be mixed with wax, sandracca (sandarac), egg, casein or mastic, a color in direct competition with India's indigo. Africa was circumnavigated by the Phoenicians under the Pharaoh Necho.

2700 B.C., Temples were built of granite, The Great Pyramids of Gizeh and the Sphinx were made of limestone, cut with metal saws of bronze. From this limestone dust I think cement was made but there is no proof. Statues were pored in gold and bronze, smelting was a highly developed art. The statues of Khafra and The Scribe are so natural and life-like there almost alive. This level of skill won't be reached again until the 4th century in Greece. Walls and paintings are done in either wax and ammonia, wax and mastic or lime fresco. Egypt is at a high art peak and is going to start spreading like the Delta.

1500 B.C., The Greek and Etruscan civilizations are forming.

1100 B.C., Northwestern Dorian invaders have taken over Greece, art degenerates to petrogliphs, much like Picaso's work after our world wars. This First Dark Age period lasts until 650 B.C.. The Mycenaean civilization is over.

1000 B.C., Homer units Greece together with his writings.

RIDDLE?? The Androsphinx is a sphinx with the head of a man, the sphinx is a winged monster with a woman's head that sat outside the gates of Thebes and challenged anyone who passed by to solve her riddle or die. She asked Oedipus "What creature is it that walks on four feet in the morning, two feet at noon, and three in the evening? "Man" Oedipus answered, "as a child he crawls on four, a grown man walks on two and an old man leans on a staff". The sphinx had lost her powers and she threw herself to her death, Oedipus became the King of Thebes.

900 B.C., Egyptian artists were painting in Greece, teaching I suppose. Greek art has abstract qualities as in WWI and WWII art. The Egyptian artists were gaining self control and losing the religious and state controlled bindings, they were becoming more realistic. The wars are costly and Egypt is sliding, winning, but sliding. Good workers are leaving town.

800,700, B.C., Greece, all war scenes, nothing but some pottery survived, with some Egyptian influence mixed in, they were friends, but Greece was crushed and looking outward to other shores.

HERE IN TIME, Europe's art is at ground zero. To attain the status of High Art it takes 200 years of peace.

600 B.C., Etruscans paint the living and dead together, very crudely. Their work is strongly influenced by the influx of Greeks, who were getting good and the artists who were teaching them, the Egyptian's.

500 B.C., Greece is tackling the problems of 3/D and 2 point perspective, their sculpture is already back to being realistic. Myron working in bronze and is the best that ever lived, so far.

500 B.C., Egypt is huge, wax painting is huge, ammonia is big in the Paint Wars, mastic, being used in Greece and Etrusca, is still small, but great, and they liked wax, everybody did.

HERE IN TIME, is High Art, but only the sculpture survive.

500 B.C., China is 80% of Egypt's size, and hooked on the alcohol based paint, lacquer, they could sculpt with it too, for now the lacquer media was winning a Medium Battle in the Paint Wars. It was the major medium from the Far East Coast to Mesopotamia.

225 B.C., Greece defeats the Gauls, Pergamum sculpts the "Dying Gaul" and "Dead Persian" in perfect realism.

200 B.C., The First School of Pergamum, the Aphrodite of Melos and the Victory of Samothrace are carved in marble.

165 B.C., Hellenistic Epiphanes, "the god manifest" identifies Jehovah with Zeus and himself with both. In Egypt, Cleopatra kills herself with an asp to be with her father, the sun-god Re.

100 B.C., The Second School of Pergamum, genre figures of daily life are carved in marble, Boethus, "The Boy With a Goose" in marble is the greatest sculpture ever carved in my opinion, it deserves the title of 'High Art'. Michelangelo and Bernini in the 14th and 15th centuries would again reach this peak of perfection.

100 B.C., Greek artists went to Rome where the action is and helped Rome along. Although Greek art in general was still a high caliber, the bullet was spent.

10 B.C., Perhaps the last great piece of sculpture was of Augustus, at 6'8" in white marble, it could still be called 'High Art', but it was less than the production work of a hundred years past.

A/D 79, Pompeii, The Vesuvius eruption saves a few Italian paintings and murals, among them is one of the first classical "Three Graces". Botticelli would paint them again in 1478, Raphael in 1500, Tintoretto in 1578, Hans Baldung in 1525, and Jean-Baptiste Regnault in 1799.

A/D. 117, The Trajan Column shows a slight change in the reason to sculpture, now a war story was being told and the artists were still very good.

A/D. 200, Christianity was the same thing in Rome and Greece, only different, and they fought about it. Rome won and destroyed pagan art which was superior.

HERE IN TIME, war is ending High Art.

A/D. 200, Byzantine, MEDIUM, There are no Greek or Byzantine paintings from these Dark Ages but we know the mediums they worked in. Water, turpentine, alcohol, ammonia, and lime water were the paint thinners. Wax and pigments were melted for painting buildings, mastic, turpentine and wax together painted pictures on wood or ceramic. Ammonia and wax made a water based paint that dried insoluble, a wax soap called Cera Colla (new window). Sandracca (sandarac), castor oil and alcohol made a hard finished paint. They also had egg and casein, which were both water based paints.

Pigments were either crushed and opaque from local material or soluble and transparent from imported stock, both the opaque and transparent palettes were complete.

Two art forms were done in this Second Dark Age, where all paintings were destroyed, that were never done again. One was the "pictura translucita", a transparent painting done on polished tin in glazes of mastic, and cera colla or cara colla, a wax and ammonia based paint that dried insoluble like today's acrylics.

HERE IN TIME, A/D. 200, is the peak in High Art and the end of High Art. It's happening on Byzantine soil not Italian.

These guys were really good, it's a shame we lost all their work to a religious internal problem. The next time artists were going to be this good, oil was going to be the preferred medium.

A/D. 300, Byzantine art is carrying on the abilities of the Greek's, Roman's and themselves, mosaics are as difficult as sculpturing and mosaics in churches was their thing along with painting.

HERE IN TIME, The war is over and people are in peace. Art is in it's infancy, Ground Zero, again.

A/D. 400, The Vatican; priests are painting pictures in the bibles their making.

A/D. 476- 842, The Iconoclastic Controversy war, most art was destroyed by Rome as being pagan, all art that was hanging in their temples and palaces was destroyed. Only monks and priests paint now, and they don't know how. It wasn't safe for the artist to paint anymore, thirteen generations of no practice ended the art of painting.

A/D. 500, Rome, Paris, Vienna, very Early Middle Ages, illumination painting on parchment with an egg white medium. Done by religious orders, especially the Benedictines.

547, Mosaics are incorporated in buildings, deep greens, gold, vermilion, blue's with cobalt and lapis, whites of tin, blacks of iron and manganese. Greek and Byzantine mosaics changing from Late Antiquity to Early Middle Ages.

A/D. 600, The French abbeys combine art and writing.

A/D. 650, Thriving schools divided up France at Luxeuil and Corbie. The Palatine Chapel workshop in Germany on the Rhine and others in Vienna, Brussels, they were all happy to do the work.

A/D. 700, The "Lucca Manuscript", describes the last High Art period making transparent stain or dye colors from plants with alum precipitates, These were used for, pictura translucita, cera colla, gilding, gums, and emulsions. From the same period comes the "Heraclius", describing alum and egg white paint for miniature painting and oil in paint.

1150, St. Francis of Assisi, 1182-1226, begins leading art out of the Dark Ages by painting his alter.

1200, Italian-Egyptian fresco bueno on soft plaster, still based on the Old Testament started appearing in Siena.


Russian icons on wood were painted in egg-distempera, without oil. Their artists were taught by the Byzantine, who could work in glazed tile not just on parchment or wood. The Russian's would paint icons on wood for the next five centuries.

1200 A/D, England is protecting wood with oil paint, this is the first noted use of linseed oil, Doerner found it, it's a receipt for house paint.

Max Doerner, 'Materials of the Artist', 1933. (new window)
The price was $12.80, today it's $26.36. Artist, this book should be on you're shelf.

Chapter 19a

See Chap17, 1200 A/D To 1575 A/D Painting Technique

Southern Renaissance, Giotto di Bondone, Donatello, Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Giovanni Bellini, Titian, Cennini, were among some of the most celibrated of the Southern Renaissance artists. Tempera, Oils, Fresco

Northern Renaissance, Albrecht Durer, Mathias Giunewald, Hans Holbein, Jan van Eyck, Hans Memling, Dirk Bouts, Hugo van der Goes, Hieronymus Bosch, Pieter Brueghel the Elder, Rembrandt

1240-1303, Cimabue, (Bencivieni di Pepo), Byzantine style, mosaic, fresco, taught Giotto and Duccio.

1255-1318, Duccio di Buoninsegna, Trecento in Siena, Tuscany. Byzantine style egg medium distemper painting with gold backgrounds. Rucellai Madonna (1285) for Santa Maria Novella, Maesta for Siena's Cathedral (1308-11). Stained glass was a new media.

1280-1344+, Giotto, Mosaic of the Navicella 1300, Rome. Frescoes in the Arena Chapel, Padua 1304-13, Florence. Campanile, Giotto's Tower of the Cathedral 1344. Baroncelli Altarpiece, Florence, Santa Croce. Madonna and Saints in Bologna. Ognissanti Madonna, Florence-Uffizi.

1284-1344, Simone Martini, Siena, fresco, single vanishing point.

1370-1440, Cennino Cennini, Florence, late Gothic Florentine painter, egg tempra handbook 1437

1400-1455, Fra Angelico, Florence, egg, fresco

1401-1428, Masaccio, originally named Tommaso Cassa Masaccio, fresco, the first great painter of the Italian Renaissance. The first artist to reach the "High Art" of Painting for over a thousand years

1390-1441, Jan van Eyck, Collaborated with his brother Hubert, Flemish, egg tempra to oil, Ghent altarpiece (1432), wedding portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife (1434)

1416-1492, Piero della Francesca, Florence, fresco

1430-1516, Giovanni Bellini, lived and died in Venice, Venetian School, tempra, oil, most of his great works burned 1577. Taught Giorgione and Titian. Albrecht Dürer considered him the best of the time.

1436, Dome of Florence Cathedral, Brunelleschi

1450, Machu Picchu, Inca people, Andean mountain top (9060 feet elevation). Astronomical observatory. The Intihuatana stone is a precise indicator of the two equinoxes and other significant celestial periods. Building blocks weigh 50 tons or more, the mortarless joints will not permit the insertion of even a thin knife blade.

1452-1519, Leonardo da Vinci, Young Madonna 1490, Tempera. Mona Lisa La Giaconda, oil, 1503-1505.

1475-1564, Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, born near Florence, sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance

1477-1510, Giorgione of Castelfranco, Venice

1483, Raphael - Rafaello Sanzio, fresco - oil, Urbino, Italy. Mond Crucifixion (1502), The Three Graces 1503, Knights Dream 1504, Oddi altarpiece, Marriage of the Virgin 1504, La Belle jardine 1507. The Stanza della Segnatura series of frescos 1509-1511 include The Triumph of Religion and The School of Athens. I conceder Raphael the finest artist of the Renaissance.

1477 or 1488-1576, Titian - Tiziano Vecellio,

1452, Gates of Paradise, Ghiberti

1455, Mary Magdalen, Donatello

1486, Birth of Venus, Sandro Botticelli, Botticelli (1444-1510), changed from egg to oil in his lifetime.

1489, Hans Memling, Arrival of the virgins in Cologne, oil on wood

1500, Pieta, Michelangelo

1500, 1471-1528, Albrecht Durer, Self Portrait 1500,

Chapter 20 1575-1685
The Antimony Naples Yellow Color System 1870

INDEX OF DATES 1575-1897

1/1575, 2/1630, 3/1630, 4/1650, 5/1659, 6/1665, 7/1680, 8/1710, 9/1750, 10/1780, 11/1795, 12/1800, 13/1810, 14/1827, 15/1841, 16/1060, 17/1867, 18/1870, 19/1881, 20/1890, 20/1897
Mark Harden's Artchive On Line. (new window)  Here is the best archive of classical paintings outside of a museum I have found.

1575, Veronese, 1526-1588, Italy.

TECHNIQUE, Marco Boschini said, Veronese covered his whole canvas with a green middle tone, then laid the picture out in blue egg tempera before adding white tempera highlights. Over this he painted in oils.

1600, Rome, The Art Jubilee, 3 million visitors, artists from every nation came to visit. Some stayed for thirty years, what a party!

1600, Caravaggio, 1573-1610, Florence.

LIGHT, Light would come in from a window, an obvious external light. He and Masaccio are two of the most important painters that ever lived, one mastered form the other mastered light. Caravaggio's light was called "luminism", an internal picture painted with real external entering light. He was only thirty-eight when he died of malaria, they both died young.

1611 - Finland - The oldest known color system is credited to astronomer, priest and Neoplatonist Aron Sigfrid Forsius (1569-1637). In his color circle, between the colors Black and White, Red has been placed on the one side since the classical antiquity, and Blue on the other; Yellow then comes between White and Red, pale Yellow between White and Yellow, Orange between Yellow and Red.THEORY, 1613 - Belgium - Franciscus Aguilonius (1567-1617) was a Jesuit priest in Brussels when his color diagram appeared in 1613 in a work on optics. It is possibly the oldest system to use the trio of red, yellow and blue where colors are defined within a linear division.

1630, Van Dyck, 1599-1641, Antwerp, Rubens considered him to be his best student, by age 19 he was a master. His best work was done in England.

TECHNIQUE, De Mayerne said, Van Dyck used a very thin painting medium of linseed oil and mastic, new colors were made daily except for white, which was ground in nut oil and preserved under water. It was thicker back then. His ground was gray, beginning with a brown painting which included the shadows, he under painted the highlights with white, the painting was finished alla prima. Venetian balsam was used as a retouching medium and applied warm and thin.

1630, COLOR,

Bitumen, or Asphaltum was introduced in 1630 and it was to become a very well liked color. They called it the "soup" because of its easy mixing and painting qualities. With so much oil in it, it was a very poor drier and should only be used as a final glaze or it would crack. This was a color that took yellow to brown. The Roman's used this color for awhile, it was re-discovered by the Dutch. The National Gallery of Art Washington, has shown Rembrandt not to have used Asphaltum. ??

1630, Adriaen Brouwer, 1605-1638, Flemish, The "bad boy" of artists, live fast and die young. He painted bar scenes like his friend Frans Hals.

LIGHT, He painted landscapes by the dim light of the moon.

LIGHT, 1730, One hundred years later one man put it all together, Chardin, 1699-1779, he conquered natural light. In 1830, another hundred years later, Corot, 1796-1875, would conquer natural color, painting outdoors where the natural light and color lives.

1630, Rubens, 1577-1640, Flemish, what an inspiration, a great painter. He studied with Titian when he was twenty three, went to mass everyday and at fifty-three married a girl sixteen.

TECHNIQUE, Doerner said, Rubins preferred oil of turpentine to oil of spike. Oil of spike has solvent action on lower layers, which he didn't like.

TECHNIQUE, De Mayerne, Rubens physician, wrote "Pictoria, Sculpturia et quae Subalternarum Artium" and said this about Rubins. He used a white gypsum and glue ground and a light gray egg tempera imprimatura, he mixed Venetian turpentine, sun-thickened walnut oil and mastic as a medium, 3:2:1, and enough siccative to dry in a day. These are the same proportions I use, but with Linseed Oil. He begin by painting the shadows lightly without a hint of added white. Lights have body, lay each tone in its place one after the other before lightly mixing them with the brush. Paint the highlights white, place next to them yellow, than red, and use a darker red to carry them over to the shadows.

Use a cool brush load of gray to go over and soften them into the desired tone. Develop the contours slowly, without forcing the development of the picture, this is a new idea of his. Clean brushes are important. Don't paint over places that have sunk in before bringing them out. His shadow tones were glazes of Cassel Brown and Gold Ocher, reflections in the shadows were painted with a highly calcined Burnt Sienna glaze which has a vermilion hue. Alternate warm and cool glazes with transparent colors only.

1630, Zurbaran, Spain, his paintings date from 1629 to 1642. His art contains elements of both Caravaggism and chiaroscuro.

LIGHT, Hidden internal directed light, this is chiaroscuro, an area radiating light to other areas.

1612, Georges Dumesnil De La Tour, 1593-1652, France.

LIGHT. His light came from an exposed or hidden candle or single source of light, both he and Gerard Dou painted this light called chiaroscuro, a pinpoint of radiating light.

1646, Jan Van Goyen, 1596-1656, Netherlands. He did with light outside as Rembrandt did inside, new changes on the horizon line, literally, he lowered it to show more sky.

1652, Rebera, 1591-1652, Spain, Born in Milan, a Spanish possession, he worked in Naples with a Spanish spirit in the Valencian school.

1655, Poussin, 1594-1665, French, classical remnant. Rubens had just died, so classical scenes were still popular.

1650, Velasquez, 1599-1660, Spain. Some say he was the most painterly of painters, others think his contemporary Frans Hals was.

TECHNIQUE, 1650. Palomino said, grounds were made of gypsum and glue, or a half-chalk ground and glue, linseed oil, and pipe clay, the panels were then primed with oil paint. Velasquez used a dark ground and gray under painting, then painted alla prima with heavy liquid resin glazes. Verdigris and black made the shadows. Verdigris was a blue-green copper based color that had to be isolated with either egg, gum, or shellac, where it wouldn't effect the lead colors. Glue painting was practiced in Seville as a preparatory training for oil painting.

1656, Frans Hals, 1580-1666, Dutch. Talk about huge, some of his "official" group portraits measured 25' x 25'. Hals had fun painting, can you imagine being in a bar drinking with your friends and painting them having a good time.

TECHNIQUE, He painted on a gray ground like Rubins and used the same medium. The picture was laid out in white and brown egg tempera and painted alla prima in oil. This is a very fast technique.

1656, Carman, a transparent magenta lake replaced Dragon's Blood and Madder Lake, actually any and all were used according to availability, non were really permanent.

1659, Rembrandt, 1606-1669, Dutch.

LIGHT, The next light was hidden but not as obviously. He directed external lights into interiors. Natural sunlight is not chiaroscuro, Rembrandt's light seems to come from an unseen spotlight of sorts, that's the boundary of chiaroscuro. Perhaps he painted at night with a kerosene lamp.

TECHNIQUE, Sandrart said that Rembrandt said, "It is all-important to hold only to nature and no other rules", I like that, that's the way you learn, and that's what art is all about.

Rembrandt, painted on a light umber brown ground and under modeled with white, his medium was not the mastic resin, Venetian turpentine and thick oils of the south, but stand oil and raw oil.

Naples yellow with its high density covering power was an important color with Rembrandt as with Rubins, mixed with Smalt he made his greens. De Wild said, it was another lead color, Massicot, he was right. Rembrandt had a flair for form definition, sharpening it or losing it to the background.

The National Gallery of Art Washington, DC said Rembrandt didn't use Naples Yellow, using instead, Lead-tin Yellow. They also said he didn't use resins or balsams, perhaps stand oil and raw oil, as they only found linseed oil on his canvases.

The northern Dutch school of art had left the southern Venetian school behind. Stand oil was king at the time of Rembrandt's death in 1669. While the Flemish Rubens in 1640 used balsams, mastics and sun thickened oil. Rembrandt was a changing figure just as Giovanni Bellini was, he went from egg to oil.

Pages 220 to 225 in "Artists' Pigments" show very well how; names considered synonymous with Naples yellow included the composition of lead-tin yellow and would have been called the same color. In this case Giallolino was the name for yellow and Antimony Yellow up to 1600. In 1490 Leonardo separated the two calling them Giallo and Gialorino but then only in one reference. Antimony (Naples) Yellow was available from a light cool lemon yellow to a pinkish orange yellow. The light cool yellow was the most expensive to make by requiring the highest heat. Next was a light sulfur yellow color. The orange/side color was achieved by using lower temperature for a longer time. It was hard to make the same color twice.

The soft yellow stone cast off by Vesuvius was the original crushed Naples Yellow.


Calcined antimony made in any of these colors, (usually six different hues) from cool light yellow, warm light yellow, to the much loved, pinkish-orangish-brownish flesh tone yellow tint.

Antimony Naples Yellow officially lost in the Paint Wars about 1900. Again, I blame the killing wars for ending the preference for the Naples Yellow lead colors. The wars took our best young artists again.

So what if Cadmium Yellow is brighter, you still can find a great need for this very opaque series of colors. The true antimony colors are more opaque and faster drying than the CHURCH-OSTWALD "premixed from other elements" hues called Naples Yellow Hue. Today it seems that only one or two colors of the six color set are available, sometimes none.

Antimony Yellow, now called Naples Yellow grew until 1890 when it started to be replaced and mixed with cheaper yellows. With the coming of the wars antimony original was losing appreciation. This should explein the coming and going of antimony's popularity. Great artists loved it but it was expensive.

Tin Yellow was first used in 50 AD in European painting. Lead stannate yellow was mixed with calcium antimonate white to make a clean opaque light yellow at a lower firing temperature and less expense than antimony light, and less dangerous and less smelly (sulfur) than arsenic yellow. Lead and tin also made this color cheaply and it replaced antimony yellow from 50 to 350 A/D. during the Moors Invasion, Christian Wars, etc. until the next wave of great artists in the 1500's.

Kuhn, in 1968 first called two types of related lead stannate (mineral yellow) yellows lead-tin yellow 1 and lead-tin yellow 2. They were given the names lead tin oxide and cubic lead tin oxide. Calcium antimonate is white, lead antimonate can be light yellow. Tin and lead are the cleanest lightest yellow oxides but they can't be joined as pigments in oil because a free-radical would turn the tin oxide black. Only a calcined oxide compound of mineral yellow and tin yellow will work. This is because a natural mineral of antimony does not have the free radical that a calcined antimony would have. Mineral Antimony Yellow Lead-tin oxide is PbSnO3.

So, in effect they called the same basic opaque light yellow color Naples Yellow and Lead-tin Yellow. Lead-tin Yellow was always the cheaper way to go.

That's a cheap opaque light yellow that can be used as a base replacing the expensive antimony set of colors.

Lead-tin yellow had replaced antimony yellow by 1300. That which was called Naples yellow in 1550, is now called lead-tin yellow since Kuhn 1968. Antimony yellow replaced lead-tin yellow in 1750 in popularity.

In 1750 Lead-tin yellow was out. Antimony yellow enjoyed it's greatest popularity from 1750 to 1850 while the greatest artists were alive..

TECHNIQUE, Doerner says, Rembrandt pre-mixed a warm and cool white which he laid on in layers, one over the other. Rembrandt's final glaze was with asphaltum, a yellow-brown transparent oil tar. He understood the color theory that yellow darkened to brown and red was half yellow, so it too darkened to brown. A problem arises when the brown is darkened with black instead of its opposite color Ultramarine Blue.  Again, the National Gallery of Art Washington, DC said Rembrandt didn't use Asphaltum even though it was a popular color at the time.

1660, Ruisdael, 1600-1670, Netherlands. He did the best Dutch job on clouds, Smalt and Umber were mixed together to a neutral dark that matched the underside of clouds. He still went from yellow to red to brown to black for everything else though, that was the Dutch way.

1665, Gerard Dou, 1613-1675, Dutch. He pre-made an unbelievable amount of flesh colors and like many of his day, didn't really need a model.

1665, Jan Vermeer, 1632-1675, Dutch, The next generation after Rembrandt went for more natural colors and natural light.

LIGHT, Light wasn't a mystery, it was there. Coming in from the window, it has direction and shadows. With that idea and only thirty five lifetime paintings, he was recognized.

1665, Murillo, 1665-1675, Spain, Naturalism, similar in greatness to Caravaggio, 1573-1610, he was a serious painter, not like the frivolous, popular, overpaid, color banging Mannerist, Lorrain.

Art was going to pieces up there in France.

1666, Newton, 1642-1727, England.

THEORY, He devised the first color wheel. His theory "Optics" had the right idea, dividing the prism and bringing it back together again. However he chose the wrong primary colors, magenta and cyan were missing. Magenta and cyan don't show up in a crystal spectrum, at least not as major colors.

1670, Willem Claesz, 1594-1680, Dutch Haarlem school. "Monochrome feasts" is what the Dutch called these low keyed paintings.

1672, Claude Lorrain, 1600-1682, French Mannerist. "Give them an idealized beautiful picture and they will buy it, and we can hire our friends to paint in some people." This school of images extends into Turner, 1775-1851, who liked his likable light and bright colors. The size of the public was increasing, more people had money and less taste was required, soon sex would enter the equation, men would be idealized, going after a market.

1672, Murello, 1618-1682, Spain. These were great times with great artists. Murello painted a simple moment in his real subjects life, it's like they didn't have to pose, the moment wouldn't last that long anyway.

1673, Pieter De Hooch, 1629-1683, Dutch. He and Velasquez both mastered one point perspective, one painting very small, the other painting huge.

1680, David Teniers the Younger, 1610-1690, Flemish. Followed the style of Brouwer, started the Antwerp Academy, and was a friend of Rubins.

1680, Charles Le Brun, 1619-1690, French. In "The Train of Queen Maria Theresa at Her Entry into Paris", he painted the Chancellor Seguier on a horse under an umbrella with six male attendants taking care. Le Brun was the designer of Versailles.

Elizabeth Lebrun, a hundred years later was a great female painter, better than Le Brun. Don't get them confused with each other. Le Brun's reign was ended by Mignard, a painter of woman of status.

1685, (new window) Pierre Mignard, (new window) 1612-1695, French straight arrow. Imagine the perfect little girl portrait, "The Duchess of Maine as a Child", sitting on piles of beautiful pillows blowing soap bubbles. He's up in Murillo's class as a painter and with more money and a more varied palette. This school would lead to Lebrun, perhaps the greatest woman painter ever, 1755-1842, Gainsborough, 1727-1788, and Reynolds, 1723-1792.

Chapter 20a
New Pigments, New Color Theories


English Vermilion Dark, syn., the best of the bunch, except for the cool dark Chinese Vermilion. Others are Antimony Vermilion, Mercuric Sulfide Vermilion which will blacken some colors, Mercuric Iodide Vermilion which is impermanent, and Eosine Vermilion with the fugitive coal-tar dye eosine. Since they are all opaque, today, Cadmium Red's will do the job better, at least cheaper. The color is almost the same.

1705, COLOR,

Bister was a transparent yellow to brown, dual-tone color. It was made from charred beechwood and was mainly a water-color pigment.

1710, Watteau, 1684-1721, French, was a painter of fashion and show, good teachers passed down knowledge of techniques and it didn't take long to make good artists, all you needed to do was practice. There were enough wealthy clients who appreciated an artist that appreciated their tastes.

COLOR, Prussian Blue, a dual-tone transparent iron color that was getting close to cyan in its transparent undertone. It's deep mass color has a black-green quality that makes a dirty purple, nice green's though. It was made with Iron and the gas cyanogen.

1724, Germany discovered it in 1704, England said it was theirs, The "Paint War" fuse was lit, England, France and Germany were stealing from each other. I believe this was a basis for WW1.

COLOR, Heated Prussian Blue made a permanent Prussian Brown.

1750, TECHNIQUE, (Shegers misspelled) Daniel Seghers is correct, the flower painter used Strasbourg turpentine from the white pine, which is perhaps even better then Venetian balsam turpentine, it could be made in this country (USA), but isn't. Canadian Balsam is perhaps the best today, it is made from the white pine. To this he added sun-thickened nut oil, a very good combination. The support was oak board covered with a fine thin canvas, over this, eight thin layers of gesso. Eight thin layers of rabbit skin glue, chalk and lead white would dry as fast as water, the last layers are the thinnest of course.

On top of the white gesso he darkened with caput mortuum, he lightened some areas with yellow ocher. Both with egg yolk medium. Modeling was done with lead white egg tempera. Colored glazes of resin-oil divided the flowers into three tones, high, middle and shadow. He didn't hesitate to work into his darker glazes with tempera white and antimony lead Naples yellow. That means his glazes colored his completed grazelle, the darkest shadows were added glazes.

The pre-drawing was pounced on and announced with thin India ink. Caput Mortuum and egg yolk laid in his shadows, then light ocher for the middle tones. Egg tempera white painted the highlights. Now he was finished with his base painting, and ready for oil. His medium was Venetian balsam and sun-thickened linseed oil, 2:1, thinned with turpentine. Colored glazes on each flower and further heightening with white egg tempera in the wet oil glaze for details. The mixed technique. Reflections were painted in egg tempera white and oil glazed, backgrounds were strengthened, Naples yellow was used with white in the highest highlights.

The shadows were deep resin-oil accents, again three distinct tones molded the form. Cool green earth oil glazing neutralized the heat when it was necessary, Vermeer painted in a similar technique.

1755, Tobios Mayer, Color theory by math, but he picked the wrong triad colors, red, blue and yellow. THEORY

1756, Nattier, 1685-1766, made his fortune painting ladies of the court as Diana and such.

1758, Hogarth, 1697-1768, English portraits, engraving and genre paintings.

1758, Canoletto, 1697-1768, Venetian buildings, cooling his shadows down with the new Prussian blue and brown. His perspective is still slightly off.

1760, Tiepolo, 1666-1770, Neo-classic Venetian.

1760, Boucher, 1703-1770, Watteau's style was carried on.

1769, Chardin, 1699-1779, He used the new Prussian blue in "Boy Drawing" in 1737. Still using black to darken his brown shadows. Realist.

1778, Gainsborough, 1727-1788, A fashionable painter, well paid, great artist, His "Blue Boy" was painted with the new Prussian blue.

1780, COLOR, Cobalt Blue Imitation. Cobalt aluminate blue spinel, replaced natural cobalt calcined oxide by 1802, it will never be the right color again. Natural cobalt must be used for murals,

1781, COLOR, Turner's Yellow, became very popular, an opaque lead oxychloride.

1782, Reynolds, 1723-1792, England's best.

TECHNIQUE, Doerner said, Reynolds praised a wax soap emulsion (cera Colla) combined with Venice turpentine as the best of painting media. I say, try it, you'll like it. It has the consistently of oil paint with a water base, it dries insoluble and permanent. Reynolds, before a portrait setting would under paint the head area in white, so a thin vale of color applied early could be used as a final stroke. No problem for us today, those using acrylic primed supports that don't yellow.

1788. COLOR, Emerald green, a copper arsenate that can't be matched by any other element, warning, it turns lead and cadmium, black and is the most poisonous color.

1788, Mosas Harris, English.

THEORY, He and Gainsborough made an eighteen color wheel with no Cyan or Magenta in sight. He also placed Ult. Blue opposite Orange, a mistake that was going to continue for awhile.

1790, England. COLOR,

A new color wheel, the first made for light instead of pigments, and it had the colors right. Red, green and blue, credit Movwell of Great Britain for it.

1795, Greuze, 1725-1805, English. An excellent straight forward painter.

1796, Fragonard, 1732-1806, English. Well paid color exhibitionist, poor drawing as giants go.

1797, COLOR, Chrome Yellow and Orange, neutral lead salts colored by chromous acid, Van Gogh would use it in his "Sunflowers" painting one hundred years later.

Chapter 21
New Pigments, New Color Theories


1800, COLOR, Zinc Oxide White, zinc is a very slow drier, it can be calcined to yellow only temporarily. It is a very brittle pigment and needs a strong support beneath it.

1800, England, COLOR, Indian Yellow, the best and very permanent transparent yellow was brought to England from India, where it had been used as a pigment for as long as India had cows. The raw product is called Monghyr, magnesium euxanthate natural organic, after a city in Bangal. England made this in oil and kept its ingredients a secret for eighty years. It was in brown to yellow and orange to yellow, two dual-toned colors.

The artist's had it made, a transparent triad palette in tubes for the first time. 1.Transparent dual-toned Indian Yellow. 2.Transparent dual-toned Madder Lake, which was close to Magenta. Treating Madder Lake in a sulfur acid bath made it "New and Improved" Alizarin in 1826, and 3.Prussian blue, an iron based transparent color close to Cyan. The three mixed into a neutral dark that could be pushed warm or cool.

These artist's painting from 1800 to 1909 made use of this Indian Yellow pigment until it was abruptly removed from access by the maker Winsor Newton; Vigee-LeBrun, David, Friedrich, Ingres, Carot, Delacroix, Rousseau, Millet, Courbet, Whistler, Manet, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley, Renoir, Eakins, Dagas, Cezanne, Seurat, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Sargent, Ostroukhov, Repin, Serov, Matisse, Vlaminck, Derain, Bellows, Savrasov, Pukirev, Perov, Shishkin, Vasilievich, and Polenove.

The Russians had access to Indian Yellow long after the rest of Europe. Thirteen opaque colors are needed to replace this one transparent color, from Permanent Green Light to Cadmium Red Dark. No one has ever brought this colors back or made a comparable replacement. Synthetic Gamboge, 1950, by Old Holland was the best I had found, it will make a dark triad but a dirty Orange. About 1995 O.H. re-introduced an Indian Yellow syn. color they had made to match the original back in 1900. (updated, It still is the best in 2012.)

Today, 12-8-98 we have a great collection of synthetic transparent Indian yellows with the nickel element. (new window)

Blocks makes the best neutral Translucent Yellow oil color, it's very expensive, made from cobalt, and not really transparent although they call it so.

Old Holland Transparent Indian Lake, Yellow, Orange and Brown, Extra, Syn., made from synthetic iron oxide and a dioxine nickel complex. The Yellow-Brown Lake Extra makes the best dark, mixed with Ult.Blue Deep, it's opposite color. This Indian Yellow isn't really a dark enough brown to do the whole job of making a neutral dark. You need Burnt Umber.

1804, Colodion, 1738-1814, French Rococo, high art sculpture.

1805, Copley, 1738-1815, American portraits, low-keyed color. Moved to England to study and stayed.

1809, THEORY, Otto Runge, His color wheel has White at the top and Black on bottom, the colors wrap around the middle of the sphere, He also chose the wrong primary colors. Red, Yellow, and Blue opaque plus the pigment Black for shades, a bad habit.

1810, THEORY, Goethe made a double intersecting triangle color wheel. A six color wheel without Magenta or Cyan. Blood red was opposite Emerald Green instead of Cyan. Van Gogh was influenced and Matisse used his oppositions.

1814, Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson, 1767-1824, French NeoClassicism, taught Giricult, and lead the way for Elizabeth Vige'e-Lebrun, both great female artists,

1815, Henry Fuseli, 1741-1825, Zurich, England, taught at the Royal Academy, his dreamlike paintings were of nightmares.

1815, David, 1748-1825, Paris, Rome, Paris, history paintings and portraits, France loved him. He glazed his finished monotone painting with color.

1818, Stuart, 1755-1828, American portraits, studied in England and returned home to paint Washington, he and Copley were the greats of this era in America.

1818, Goya, 1746-1828, Spain. I saw his picture "Y Luceintes", it was huge in the Valesquez style, the iris eye of the prisoner was as big as a quarter. I measured it myself.

TECHNIQUE, Goya used warm light bolus grounds, white under painting and varnish mastic glazes as well as solid colors.

1825, Gros, 1771-1835, French, battle paintings. Student of David.

1826, COLOR, Permanent Alizarin was discovered in natural root Madder Lake, the purpurin was subtracted with sulfuric acid.

1827, Constable, 1776-1837, England. Turner's friend, heavy on landscapes.

1828, France, The cadmium salts were discovered in 1817.

COLOR, Cadmium Yellow Sulfide and Cadmium Sulfoselenide Orange, the selenium element resembles sulfur.

COLOR, Cadmium Zinc Yellow Sulfide.

COLOR, Synthetic Ultramarine Blue, made from clay, soda, sulfur, coal and heat.

1830, Gasper Friedric, 1744-1840, German Romanticism. Great moments of light and color, W/C and oils. A great "starving artist".

1832, Elizabeth Vigee-LeBrun, 1775-1842, French portraitist, who supported herself as an artist beginning at the age of 15. She improved art over 17th century France, with her colors and gestures. She showed the new colors the best in my opinion, excellent drawing, the "high-artist" of the time. Here are some URL's to her. Thanks for the research Iris from Rochester.
Brief biography of the artist Elizabeth Vigee-LeBrun, 1775-1842, France.
LeBrun still speaks to us through her paintings and her writings. It is obvious from her remarks that she carefully studied the paintings of Van Dyck, Raphael, Rubens and Greuze.
Here is a very comprehensive site most often cited for Lebrun. Many, many images of paintings.
Three portraits, including self portrait. Everyone wearing some red.

1835, Discovered in 1780, produced in 1835.

COLOR, Cobalt Green.

1838. Discovered in 1807, produced in 1838.

COLOR, Transparent Viridian, or Oxide of Chromium Brilliant, hydrous, dual-toned, black hue in mass. Viridian made the copper colors and intermediate glazing unnecessary.

COLOR, Green Oxide of Chromium, or Chrome Green, opaque anhydrous, Viridian heated removes the transparent water content.

1839, THEORY,

Chevreul ( Chevrule ) made a twelve color wheel, Yellow, Red, and Blue again, wrong complements, wrong after images, Yellow is not opposite purple, Ultramarine Blue is not opposite Orange and Red is not the complement of Green. His complements in "Simultaneous Contrast of Color" made mud, he never completed his solid model.

1841, Turner, 1775-1851, England. Romantic and lyrical, light without much form. It was 1841 when the tubes of paint became available for artists to use, making it easier for them to work outside!

1846, Chasseriau, 1819-1856, France. Student of Ingres at age twelve, very good.

1850, Discovered in 1830, produced in 1850.
COLOR, Cobalt Yellow or Aureolin Yellow, cobalt salt and potassium nitrite. This is a nonstaining yellow, loved by water colorists at that time.
COLOR, Manganese Blue, Barium Manganate on a barium sulfate base, Opaque, a Green-side Cyan.
COLOR, Gamboge, a yellow gum resin is popular again in water-color and as a synthetic oil color in 1950. Transparent/translucent, cool Yellow top-tone (adding white to the pigment is top-tone). Gamboge is the color of ear wax in the wild, today it's not really dual-toned and is a color that is obvious when used a main color. Like Davie's Gray.

1853, Delacroix, 1798-1863, French. He developed a looser style that showed the brush strokes. He visited Morocco for painting influence. "Gray is the enemy of the artist". Delacroix Journal, 1857.

1856, Perkins discovered aniline colors, from coal tar. Because coal-tar colors have no body, they must be lakes or precipitated on clay or barite, or mineral colors.

COLOR, Perkins Mauve, later called Alizarin Madder Lake or Alizarin Crimson. The color lost in the paint wars to Quinacridone Magenta, PR122.

1857, Ingres, 1780-1867, French. He preferred painting woman and glazed his monochrome under painting like David.

1859, COLOR, Magenta, the year the named color Magenta was born. It got its name from the location of a battle in Italy even though Magenta is not blood red. It was transparent, that was good, but fugitive, too bad. It was also called Solferino.

Chapter 22


HERE IN TIME IN TIME, Highest Art since 300 A/D.

Consecutive works of Russian painters like Repin (new window) and Nikolai Nikolaevich. Ge, an artist of great and original talent, studied at the Petersburg Academy of Arts from 1850 to 1857, where he was strongly influenced by the work of K.P. Brullov. He became a member of the Academy in 1863. On a scholarship from the Academy, Ge lived in Italy for twelve years (1857-1869). There he became closely founding member and a constant participant in their exhibitions, where his works represented a new style of Russian history painting and portraiture.

Ge's friendship with L. N. Tolstoy caused him to follow the religious, philosophical teachings of this great writer. From 1876, Ge lived on a homestead in the Ukraine, farming and practicing Tolstoy's call for simple living. During this time, Ge attempted to paint scenes from the gospels and tried, like Tolstoy, to create his own "gospels" with paints. When shown in exhibitions, these paintings both provoked heated debates and arguments, and won Ge a measure of authority and recognition.

1831-1894, Nikolai Nikolaevich Ge, Russian, a founding member of the Circle of Itinerants. He studied at the Petersburg Academy of Arts from 1850 to 1857, where he was strongly influenced by the work of K.P. Brullov. (He became a member of the Academy in 1863.) On a scholarship from the Academy, Ge lived in Italy for twelve years (1857-1869).They really liked Indian Yellow from the paintings I saw, they were ahead in the world of painting, European artists were influenced by them, but we never got to see their work in the U.S.A. You had to be there.

1844 -1930 Ilya Repin, In 1878, Repin joined the free-thinking "Association of Peredvizhniki Artists", generally called "the Wanderers" or "The (Circle of) Itinerants" in English. (added in 2012, I never new they were called "the Wanderers", or about the Association of Peredvizhniki Artists. I guess that information is common now, the internet has grown so fast.)
One of Repin's most complex paintings, 80 in x 141 in. but not his largest. The "Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of the Ottoman Empire" was started in 1878 and finished in 1891. A detail of this painting that I have shows a picture of me, in the green hat. WelI think it looks like me when I was around 50. I also think he was great painter.


1856-1925, John Singer Sargent went to Innsbrock, a city in western Austria, capital of Tyrol. I believe he met with Repin (the premiere realist of Russia) there.

An American expatriate who was trained in Paris prior to moving to London, Sargent enjoyed international acclaim as a portrait painter, though not without controversy and some critical reservation; an early submission to the Paris Salon, his Portrait of Madame X was intended to consolidate his position as a society painter, but it resulted in scandal instead. From the beginning his work was characterized by remarkable technical facility, particularly in his ability to draw with a brush, which in later years inspired admiration as well as criticism for a supposed superficiality. His commissioned works were consistent with the Grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In later life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work, and devoted much of his energy to mural painting and working en plein air.

Sargent Self Portrait
(picture link in new window)

Abram Efimovich Arkhipov (Russian), August 27, 1862, September 25, 1930, was a Russian realist artist, who was a member of the art collective The Wanderers as well as the Union of Russian Artists.

John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856, April 14, 1925) was an American artist, considered the "leading portrait painter of his generation" for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and charcoal drawings. He was a worldwide traveler, from Venice to the Tyrol, Corfu, the Middle East, Montana, Maine, and Florida.

1860 productive, I. Levitan, Russian, Moscow, Italy, France. "Circle of Itinerants", realist, landscapes.

1860 productive, V. Makovskii, Russian genre painter. Excellent.

1860 productive, V.Pukirev, Russian portrait and genre painter, considered one the best ever.

1860, COLOR, Cobalt Violet, Cobaltous Crystalline Phosphate, calcined cobalt oxide and phosphorus oxide, German, a great discovery, a cool Magenta color, necessary to make colors between Magenta and Cyan including Ult. Blue and Azure (cobalt blue), no other element can make this color, except Manganese. Cobalt sometimes contains arsenic and darkens, Cobaltous Oxide Arsenate, French.

1862, THEORY,

The Japanese color wheel was recognized, five colors, White, Yellow, Red, Ult.Blue and Black. Yellow came from White, Blue from Black, no Magenta or Cyan. The internal prism's second spectrum is similar.

1865, Millet, 1814-1875, French, Formed the Barbizon School, painting nature and working people with Rousseau, combining nature with figures.

1865, Corot, 1796-1875, French. Painting in "plein air" was in its infancy with Desportes, Carot and Courbet. I like Corot and what he said, "I don't give a damn about Poussin, broad outlines, or the classical, I'm in the woods". It's sort of like living here on Maui. He liked Indian Yellow as a glaze.

1867 productive, V. Perov, Moscow. A founding member of the Circle of Itinerant, Heavy Indian Yellow, genre scenes, and portraits.

1867, Courbet, 1819-1877, France, Switzerland, top painter in France, Realist. Because of all the coming wars starting in 1870, Courbet would be the last good Realist, except in Russia and America. With the start of World War I, all art started to crumble.

1868, German.

COLOR, Manganese Violet, Manganese Chloride, Phosphoric Acid, and Ammonium Carbonate, permanent cool Magenta that could make the ultramarine blue hue by mixing with cyan.

1869, Daumier, 1808-1879, French. Master of monochrome. He began as a lithographer and carried the technique into painting. Corot was his friend.

1869, I. Kramskoi, ?1869?, Russian, a founding member of the "Circle of Itinerants", a realist.
CIRCLE OF THE ITINERANTS founded in St.Petersburg in 1870 under the leadership of Ivan Kramskoy. Its members were known as Peredvizhniki, "Wanderers", "Itinerants". They subscribed to the ideas of Critical Realism, Populism and national character. The association was dissolved in 1923.

1869, Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin, 1823-1898, Russian, co-founder of the "Circle of Itinerants", realist, landscapes, master of intensity reversal of objects and background, no one was ever better.

Shishkin painting

After he studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture (1852-1855), Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin attended the Petersburg Academy of Arts from 1856 to 1860, completing his studies with the highest honors and a gold medal. Five years later; in 1865, he attained the rank of member of the Academy, and then in 1873 that of professor He also headed in 1894-1895 and in 1897 the landscape painting class at the Higher Art School affiliated with the Academy of Arts. Before he received these professional honors, Shishkin lived and worked abroad in Switzerland and Germany (1862-1865), spending half a year in the Zurich workshop of R. Roller and residing in Dusseldorf for one year.

Upon his return to Petersburg, Shishkin became one of the founding members of the Circle of the Itinerants, and he joined the Society of Russian Watercolorists. Among the exhibitions in which his works were included were those at the Academy of Arts, the All Russian Exhibition in Moscow in 1882, the Nizhnii Novgorod in 1896, and the World Fairs held in Paris (1867 and 1878) and Vienna (1873). A highly esteemed master of Russian realist landscape painting, Shishkin's creative method was based on exhaustive, analytical studies and on a kind of "portraiture" of nature that exposed its most typical features. Distinguished for his forest landscapes, Shishkin is known not only as a painter but also as an outstanding draftsman and printmaker.

1870, COLOR

Cerulean Blue, opaque, permanent, Cobaltous Stannate, cobalt oxide and tin oxide. This color is a tint of cyan.

1870, A. Kuinczhi, ?1870?, Russian, landscapes, realist, loved Indian Yellow.

1870, Baksheev, ?1870?, Moscow, realist, Circle of Itinerants. You had to be good to be a member.

1870, Franco-Prussian War. When war's begin, art starts going downhill, as all time has shown.

HERE IN TIME, High Art begins it's decline in France but not in Russia.

1873, Manet, 1832-1883, French, Impressionist, Black and White, with other colors, not much on modeling the form, but he proportioned the figure well.

1875, productive, V. Vasilievich, Russian, world traveler, visited India, used Indian Yellow, realist.

1876, Asher Brown Durand, 1796-1886, American Naturalist, Hudson River Valley School.

1877, Vasiliy Polenov, 1844-1927, Russian, Circle of Itinerants, realist, landscapes, Master portrait painter, excellent perspective.
As a student at the Petersburg Academy of Arts from 1863 to 1871, Vasilii Dmitrievich Polenovtook lessons in painting from E. E. Chistiakov and I. N. Kramskoi before he lived and worked in Paris (1872-1876) on a scholarship from the Academy. In 1876 he became a member of the Academy. Polenov lived in Moscow in 1877, later he moved to the Borok estate in the Tula Province.

A member of the Circle of the Itinerants and a constant participant in their art exhibitions, Polenov was also associated with S. I. Mamontov's Abramtsevo Art Circle. He taught at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture (1882-1895) and organized the first Moscow Folk Theater in 1910. In addition to his many trips to countries in Western Europe, Polenov traveled to the Near East and Greece in his search for subjects and themes for his genre scenes and historical and biblical paintings. Of particular significance is Polenov's contribution to Russian landscape painting, which was enriched by his experimentations with plein air techniques.

Polenov painting

This is new page link to this painting. Vasiliy Polenov. Granny's Orchard. (new window) 1878. Oil on canvas. The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia.
This site has the most paintings.

1879, THEORY, Ogden Rood made a double cone color model with White on top and Black at the bottom, Red, Green and Blue was his triad. There still was no Magenta or Cyan, but this was still major.

1880, I. Ostrovkhov, ?1880?, Russian, Circle of Itinerants, realist, landscapes, he used Indian Yellow as a glaze.

1880, THEORY,

Ewald Hering came up with three opposing sets of colors, Yellow and Ult. Blue, Red and Green, and Black and White. A little different from the rest.

1880, Van Gogh, 1853-1890, Netherlands, France, massive line, stroke and texture. He didn't use glazes, his medium was turpentine, he liked wine and I think he drank some turpentine, that and the heavy metals in it, made him insane. He did it again in the hospital after they let him start painting again, that really lit his candle.

1881, Seurat, 1859-1891, French, pointalism, the new scientific way. Till this day people will tell you Red is the opposite of green, although they do vibrate there is no harmony.

1881, George Inness, 1825-1894, American, Hudson River School, realist, landscapes.

1881,   "PAINTS AND COLORS from the "Household Cylopedia, 1881" (new window) (305 Kb, A separate window. How they made house paints, artists paints, varnishes and inks in 1881)

1885, Berthe Morisot, 1841-1895, French, impressionist, low keyed color, in the Manet color range.

1886 COLOR

A. W. Keim, German. "Deutche Gesellschatf zur Forderung rationeller Malverfahren",
The German Society for the Promotion of Rational Methods in Painting, 1886.

They set up control for the pigments in colors found best by the artists, to guarantee the color's characteristics and ingredients. These are the colors deemed necessary by the artists in 1886; 1. White Lead, 2. Zinc White, 3. Cadmium Yellow Light, Medium and Orange. Cadmium Red wasn't discovered until 1909, 4. Indian Yellow, 5. Naples Yellow Light and Dark, 6. Yellow to Brown, Natural and Burnt Ochers and Sienna, 7. Red Ocher, 8. Iron Oxide colors, 9. Graphite, 10. Alizarin Crimson Madder Lake (a Magenta colored fugitive pigment) 11. Vermilion, 12. Umbers, 13. Cobalt Blue, Native and Synthetic, 14. Ultramarine Blue, Natural and Synthetic, 15. Paris-Prussian Blue, 16. Oxide of Chromium, Opaque and Transparent Viridian, 17. Green Earth, 18. Ivory Black, 19. Vine Black.


Chapter 23



French, 1796-1875, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. Papa Corot was the leading painter of the Barbizon school. The first to seriously paint on location, inside and outside. My hero.

1889, Sisley, 1839-1899, French Impressionist, landscapes, studied under Carot, drawing and color were sharing the theater.

1890, Winsor Newton stopped making Indian Yellow. Twenty-one years later they made it illegal.

1895, Bouguereau, (new window) 1825-1905. His techniques. Bouguereau basically followed the principles of academic theory as codified by the seventeenth-century aesthetician Roger de Piles. His greatest works start from 1865 when he was 40 up until 1900 when he was 75. There is a modest but perceptible drop in quality from that time forward until he passed away at 80 in 1905. The upper class of France was taking a beating, reactions were against them and all they had accomplished. Bouguereau was not given the respect he deserved, art was being dismantled by savages that were growing in number. War was in the air and inferiority was getting the upper hand.

1890, 1844 - 1930, Ilya Repin, Moscow, Studied in Paris for four years, he was the best realist in the world at this time. He influenced Sargent.
Ilya Repin is the most prominent painter in the XVIII century Russian realism. He had a gift of a strong talent. The Artist studied at the Petersburg Academy of Arts from 1864 to 1871. On a scholarship from the Academy, Repin lived and worked in Paris, becoming a member of the Academy. He spent one year living in Moscow but moved to St Petersburg in 1882.

1891, Toulouse-Lautrec, 1864-1901, Paris, genre painter, lithograph posters of Montmartre life. He worked with the fastest media, pastels. To fix his pastels he sprayed them with thin alcohol based casein.

1893, Pissarro, 1830-1903, disciple of Corot before becoming an Impressionist, the weakest of the bunch in lineal perspective, although it wasn't the strong suit of any of them. They never understood the 90 degree principal (new window) or the upper and lower vanishing points. Impressionism is Realism, speeded up for outside work.

1893, Gauguin, 1848-1903, France, Tahiti. He was a Primitive painter, leading the way of art in general.

Don't expect me to say this is good like the rest of the non-artist critics, it wasn't. Judging has been in the hands of outspoken critics for too long, today's post war self proclaimed art critics just don't know what's good. The unskilled must not lead the skilled, they like giving their opinion, loudly.

Chapter 24

1900, COLOR, MAPICO TO 1935

1900, COLOR, Mapico (brand) Colors, Permanent Mars Colors, Synthetic Iron Oxides, Yellow, Orange, Red, Brown.

1900, K. Ivon, Leningrad, Impressionist.

1900, Cezanne, 1839-1906, French Impressionist, shorthand painting. The least talented of the group, beware of those that say otherwise, they have loud voices and can't paint realistically either.

1900, Rousseau, 1844-1910, French Primitive. He painted outdoor scenes, in his studio.

HERE IN TIME, the USA and Russia has the best living artists because their countries have been in peace. That includes today, 2003. 2013 the USA is passing them.

1900, Homer, 1836-1910, American. He began in illustration covering the Civil War for Harper's Weekly. His later works portrayed contemporary life, nature, and finally the sea. He could paint what he saw without using photo-mechanical aids, the best watercolorist ever, from a classical opinion. Naturally the wars caused a slide in art, as rigid correctness gave way to experimentation and new values, as the works of Marin, 1870-1953, show. Changes at this time were more important than correctness, "taste" is a relative term, "refined taste" is more precise, but not as loud by definition.

1903, Arkhipov, Moscow realist, they had realism, we had Cezanne. The only reason Realism was getting a bad name was political. It's 1998, the "Cold War" is over, let's get good again.

1903, Grabar, Moscow, Impressionist, landscapes.

1903, Whistler, 1834-1903, U.S.A., England, Paris. Symbolism School, a crossover between Realism and Impressionism. The influx of Japanese prints influenced some of his work, as the "Old Battersea Bridge", 1872.


THEORY, Albert Munsell, 1905. He made a five color wheel with no triad. The principle colors he did have were, red, yellow, green, blue, and purple. No Magenta or cyan unless you conceder purple as the magenta and put cyan between green and blue. In a 5, 8 or 10 color wheel there is no triad possible. Next he darkened the colors with Black, mixed them with Gray, and tinted them with White, and numbered them all. This is still taught today. An eight or five or ten color wheel will not work. It has to be a 3, 6, 12, 24 or 36 color wheel to have a triad and correct opposite secondaries. In the element color wheel, colors do not darken with black like the RGB color wheel and the Munsell color wheel. This is still taught today.

1906, Redon, 1840-1916, French, Symbolism and Nabis, Art Nouveau.

1906, Eakins, 1844-1916, American. A realist like Courbet, America had some great artists up to about 1930.

1906, Franz Marc, 1880-1916, Germany, died in WWI. He was one of the "Der Blaue Reiter" group, basically Fauve. An animal painter, he did more with pure color than the rest, he could draw well.

1907, Dagas, 1834-1917, Paris, Impressionist, pastel, oil, horses and woman, he was good.

1907, Ryder, 1847-1917, American, not realistic, "All an artist needs is a roof, a crust of bread and an easel, God will provide the rest".

1908, "The Eight", New York, American Ashcan School, Davies, Glackens, Henri, Luks, and Sloan. Bellows early works can be included.

1909, German,

COLOR, Cadmium Red, is made of three parts cadmium sulfide and two parts cadmium selenide. Selenium is an element resembling sulfur.

1909, Valentin Serov, 1865 - 1911, Russian, realist, portraits, the great artist after Ripin, his teacher. Similar brush strokes to Sargent.
Here are some links to Serov.

1910, Renior, 1841-1919, solid Impressionism, solid forms, loved the human figure, not as good as Dagas in drawing but very good in color and light.

1910, Modigliani, 1884-1920, Italian, Crude outlined drawings painted in flat colors.

1911, COLOR, Azo Yellow, the second coal tar dye was a failure, it turned brown, but not before the big ban. England, under a puritan guise, or political pressure, banned the best transparent dual-tone Indian Yellow. Kicking the pins out from under the Realist and disgracing the name. So much for the worst year in color history.

When I went to collage in 1959, "Realism" was still a battered term. Believe me when I say, we are in a period that will be called the Third Dark Age of Art".

Mass communication via the "Internet" may be able to teach the advanced basics of art. Practice and appreciation can shorten the normal postwar advancing time from two hundred years, as with Egypt, Greece and Rome after their wars, to a lot less, I hope. Learn from the light of nature as it changes and moves, copying from photographs may fool some buyer's but it won't make great artists. Being good and accomplished by age twenty or twenty-five was no big deal just a hundred years ago.

1912, Utrillo, 1883-1955, France, A realist that painted what he saw in Montmartre, not particularly good, but unique for this time period. A breath of fresh air in European painting at this time. He was painting for the pleasure of painting, not to make a political statement. He was a recovering alcoholic.

1915, Sargent, 1856-1925, America, London. He studied in Paris in the 1870's when France was in top classical shape. America and Russia have the best realists at this time,

1915, Bellows, 1882-1925, America. Realist.


THEORY, The last color wheel (square) of college record was by Church-Ostwald. It has Yellow, Red, Sea Green and Ult. Blue at the corners. It made way for the new coal-tar colors, all pigments were replaced by there top-tone matching colors. Naples Yellow, Rubins favorite, artist's favorite for two thousand years, was replaced by a mixture of Zinc and Ocher. Pigments were moving from the Iron Age to the Oil Age. Ostwald had no regard for opacity, or raw pigment content. Only the final dried color. This is what todays pigment manufactures make colors with. Clearly, the artists interests are not at heart before 2000 A/D. Today, 2003, I am seeing changes..

1916, Monet, 1840-1926, French. An early leader of the Impressionist movement, he really could see color, the time of day mattered to his painting.

1917, Mary Cassatt, 1845-1927, French, American, Impressionist. Woman painting woman and kids, she was great, vibrant colors, superb composition, fast efficient brush strokes. She was an Impressionistic Delacroix.

1914-1918, The First World War. Britain, France, and Russia against Germany and Austria-Hungary.

HERE IN TIME, The High Art periond that lasted for 500 years is ended again by war, art is again at Ground Zero.


These artistic labels meant they were different, things were changing.

1865, French Impressionism, Manet, Sisley, Pissarro, Jongkind, Monet, Morisot, Cassatt, Renoir, Degas, Cezanne,

1875, French Realism moved to Switzerland to survive. Courbet.

1885, Dutch, Norwegian, Van Gogh, Munch, Early "Bridge" painters.

1886, France Neo-Impressionism, Pointillism, Seurat, Signac, Cross.

1890, France Symbolism, Primitivism, Gauguin, decorative.

1890, 1900, Belgian, German Nabas.

1904, 1913. German Expressionism or Die Brucke, The Bridge Group, Kirchner, Heckel, Nolde, etc.

1905, 1910, French Fauvism or Wild Beasts, Valaminck, Rouault, Durain, Dufy, Matisse,

1906, French, Analytical Cubism, Picasso, Braque.

1907, French Impressionist Show, Cezanne.

1908, 1914, French Cubism. Chagall, Chirico, Duchamp, Leger.

1910, Italy Futurism, Balla.

1910, Munich Abstract and Neo-Impressionism.

1911, Italy Metaphysical.

1911, American Abstract, Dove, Hartley, Weber, Marin.

1912, 1914, German Blaue Reiter or Blue Rider Group, Kandinsky, Marc, Klee.

1912, Synthetic Cubism, Picasso, Gris.

1912, Synchromism, Russell.

1912, Paris, Orphism, Delaunay.

1913, Moscow Suprematism. Malevich

1914, 1918 WWI, changes went into second gear and stripped it.

1916, French Dada or Hobby-horse, Zurich, Switzerland, Dadaism, Pacabia, Ernst, De Champ.

1917, Holland Neo-Plasticism or De Stijl. Mondrain.

1918, Belgium Expressionism.

1919, German Neue Sacnlichkeit or New Objectivity, Grosz, Dix.

1920, American Immaculates, Demuth, Sheeler, O'Keeffe, Mac, Donald-Wright, Hartley and Weber.

1924, French Surrealism, psychiatric dreams. Breton, Dali.

1924, French Neo-Romantics, Leonid.

1929, Stock-market Crash.

1929, American Regionalists, Hopper, Miller, Marsh, Burchfield, Benton.

1930, American Gothic, Grant Wood.

1932, Paris Surrealism, Russian Suprematism.

1933, Paris Naive Painting.


HERE IN TIME, Art is still at Ground Zero since the First World War.

1945, American, Expressionist Biomorphic, Pollack.

FIFTY YEARS OF PAINTING HAD GONE FROM REALISM TO NAIVE, BECAUSE OF THE WAR'S. In 1931 an undeclared war began between Japan and China started, while Italy and Germany were also threatening peace. In 1939 Germany attacked Poland and France and Great Britain declared war. Italy joined in 1940, the United States and the Soviet Union in 1941. The United Nations defeated Italy in 1943 and Germany and Japan in 1945. Art was at ground zero. Today's art is "A flag on the Floor with a Crucifix in the Toilet". Chicago, 1996.

1917, Gris, 1887-1927, Spain, Cubism.

1919, America.

COLOR, Titanium White Dioxide, ferrous illmenite by sulfate process or chlorinated rutile ore. Opaque, non-poisonous, slow drying in oil.

1928, Kirchner, 1880-1938, German Expressionist.

1930, Klee, 1879-1940, German Colorist, no forms.

1930, The Depression in the USA gives Expressionism a foothold.

1930, Discovered in Germany in 1901, produced in the USA in the thirties.

MEDIUM, Synthetic Resins, water and oil based.

1932, Sickerd, 1860-1942, English Royal Academy, Impressionist.

1933, Soutine, 1894-1943, France. A nightmare approach to Expressionism.

1933, K, Malevich, 1878-1935, Russian, Impressionist, Fauvism, Cubo-Futurism, founder of Suprematism, Abstract.

1934, Kandinsky, 1866-1943, Munich, influenced by Matisse, wrote the "History of Absolute Painting", the basis for Abstract art.

1934, Munch, 1863-1944, German Expressionist.

1934, COLOR, Zinc White Oxide, England. First a W/C pigment.

1934, Mondrain, 1872-1944, French Abstract, straight compartments for color, Red, Yellow, Blue, Black, White and Gray.

1935, England,

COLOR, Cyan Blue, Copper Phthalocyanine, alpha crystal or metal free Phthalocyanine, with a metallic atom removed from copper. THIS WAS A MOST IMPORTANT COLOR DISCOVERY, THE INERT PRIMARY BLUE, CYAN TRANSPARENT.

Missing of course are the Transparent Indian Yellow colors, dual-toned Brown/Yellow and Orange/Yellow.

The third triad color is a really tough one, the one nature itself splits in two, Warm and Cool Magenta. The cool magenta is closer to perfect, PR122.

Chapter 24a


THE FUTURE OF FINE ART, 1936 to 1995


1936 COLOR, Phthalo Green, chlorinated and brominated Copper Phthalocyane, from Blue Green to Yellow Green transparent.

1936, Nash, 1889-1946, English, Impressionist, water-color.

1937, Bonnard, 1867-1947, French, Symbolist.

1938, Orozco, 1883-1948, Mexico, Impressionist, murals.

1943, Dufy, 1877-1953, France. Fauve.

1943, Marin, 1870-1953, American. Water color, Impressionist.

1944, Derain, 1880-1954, French, a Fauve that returned to Realism because he could.

1945, Leger, 1881-1955, French, Cubist with curves.

1946, Nolde, 1867-1956, German Expressionism,

1948, Rouault, 1871-1958, French, Fauve, Expressionist, black outline, religious themes, solid color.

1948, Vlaminck, 1873-1958, French, Fauve.

1949, Smith, 1879-1959, France, England, returning to realism with loud color.

1950, These artists were alive in 1960, the wars are over and art will move on, after these people do.

Braque, 1882, French, Fauve, Cubist.

Picasso, 1881, Italy, Cubist. This ... said this, "Enough of Art. It's Art that kills us. People no longer want to do painting: they make art. People want Art. And they are given it. But the less Art there is in painting the more painting there is." (Parmelin, Picasso Plain, 1964, p. 30)

Balla, 1871, Italy, Futurism, painting movement.

De Chirico, 1888, Italy, Metaphysical, leading to Surrealism.

de Kooning, born in 1904 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. By the late 1940s, de Kooning, along with Arshile Gorky and Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and , began to be recognized as a major painter in a movement christened Abstract Expressionism, the advent of which shifted the center of twentieth-century art from Paris to New York.

Kokoschka, 1925, Austrian, Expressionism.

Chagall, 1887,Russia, Paris, a dream painter with a story.

Duchamp, 1887, France, New York, "The Fountaine", 1917 New York Independents' Exhibit, was a signed urinal, Dadaism.

Hopper. 1882 to 1967, American Realist.

Miro, 1893, France, Abstract.

Dali, 1904, Spain, Surrealism, the abnormalities of realism.


THEORY, ROYGBIV, was the new answer for 1950 masses, from the old source Newton. These seven colors, out of order no less, dispel the unity of opposition. The color wheel has been misunderstood by every generation since, in and out of college.


THEORY, Daniel Smith printed a nice color square using the "LAB" color chart. This has the opposition colors, Yellow and Blue, on the top and bottom. Magenta and Green are at the sides. A plus and minus number system relates the square with these colors as the primaries, since White and Black are at the poles, this system is for the photo and printing industries, not the artists who need to work with true opposition's. His new reprint in 2002 has brown color in the center which all colors go to, this is incorrect. Not all colors go to brown, cool colors go to blue.



The problems have always been with pigment color transparencies, the scaling darks of yellow and cyan, and the fact that Magenta could not be distinguished in the projected prism light spectrum or the EM wave length. Quinacridone, PR:122 was a great discovery.

Colored crystals in minerals and elements prove this theory that the triadic pigment and light spectrum are the same, both darkening to a neutral center color by mixing the complementary pigments. That yellow goes to Brown, a combination possible in pigment and light. Warm brown and cool brown are distinguished for the pigment artist. Yellow darkens warm, to either red's dark or yellow's dark. In the light color wheel there is no distinction and the color goes to black by decreasing the intensity of light, this takes Yellow to the Green side instead of the artists warm side. In pigments, Brown and Ultramarine Blue mix to a neutral dark. In light, Yellow and Ultramarine Blue mix to white. This should prove that the two color wheels are the same. Another change is necessary to bring the color Cyan into line for the artist, cyan darkens to Ult. Blue's centering dark color going black, this keeps it cool by adding magenta instead of the greenish-gray-black of RGB, like the sky and the Iceland Spar crystal instead of being on the green side. This matches the RCW color wheel.

The Golden Indian Yellow would make reds, the Brown Indian Yellow would make the darker colors.

RCW Yellow to Brown (new window) compensates the color change for the pure rim color Yellow scaling down to Brown, (Raw/Burnt Umber). And from Yellow-green to Brown, (Raw Green Umber) on the cool side. Yellow darkens with Red's dark instead of Black or dark Green. Twenty three colors in the thirty six color wheel have yellow in them. How yellow gets dark is important to the artist.

Don Jusko, 1996

Liquitex was the first to make a perfect transparent magenta, they called it Acra Violet, I was using it in 1975-6, it was called Quinacridone, PR:122. Today, as I am bringing this site up to date more pigment manufactures are using PR:122 as magenta, hooray for artists! June, 2003
Another great Hooray, 2008. Magenta is broken down even farther, Opera Magenta. (new window)

HERE IN TIME, We are again entering a High Art period, 2003. the last great time was from 1860 to 1890

Chapter 25


ORDER HERE - 5" RCW, 8" RCW, 11" RCW, Course DVD, Color-in Book of Maui, Transparent Palette (new window)

RCW Water Color Transparent Primary Palette with Tartrazine yellow Clear. (new window)

Real Color Wheel plastic 3 color palette

Q. Why is a color wheel handy?
Q. When you're on location painting or photographing how do you use it?
A. While painting you see an object, you see the brightest color on it and mix in the opposite color to shadow it. Having the correct oppositions is handy. It takes a lot of memorizing to know every color's opposite and there are so many incorrect color wheels out there.

For the Printer and Plotter artists, see the gamma differences between an RGB profile and a CMYK profile. (new window)

The RCW and RGB use the same 36 rim colours but each color gets dark differently.
RCW matches crystals and elements getting dark, the RGB subtracts light, only its full color and tint colors are the same.

Print this color wheel, the colors are in CMYK.
Real Colour Wheel master

Orange darkens to the brown of red just like yellow and red.
Yellow, orange and red darken to the same color brown for all intensive purposes.
Opaque red objects become lighter adding opaque orange pigment. I noticed this on a cardinal in the sunlight.
Orange objects darken by adding cad red or burnt sienna or burnt umber at any ratio.
Cadmium red light changes to cadmium red medium with the addition of transparent magenta (PR:122)

Raw umber is the darkest pigment for the color that is 36RCW#36.10.5, yellow-green at its darkest.
#36 and #1 yellow are side by side at 10 degrees each.

Likewise and opposite..
Cyan & cobalt & ult. blue darken to the same dark blue, similar to the way yellow, orange and red go to the same brown in the opposite set of 7 colors.
With cyan you have a color matching choice to go from cyan to cobalt to ultramarine before adding any of the complement burnt umber.

Red to Magenta and Green to Cyan are opposite, just add opposite colors to get darker.

Chapter 26

Test Your Monitor

 00   19   18   17   16   15   14   13   12   11   10   09   08   07   06   05   04   03   02   01   02   03   04   05   06   07   08   09   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19 

The transparent primary color Yellow in pigments can shade to either a green Cool Dark, like in the RGB/YMC light system or to a red Warm Dark, like my color wheel has it for pigments. The transparent color pigment Yellow must be on the warm side for the artist to mix it with any other warm color. By adding a cool yellow/green pigment to a warm yellow color you would lessen the intensity of the yellow and make it dirty.
Yellow to Black in the RGB is very similar to Green's dark in both the RGB and CMYK colorwheels.
The Real Colour Wheel, RCW, is different. Yellow goes to Red's warm dark brown like in nature, not green's cool dark.
As in the Titanium crystal Rutile (new window)

Chapter 27


RCW#1.0.1 to RCW#1.0.9 (=) RCW#1 is the first color arc, RCW#1.01 to RCW#1.010 are tints of the first color, RCW#1.1 to RCW#1.10 are the dark scale of the first color.

The RCW Pigment Color Number for Cadmium Yellow Lemon Opaque is:
RCW36#1.0.1, that is the coolest full chroma yellow in the yellow arc.
RCW36#1.0.9, is the warmest yellow in the yellow arc, a tint of Indian yellow transparent.
RCW36#1.0, is the Pure Yellow arc with 10 graduated values getting darker below it. There are 36 color arcs in all. RCW#13.6 is a 50% top-tone color for transparent pigments like Magenta.
RCW36#1.0 Yellow happens to have five different pigment color values located in it. 01 is a tint, 0 is the full mass-tone color, rings 3, 6 and 10 all have pigments in them.

Brown is the darkest intensity of yellow-greens, yellows and reds. Mix this low intensity brown with its opposite color Ultramarine blue to Cyan for a neutral dark.

RCW36#1.01 to RCW36#36.01 are the outer rings, lighter pigment or tinted hues of this color section.
RCW36#1.0 to RCW36#36.0 are 100% full chroma mass-tone opaque pigments (or) 50% top-tone colors of transparent pigments.

#1.01 Tint of the 1st color arc, yellow
#1.0 Full chroma, the 1st color is yellow.
#1.0.1 (Warmest of 9) #1.0.9, left to right divisions from warm to cool
#1.1 First dark of 10 divisions to dark of this first color #1
#1.5 Mass-Color of some transparent pigments.
#1.6 Mass-Color of some transparent pigments.
#1.10 10% intensity of this color (darkest).

RCW#1.01.1 Light Chrome Yellow Light, Lead Chromate, PY-34
RCW#1.01.2, Nickel Titanate Yellow PY53
RCW#1.01.3, Hansa Yellow, Monoazo Yellow, PY-74, Translucent
RCW#1.0.1, Light, Yellow Light Hansa, Arylamide, PY3, Translucent
RCW#1.0.1, Cadmium Zinc Sulfide, PY35, Opaque
RCW#1.0.2, Cadmium Lemon, PY35, Opaque
RCW#1.0.3, Bismuth Yellow PY184
RCW#1.0.5, Aureolin, Potassium Cobaltinitrite, PY40, Translucent
RCW#1.2, New Gamboge, Indian Yellow, Anthrapyrimidine PY108, Translucent.
RCW#1.4, Wm Gold ocher - Azo Yellow, Monoazo Yellow, PY-151, Translucent
RCW#1.6, Indian Yellow-Brown Lake Extra, Dioxine Nickel Complex, Synthetic Iron Oxide, PY153 or PY150, PY42, transparent.
RCW#1.6.1, Indian Yellow Gr/s, Nickel Chelated Azo PG10F, transparent.
RCW#1.6.5, Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra, Dioxine Nickel Complex, Isoindoline, PY153 or PY150, PR260, Transparent
RCW#1.10.1, Raw Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, PY42, Translucent
RCW#1.10.9, Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#2.01, Naples Yellow, Titanium Dioxide, Rutile-Nickel-Tin-Titanium, Chromium-Antimony-Titanium Yellow PW6, PY53, PBr24, Opaque
RCW#2.0, Chrome Yellow Orange Lead Chromate, PY34, Opaque
RCW#2.4, Yellow Ochre, Natural Hydrated Iron Oxide, PY43
RCW#2.10, Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#3.01, Naples Yellow Deep, Lead Antimonate, PY41, Opaque
RCW#3.0, Cadmium Yellow Deep, Opaque
RCW#3.3, Raw Sienna, Natural Iron Oxide, PBr7, Opaque
RCW#3.4, Italian Deep yellow Ocher R/s, Opaque
RCW#3.6, Quinacridone Deep Gold PO48, Transparent
RCW#3.7, Brown Oxide PR101, Transparent
RCW#3.10, Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#4.0.4, Benzimidazolone Orange, Benzimidazolone, PO62, Transparent
RCW#4.0.5, Cadmium Orange, Cadmium Sulfo-Selenide, PO20, Opaque
RCW#4.6, Burnt Sienna PBr7, Translucent
RCW#4.10, Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#5.7, Italian burnt Sienna PBr7, Translucent
RCW#5.10, Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#6, Chinese Vermilion, Mercury Sulfide, Translucent
RCW#6 Vermilion Extra, Isoindolindon, PR260, Translucent
RCW#6.10, Burnt Umber Brown, Natural Earth, Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#7.0.5 Thioindagoid Red PR88, Opaque
RCW#7.0.5 Cadmium Red Light Red PR108
RCW#7.6, Light Red Oxide & Venetian Red Warm, Synthetic Iron Oxide, PR101, Opaque
RCW#8.0, Irgazine Red PR254, Opaque
RCW#10.01, Light Portrait Pink, Naphthol Red AS-D, Titanium White, Diarylide Yellow, PR122, PW6, PY83, Opaque
RCW#10.0, Naphthol Crimson, Naphthol AS, PR170, Translucent
RCW#12.01, Light Magenta, Naphthol AS, Quinacridone Violet, Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Oxide, PR188, PR122, PW6, Opaque
RCW#12.0, Permanent Rose, Quinacridone, PV19, Transparent
RCW#13.0, Quinacridone Magenta, PR122, Transparent Magenta
RCW#14.0, Cobalt Violet, PV49, Opaque Cool Magenta
RCW#14.0, Cobalt Violet, Cobalt Phosphate, PV14, Transparent Cool Magenta
RCW#15.0, Manganese Violet PV23 R/s, Top-tone, Transparent
RCW#15.6, Manganese Violet PV23 R/s, Mass-tone, Transparent
RCW#16.0, Dioxazine Purple, Carbazole Dioxazine, PV23, Top-tone, Transparent
RCW#16.6, Dioxazine Purple, Carbazole Dioxazine, PV23, Mass-tone, Transparent
RCW#18.0, Ultramarine Violet, Alumosilicate of Sodium, PV15, Top-tone, Transparent
RCW#18.6, Ultramarine Violet, Alumosilicate of Sodium, PV15, Mass-tone, Transparent
RCW#19.01.1, King's Blue Deep, Tint, Zinc Oxide, Titanium Dioxide Rutile, Synthetic Ultramarine PB29, PW4, PW6, PB29, Opaque
RCW#19.01.5, Light Blue Violet, Ultramarine Blue, Titanium Dioxide, PB29, PW6, Opaque
RCW#19.0.5, French Ultramarine Blue PB29, Translucent
RCW#19.2.5, Ultramarine Blue Light PB29, Translucent
RCW#19.3.5, Ultramarine Blue Deep PB29, Complex Silicate of Sodium and Aluminum with Sulfur, Translucent
RCW#22.0, Cobalt Blue PB28, Oxides of Cobalt and Aluminum, Opaque
RCW#25.0, Pathalocyanine - Phthalo - Thalo - Cyan Blue PB15 transparent. Cerulean Blue Opaque PB36 = Oxides of Cobalt and Chromium Opaque = a Cyan tint.
RCW#25.0, Manganese Blue by O.H. Cyan transparent PB33, new 2008.
RCW#25.6, Thalo Blue - Phthalo Blue - Cyan PB15.3 Pathalocyanine, Mass-tone
RCW#27.01, Phthalo Turquoise PB15.3 + PG36, Pathalocyanine, Top-tone
RCW#27.6, Phthalo Turquoise PB15.3 + PG36, Pathalocyanine, Mass-tone
RCW#28.3, Bright Aqua Green, Phthalocyanine Green, Phthalocyanine Blue, Titanium Dioxide, PG7, PB15, PW6, Opaque
RCW#29.3, Opaque Green Light, Phthalocyanine Green, Monoazo Yellow, Cobalt-Titanium-Nickel-Zinc-Aluminum-Oxide,
RCW#31.0.1, Phthalo Green, Y/S, Brominated Chlorinated Phthalocyanine, PG36, Translucent
RCW#31.0.5, Tint, Emerald Green, Brominated Copper Phthalocyanine, Titanium Dioxide, PG36, PW6, Opaque
RCW#31.0.9, Phthalo Green Y/g, Phthalocyanine Green Y/s, PG7, Transparent
RCW#33.3, Permanent Green Light, PG-7, PY-3, Phthalo Green + Monoazo Yellow, Opaque
RCW#33.6, Hooker's Green Permanent PG36 + PY3 + PO49, Transparent
RCW#34.6, Chrome Oxide Green, PG-17, Chrome Oxide, Opaque
RCW#35.0, Yellow Green Organic, Opaque
RCW#35.0.6, Sap Green PY73, PG7, PR101, Arylamide Yellow GX, Phthalocyanine Green, Red Oxide, Opaque
RCW#36.01, Priderit Yellow PY157, Yellow-green, Opaque
RCW#36.0, Thalo Yellow Green PG7 + PY3 + PW4, Chlorinated Copper Phthalocyanine, Arylide Yellow 10G, Zinc Oxide, Opaque
RCW#36.3, Green Gold, Nickel Chelated Azo, PG10, Translucent
RCW#36.6, Indian Yellow-Green Extra, Dioxine Nickel Complex, Methin Copper Complex, PY153, PY129, Transparent
RCW#36.6, Green Gold, PY129, Azomethine Copper Complex, Transparent
RCW#36.6, Irgazine green PY129, Translucent
RCW#36.10, Green Umber, Translucent


  Maui On Location Galleries with 200+ paintings with painting tips (new window)

This little palette will take you to each color in a new window.
Dioxine Purple Ultramarine Blue Cobalt Blue Thalo Cyan Blue Turquoise transparent GreenOpaque Thalo Green
Burnt Umber Real Color Wheel in Pigments Permanent Green Light
Burnt Sienna
Venetian Red Yellow Green Opaque
Yellow Oxide
Naples Yellow Light Green Gold Transparent
Magenta Rembrandt Rose Cadmium Red Medium Cadmium Orange Indian Yellow Gold transparent Cadmium Yellow Medium Cadmium Yellow Pale

June 2000, American Artist interview.  Click for the story.

Print out my card, it has a 2" RCW on it to carry with you on location. New window.

Chapter 28

RGB in Gamut is CMYK

Shades with Number Codes (new window)
Shades w/o Number Codes (new window)
Tints with Number Codes (new window)

Tints w/o Number Codes (new window)

font color="AnyColorName" These names are in RCW color order.

yellow, gold, orange, darkorange, chocolate, coral, tomato, red, brick, darkred, brown, saddlebrown, deeppink, violet, magenta, purple, blueviolet, indigo, lightblue, skyblue, royalblue, blue, midnightblue=bkg, deepskyblue, cyan, turquoise, darkturquoise, lightseagreen, springgreen, lime, green, darkgreen, greenyellow, chartreuse, yellowgreen, olive, white, silver, darkgray, gray, black.

Order this complete color course on DVD, $35.00. Free 5" RCW
Order only the 5"X5" Laminated Real Color Wheel $10.00.